Overseas Filipino

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from OFW)
Jump to: navigation, search

Overseas Filipinos
Flag of the Philippines.svg
Total population
10,455,788 - 13,500,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
Countries with over 100,000 overseas Filipinos (2010)[a]
 United States 3,166,529
 Saudi Arabia 1,512,539
 Canada 667,674
 UAE 636,154
 Australia 345,592
 Malaysia 316,273
 Qatar 305,331
 Japan 290,358
 United Kingdom 196,740
 Italy 123,379
 Hong Kong 120,000[7]
 Israel 100,000
 Spain 51,268
Philippine languages, English, Spanish
Mostly Christianity, particularly Roman Catholicism  · Islam.
Related ethnic groups
Filipino people

An Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin who lives outside of the Philippines. This term applies to Filipinos who are both abroad indefinitely as citizens or permanent residents of a different country, and to those Filipino citizens abroad for a limited, definite period, such as on a work contract or a student. It can also include seamen and others who work outside the Philippines but are not residents, either permanent or temporary, of another country.

They are known by a variety of terms with slightly different and sometimes overlapping meanings. Overseas Filipino Workers or OFWs are Filipinos working abroad that are expected to return permanently either upon the expiration of a work contract or upon retirement. Balikbayans are Filipinos who have become citizens of another country and have returned to the Philippines for a temporary though extended visit. Global Filipino is a term of more recent vintage that less widely used.

A former economics professor, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, 10th President of the Philippines, applied the term Overseas Filipino Investor or OFI for Filipino expatriates who contribute to the economy through remittances, buying properties and creating businesses.[8]

As a result of this migration, many countries have substantial Filipino communities.


In 2012, the Commission on Overseas Filipinos estimated that approximately 10.4 million Filipinos worked or resided abroad.[2] This is about eleven percent of the population figure of 94.01 estimated by the National Statistics Office.[9]

More than a million Filipinos every year leave to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs, including government-sponsored initiatives. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors, physical therapists, nurses, accountants, IT professionals, engineers, architects,[10] entertainers, technicians, teachers, military servicemen, seafarers, students and fast food workers.[citation needed] Also, many overseas workers are women applying as domestic helpers and caregivers.[11] Others emigrate and become permanent residents of other countries.

The exodus includes a number of skilled workers taking on unskilled work overseas, resulting in what has been referred to as a brain drain, particularly in the health and education sectors.[citation needed] For example, doctors have retrained to become nurses.[11]

Economic impact[edit]

In 2012, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP), the central bank of the Philippines, expects official remittances coursed through banks and agents to grow 5% over 2011 to US$21 billion, but official remittances are only a fraction of all remittances.[12] Remittances by unofficial, including illegal, channels are estimated by the Asian Bankers Association to be 30 to 40% higher than the official BSP figure.[12] In 2011, remittances were US$20.117 billion.[13]

Philippines is the fourth largest recipient of official remittances after China, India, and Mexico.[12] OFW remittances represent 13.5% of the country's GDP, the largest in proportion to the domestic economy among the four countries.[14] OFW remittances is also credited for the Philippines' recent economic growth resulting to investment status upgrades from credit ratings agencies such as Fitch and S&P.[15]

In 2012, approximately 80% of the remittances came from only 7 countries—United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, UAE and Saudi Arabia, Singapore, and Japan.[13] These countries are widely dispersed around the globe—in North America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and East Asia, respectively.


Employment conditions[edit]

Employment conditions abroad are relevant to the individual worker as well as families and the community. Poor working conditions for OFW’s hired abroad include long hours, low wages and few chances to visit family. Women often face disadvantages in their employment conditions since they tend to work in the elder/child care and domestic sector. These occupations are considered low skilled jobs that take little education and training thereby regularly facing poor working conditions. Women facing just working conditions are more likely to provide their children with adequate nutrition, better education and sufficient health. The link between women’s rights and the well being of children has a strong correlation and is therefore a central aspect for success among current and future generations.[16][17]

Government policy[edit]

Philippine Labor Migration Policy has historically focused on removing barriers for migrant workers to be employed abroad. Working conditions among those Filipinos employed abroad varies depending on whether the host country acknowledges and enforces International labor standards. The standards are set by the ILO, which is an UN agency that 185 of the 193 UN members are part of. One of the reasons for differences is fact that ILO only can register complaints and not impose sanctions on governments.

Migration policy aimed at men is often economically driven while migration policies aimed at women tend to be legitimized by the old traditional approach that women are primary caretakers. As women often are seen as symbols of national pride and dignity governments tend to have more protective policies in sectors dominated by women. This creates a gender inequality that the Philippine government has addressed recently since women emigrating from the Philippines is increasing rapidly.[18]

A healthcare problem arises as migrating women from the Philippines and other developing countries often create a nursing shortage in the home country. Nurse to patient ratio is down to one nurse to between 40 and 60 patients, in the 1990’s the ratio was one nurse to between 15 and 20 patients.[19] The Japan-Philippines economic partnership agreement has been argued to be a failure since Japan has an aging population and many Filipinos want to work in Japan, yet there are only some 7% of applicants or 200 nurses a year accepted due to resistance by domestic stakeholders and failed program implementation.[20][21]

Results from a focus group in the Philippines shows that the positive impacts of migration of nurses is attributed to the individual migrant and his/her family, while the negative impacts are attributed to the Filipino healthcare system and society in general. In order to fill the nursing shortage in the Philippines suggestions that OFW’s return to train local nurses has been made by several NGO’s and training will be needed in order for the Philippines to make up for all nurses migrating abroad.[22]

Host country policies[edit]

Wealthier households derive a larger share of the income from abroad. This might suggest that government policies in host countries favor capital-intensive activities. Even though work migration is mainly a low and middle class activity the high-income households are able to derive a larger share of their income from abroad due to favorable investment policies.[23] This inequality threatens to halt the economic development as investments are needed in the Philippines and not abroad in order to increase growth and well-being. A correlation between successful contribution to the home country's economy and amounted total savings upon the migrants return has been found and therefore it is important to decrease income inequalities while attracting capital from abroad to the Philippines.[24]

Many host governments of OFW’s have protective policies and barriers making it difficult to enter the job market. Japan has been known for rigorous testing of Filipino’s in a way that make them look reluctant to hold up their part of the Japan-Philippines economic partnership agreement and solely enjoy the benefit of affordable manufacturing in the Philippines, not accepting and educating OFW’s.[21]

Unions and advocacy groups[edit]

Multiple NGOs such as UNIFEM, UNESCO and Institute for Global Labour and Human Rightsare actively working to improve employment conditions globally. The ILO is a UN agency that deals with unfair working conditions and promote decent work for all no matter if it is domestically or abroad.

International migration will never be perfectly mobile due to autonomous countries creating barriers to enter certain sectors or restrictions aimed at workers from specific countries or regions. The WTO is an organization that works for a decrease of restrictions worldwide and free trade. The organization has divided the masses in whether or not it promotes workers rights and fair conditions. Some argue that removal of international barriers and restrictions will enable equality and free choice where to work and live.[25] Others criticize the WTO for creating a dual international labor market that favors those with skilled jobs characterized by free movement internationally while low skilled jobs are highly immobile and often sees restricted international movement[26] The restrictions vary depending on level of education, host country and home country.


Work migration is increasing on a global scale and especially among women;[27] it is especially sectors such as care and domestic work that have seen a rapid increase of women emigrating. The Philippines is leading this development but it is worrisome that as many as 60% of OFW’s are temporary workers are thereby lacking basic rights such as overtime pay, regular breaks or restricted working hours. This causes an additional stress for a family that is being raised with a absent parent.[28] ”In the case of the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Indonesia, the strategy is predicted on calling upon women to take the lead in the development agenda, engendering responsibility for generating the means to fund investments in this development”.[29]

Remittances earned by overseas Filipinos are indisputably positive for individual families and the governments balance of payments as well as GDP. However it has been found that remittances are primarily used for costs of living such us food and education. Remittances fill the function of covering short term costs but wages are not sufficient enough to enable savings and investments. It has yet to proven that remittances can be translated into value adding activities such as start-ups and investments. For the economy to thrive it is fundamental that the value adding activities are creating a long-term sustainable growth in order to improve healthcare, education, infrastructure and government programs.[30][31]

Migration is often explained through push and pull factors with Remittances pulling skilled workers from the Philippines to move abroad if they are well educated and want better pay in order to escape poverty and help the family. However, push and pull factors rarely include social stigmas, family expectations, gender roles or personal preferences. Leaving the family behind can become a burden for many educated women or men whose parents, partner and extended family expect them to work abroad.[30][31]

There is some evidence that women migrating from the Philippines send back more money in relative and sometimes absolute terms than the Filipino men. This is often explained by the women’s great commitment to the family and good abilities to save income. The Philippines government has recognized this recent trend and has therefore targeted sectors traditionally employing women such as childcare, domestic work, healthcare, service jobs and eldercare.[32]

It has been emphasized by the World Bank that the Philippines has the largest portion of remittances in relation to GDP in the world. It is pointed out that remittances alone cannot keep the Philippines economy afloat and sustainable long term growth must come from domestic investment and growth[31]

There is some evidence that women in so-called “major sending countries” (e.g. Philippines and Sri Lanka) have higher autonomy and decision-making power within their households than those in “non-sending countries. This suggests that women to a larger extent are making economic decisions in the household. More than economic decisions ought to be measured until conclusions can be drawn from positive or negative effects of more women migrating for wage work and its impact on the family. However, this recent trend will empower women while broadening views and hopefully engage workers in defending their rights.Philippines.10.”.[33][34]

Return migration[edit]

Returning migrant workers are often argued to have a positive effect on the home economy since the worker returning is assumed to be more skilled. It has been found that workers often come back de skilled as they frequently are given more simple tasks abroad, and are often discouraged to climb up the occupational ladder in their workplaces. De-skilling of labor is especially prevalent among women who often have few and low skill employment options, such as domestic work and child or elder care.[35]

To underline what a common problem this de-skilling is returning migrant workers are calling for returnee integration programs, which suggests that they do not feel prepared to be re integrated in the workforce.[36] 11.

The risk of de-skilled labor has been found as the Philippines among other countries who train and export healthcare workers often faces failure in policies, trade and licensing. A strong worldwide demand for healthcare workers causes many to emigrate creating a “lose-lose” outcome for both countries, as workers are not fully utilizing their skills and both countries experiencing a shortage in healthcare workers.[37]

Countries with Filipino populations[edit]

  • Brazil: As of 2008, there were 379 Filipinos in Brazil. They consist primarily of Catholic missionaries and migrant workers in the telecommunications and oil sectors. There are also a few former seafarers who settled in port cities, and an increasing number of Filipinas who lived in Japan and married Brazilians who were living there.In Venezuela there are 136 Filipinos citizens according to 2001 Census and the community amounts to 500 inhabitants.[38] Since 2008, 33 overseas Filipino workers (11 men, 22 women) have been detained in jails in Brazil on charges of drug trafficking, primarily for attempting to bring in cocaine through airports.[39]
  • France: there are approximately 55,000 Filipinos in France, making it the 3rd country in Europe for Filipinos, after the UK and Italy. 10% of Filipinos living in France have married French citizens. By 2000, 5,823 French citizens had been born in the Philippines, including both French nationals and naturalized Filipinos. Only one school in France, the EFI Langue Institut Linguistique Européen in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, offers classes focusing in part on the Filipino language. 16% of Filipinos in France are between 16 and 25 years of age, 50% are between 26 and 35, 29% are between 36 and 45, and 6% are older than 46. Every year since 1980, a major cultural festival embracing the Filipino culture has been held in Paris, called the "Pista sa Paris," unique in Continental Europe. The event is sponsored by the Filipino embassy in Paris, and features singers, dancers, and Filipino cuisine.
  • Hong Kong: There are approximately 140,000 Filipinos in Hong Kong, of whom most are domestic helpers (30,000 of them being members of the Filipino Migrant Workers Union). Filipino maids are known by the locals as amahs, or more often feiyungs (less politely, bun mui or bun bun), and face discrimination and maltreatment from the locals. A Hong Kong work visa requires some amount of higher education; and in some cases Filipino women with college degrees and perfect command of English are willing to work as maids and nannies for a salary higher than they could make at home in professions.[HKG]
  • India: Approximately 1,000 Filipinos reside in India. However, government's official figures show some 500 Filipinos.
  • Italy: There are about 130,000 Filipinos in Italy. This makes it the 2nd country host to Filipinos in Europe after the UK. Given the high amount of women working as domestic helpers, the Italian term "filippina" is now often used as a synonymous for this profession.
  • Iraq: Despite that the Philippine government banned OFWs from working in Iraq, an estimated 1,000-3,000 Filipinos[citation needed] work there. Most work on US Military bases around the country as cooks and laundry service, sometimes as third-country national security guards. This is the only foreign country in which Filipino men outnumber Filipino women.
  • Japan: Some 350,972 Filipinos are listed to be living within Japan's geographic confines.[JPN][44] However, this number is speculated to be larger, surpassing the one million mark due to many unlisted and illegal Filipino nationals.[45]
  • Lebanon: As many as 30,000 OFWs are working in Lebanon. Due to the recent turmoil between Lebanon and Israel, however, many have been repatriated back to the Philippines, while others have been relocated to Cyprus, a part of the Philippine evacuation plan.[LBN]
  • Malaysia: As Sabah is very close to the Philippines, many Filipino residents and illegal immigrants live and work there. Filipinos make up about 30% of the entire population of Sabah and they enumerate up to 900,000. Many Filipinos in Malaysia come to work in construction industries, fisheries, and other labor-intensive sectors in hopes of a better living. Most live in stilt slums scattered behind cities or on offshore islands. The Philippine government also has promised to establish a consulate to provide any necessary help to its nationals. Historically, The Philippines has a claim on the eastern part of the territory.
  • Middle East: Many Filipinos work in the Middle East (mostly Saudi Arabia and UAE) as engineers, nurses or hospital workers, accountants, office workers, construction workers, restaurant workers and maids. The Philippine government estimates that more than 2 million Overseas Filipinos are working in the Middle East.
  • New Zealand: There are about 17,000 Filipino residents and citizens in New Zealand called KiwiPino's, Filipino New Zealanders. New Zealand, as in the past, are currently recruiting Filipino qualified nurses. Filipinos in New Zealand, as well as prospective immigrants, often lean towards information technology, nursing and, more recently, telecommunications for careers.[citation needed]
  • Nigeria: Filipinos in Nigeria consist largely of migrant workers in the oil industry, though those in the capital city Abuja also work in the education and medical sectors. By mid-2008, their numbers had grown to an estimated 4,500, up from 3,790 in December 2005.[47] They commonly hold skilled construction positions, among them pipe layers, welders, and engineers, and may earn as much as US$10,000 per month; however, those working in oil areas in Southeast Nigeria often find themselves the target of violence by local militants.[48] Majority of the OFWs are working/residing in Lagos and Abuja. Filipino workers are actively petitioning the Philippine government to lift the travel and work ban in Nigeria.[49]
  • Norway: The number of Filipinos in Norway is estimated to be about 12,000, most of them living in the Oslo urban area. In addition to Filipinos who have intermarried with Norwegians, there are at least 900 licensed Filipino nurses, over a hundred oil engineers employed mostly in offshore projects in the western coast of Norway and Filipinos or Norwegians of Filipino descent working in the government sector, diplomatic missions and NGO's and commercial establishments. An additional 35,000 Filipinos working on Norwegian-owned or operated ships or in shipyards.[50]
  • Pakistan: According to the statistics of the Philippine government, an estimated 3,000 Filipinos live and work in Pakistan. Filipinos in Pakistan work as domestic workers, and housemaids.[52]
  • Singapore: As of 2009, over 163,000 Overseas Filipinos worked and resided in Singapore.[40] A notable incident involving an OFW was the trial and execution of Flor Contemplacion for the alleged murder of her employer's child and another Filipina, Delia Maga.[POEA2004]
  • Sweden: There are about 4,000 Filipinos in Sweden, mostly are married to Swedes and working in housekeepers in hotels and as caregivers.
  • Taiwan: According to the 2006 data of the government of Taiwan, there are 96,000 Filipinos currently living in Taiwan. Of these, 58,704 are in manufacturing industries and 34,602 are in social or personal services (e.g. maids).[ROC] However, according to 2004 data by the Philippine Government, there are 2,037 Filipinos living in Taiwan permanently, 154,135 are in Taiwan for work contracts, and 4,500 go to Taiwan irregularly, which make a total of 160,672. It is not known why there is such a big difference between these two numbers (96,000 vs. 160,672).[citation needed]
  • United Kingdom: Nurses and caregivers have begun migrating to the United Kingdom in recent years. The island nation has welcomed about 20,000 nurses and other Filipinos of various occupations and lifestyles during the past 5 years. The United Kingdom is home to an estimated 200,000 OFWs.[40] Many Filipino seamen settled in British port cities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Liverpool even had an area nicknamed 'Little Manila'[55]
  • United States: Despite race relations problems of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in the American Northwest, most Filipino Americans today find it easy to integrate into American society, with a majority belonging to the middle class. Filipinos are the second-largest Asian American group in the country; Tagalog is the fifth most spoken language in the U.S. Filipinas comprise a large portion of the roughly 4,000-6,000 women who annually come to the U.S. through method of mail-order bride,[56] internet courtship, or direct contact when travel to the Philippines. The US State Department estimated that there are 4 million Filipinos in the US as of 2007.The United States hosts the largest population of Filipinos outside the Philippines, with a Historic Filipinotown in Los Angeles designated in August 2002, the first district established outside the Philippines to honor and recognize the area's Filipino community.[57]
  • Venezuela: There are 136 Filipino citizens registered in the 2001 Census.


  1. ^ Population figures shown in the infobox at the head of this article are the top ten figures from estimates in 2010 by the Commission on Filipinos Overseas.[2] Countries for which other sources report significant differences from these include the following:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ http://cfo.gov.ph/images/stories/pdf/2011_Stock_Estimate_of_Filipinos_Overseas.pdf
  2. ^ a b "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2010". Philippine Overseas Employment Administration. Retrieved 2012-04-24. 
  3. ^ "Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 17 January 2012. 
  4. ^ American FactFinder - Results
  5. ^ Dubai Filipinos rejoice as Cebu Pacific arrives with cheap deals - Emirates 24/7
  6. ^ name="wwwspain"
  7. ^ HKCSO (2011) Statistics of the Diocese of Hong Kong, 31 August, [Online], Available: http://www.catholic.org.hk/v2/en/cdhk/a08statistics.html. Accessed 12 June 2012.
  8. ^ "Editorial — Overseas Filipino investors". Philippines Today. 15 October – 14 November 2001. Retrieved 2007-08-01. 
  9. ^ "Philippines in Figures". National Statistics Office of the Philippines. 
  10. ^ GABRIELA Network USA (19 July 2004). "[Info-Bureau] FW: STATEMENT ON FILIPINO HOSTAGE". Philippine Women Centre of B.C — requoted by lists.ilps-news.com Mailing Lists. Retrieved 2007-03-21. 
  11. ^ a b p 1413, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955369/pdf/hesr0042-1406.pdf)
  12. ^ a b c Remo, Michelle V. (November 14, 2012). "Stop illegal remittance agents, BSP urged: Informal forex channels a problem in the region". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  13. ^ a b Magtulis, Prinz (November 15, 2012). "Remittance growth poised to meet full-year forecast - BSP". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  14. ^ "Remittances can't replace good economic policies". Archived from the original on 2006-03-05. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
  15. ^ King del Rosario. "MBA Buzz: More Funds in the Philippines". Retrieved 2013-06-11. 
  16. ^ The University of Utah - go.utah.login login Page
  17. ^ Gender and Migration: An Integrative Approach [eScholarship]
  18. ^ http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0s04g29f#page-17,page 17
  19. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955369/pdf/hesr0042-1406.pdf
  20. ^ An Error Occurred Setting Your User Cookie
  21. ^ a b The University of Utah - CAS Login Page
  22. ^ 407-1417: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955369/pdf/hesr0042-1406.pdf
  23. ^ page 6, http://books.google.com/books?hl=sv&lr=&id=Hh2d4maqpWYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=philippines+foreign+worker&ots=TZgRNp4gJs&sig=VINyXBUN-3TGbGvw4SAe30MfkHY#v=onepage&q&f=false
  24. ^ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13545701.2012.688998 page 18-19
  25. ^ Health professionals' migration in emerging market economies: patterns, causes and possible solutions
  26. ^ page 13 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13545701.2012.688998
  27. ^ Burgess, page 4, http://books.google.com/books?hl=sv&lr=&id=Hh2d4maqpWYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=philippines+foreign+worker&ots=TZgRNp4gJs&sig=VINyXBUN-3TGbGvw4SAe30MfkHY#v=onepage&q&f=false
  28. ^ Workers Remittances and Economic Growth in the Philippines
  29. ^ https://utah.instructure.com/courses/271733/files/35780952?module_item_id=1973619 p 80
  30. ^ a b http://www.docstoc.com/docs/132815534/Workers-Remittances-and-Economic-Growth-in-the-Philippines, page 13
  31. ^ a b c Global Nation | INQ7.net
  32. ^ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13545701.2012.688998, p 28
  33. ^ The University of Utah - go.utah.login login Page
  34. ^ Gender and Migration: An Integrative Approach [eScholarship]
  35. ^ http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/13545701.2012.688998, page 18
  36. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1955369/pdf/hesr0042-1406.pdf, 1407-1417
  37. ^ http://ac.els-cdn.com.ezproxy.lib.utah.edu/S0020748913001491/1-s2.0-S0020748913001491-main.pdf?_tid=4b1df476-ba28-11e3-b548-00000aab0f26&acdnat=1396416977_30ef15b09fd437c0ccdf588f31c84812, p 249
  38. ^ "Profile of Filipinos in Brazil". Backgrounder: Brazil. Philippines: Office of the Press Secretary. 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-20. 
  39. ^ Kwok, Abigail (2009-04-29). "38 OFWs in Brazil jail for drug trafficking". The Inquirer. Retrieved 2010-05-22. 
  40. ^ a b c d "Stock Estimate of Overseas Filipinos As of December 2009" (PDF). Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA). 2009. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  41. ^ Philippines takes over China as number one source of Canadian immigrants
  42. ^ Philippine Embassy in Athens, Greece and Cyprus
  43. ^ Profile of the Filipino Community in Ireland. Philippine Embassy in London. Retrieved March 8, 2008. 
  44. ^ "Department of Foreign Affairs to Filipinos in Japan 'Heed advisories'". Japan. March 12, 2011. 
  45. ^ Sakai, Hiroko (10 March 2013). "Welfare Services for Foreign Residents" (PDF). http://www.osakapcg.com (Japan: Philippine Consulate General Osaka-Kobe). Retrieved 26 March 2014. 
  46. ^ http://www.ezilon.com/cgi-bin/information/exec/view.cgi?archive=1&num=476 Mercene, Floro L. Filipinos in Mexican history. "By Pinzon’s estimate, there are about 200,000 descendants of Filipinos in southern Mexico. They are concentrated in the Costa Grande north of Acapulco. The town of Coyuca 35 miles north of Acapulco was called Filipino town in the old days. There is also a large Filipino community in Colima, about eight hours ride north of Acapulco." Retrieved 09 NOV 2010.
  47. ^ Quismundo, Tarra (8 May 2007). "Filipino workers recount nightmare in Nigeria". The Inquirer (Manila). Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  48. ^ Caber, Michael (5 May 2007). "Kidnappers, officials meet on hostages in Nigeria". Manila Standard Today. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  49. ^ Flores, Maynard (28 October 2008). "Nigeria-base OFWs renew appeal to PGMA to lift the ban". The PBSN Blogsite. Retrieved 2008-10-10. 
  50. ^ "Philippines-Norway Relations". Embassy of the Philippines. 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  51. ^ a b "'Oman: Safest Country for Filipinos in Middle East'". Pinoy OFW. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  52. ^ "Philippines monitors condition of Filipino workers in Pakistan". M&C. Nov 5, 2007. Retrieved 19 December 2009. 
  53. ^ "Korean embassy hints at action vs 15,000 undocumented OFWs". Asian journal. July 16, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  54. ^ Spanish language diploma key to Filipinos’ legal stay | Ang Bagong Filipino
  55. ^ Filipinos in Liverpool, Part 1
  56. ^ The "Mail-Order Bride" Industry and its Impact on U.S. Immigration, Robert J. Scholes
  57. ^ "Background Note: Philippines". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. May 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-02. "There are an estimated four million Americans of Filipino ancestry in the United States, and more than 250,000 American citizens in the Philippines." 

External links[edit]

General statistics from Philippine government[edit]

From other sources[edit]