|OK-GLI ("Buran aerodynamic analogue")|
Atmospheric Buran testbed currently on display in Technikmuseum Speyer
|Status||Owned by the Technikmuseum Speyer, Germany. Serving as walk-in exhibition.|
|First flight||Taxi test 1
29 December 1984
|Last flight||Taxi test 9
29 December 1989
|Number of missions||25 test flights|
|Time spent in space||never flew in space|
The OK-GLI (Buran Analog BST-02) was a test vehicle ("Buran aerodynamic analogue") in the Buran program. It was constructed in 1984, and was used for 25 test flights between 1985 and 1988 before being retired. It is now an exhibition at the Technikmuseum Speyer in Germany.
The development of the Buran began in the late 1970s as a response to the U.S. Space Shuttle program. The construction of the orbiters began in 1980, and by 1984 the first full-scale Buran was rolled out. The first suborbital test flight of a scale-model took place as early as July 1983. As the project progressed, five additional scale-model flights were performed.
The OK-GLI (Buran Analog BST-02) test vehicle ("Buran aerodynamic analogue") was constructed in 1984. It was fitted with four AL-31 jet engines mounted at the rear (the fuel tank for the engines occupied a quarter of the cargo bay). This Buran could take off under its own power for flight tests, in contrast to the American Enterprise test vehicle, which was entirely unpowered and relied on an air launch.
The jets were used to take off from a normal landing strip, and once it reached a designated point, the engines were cut and OK-GLI glided back to land. This provided invaluable information about the handling characteristics of the Buran design, and significantly differed from the carrier plane/air drop method used by the USA and the Enterprise test craft.
|Date||Description||Maximum speed||Maximum altitude||Time||Crew / Notes |
|29 December 1984||Taxi test 1||45 km/h||5 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|2 August 1985||Taxi test 2||200 km/h||14 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|5 October 1985||Taxi test 3||270 km/h||12 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|15 October 1985||Taxi test 4||300 km/h||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|10 November 1985||Flight 1||480 km/h||1500 m||12 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|15 November 1985||Taxi test 5||170 km/h||12 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|3 January 1986||Flight 2||520 km/h||3000 m||36 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|6 April 1986||Taxi test 6||14 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|27 May 1986||Flight 3||540 km/h||4000 m||23 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|11 June 1986||Flight 4||530 km/h||4000 m||22 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|20 June 1986||Flight 5||600 km/h||4500 m||25 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|28 June 1986||Flight 6||650 km/h||5000 m||23 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|10 December 1986||Flight 7||700 km/h||4000 m||24 minutes||First automatic landing Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|23 December 1986||Flight 8||750 km/h||6000 m||17 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|29 December 1986||Flight 9||17 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|16 February 1987||Flight 10||28 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|25 February 1987||Flight 11||19 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|29 March 1987||Taxi test 7||2 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|30 March 1987||Taxi test 8||25 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|21 May 1987||Flight 12||20 minutes||Anatoli Levchenko, Shchukin|
|25 June 1987||Flight 13||19 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|5 October 1987||Flight 14||21 minutes||Automatic landing Shchukin, Igor Volk|
|15 October 1987||Flight 15||19 minutes||Bachurin, Borodai|
|16 January 1988||Flight 16||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|24 January 1988||Flight 17||Bachurin, Borodai|
|23 February 1988||Flight 18||22 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|4 March 1988||Flight 19||32 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|12 March 1988||Flight 20||Bachurin, Borodai|
|23 March 1988||Flight 21||Bachurin, Borodai|
|28 March 1988||Flight 22||Bachurin, Borodai|
|2 April 1988||Flight 23||20 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|8 April 1988||Flight 24||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|15 April 1988||Flight 25||19 minutes||Rimantas Stankevičius, Igor Volk|
|29 December 1989||Taxi test 9||Rimantas Stankevičius, Zabolotski|
After the program was cancelled, OK-GLI was stored at Zhukovsky Air Base, near Moscow, where it was displayed during the annual MAKS air show. In 2000, Analog Buran was sold to an Australian company called the Buran Space Corporation (BSC), owned by Australian astronaut Paul Scully-Power. It was disassembled and transported by ship to Sydney, Australia via Gothenburg, Sweden  — arriving on February 9, 2000 and appeared as a static tourist attraction under a large temporary structure in Darling Harbour for a few years. 
Upon reassembly, OK-GLI was put on display in a temporary enclosure for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney. Visitors could walk around and inside the vehicle (a walkway was built along the cargo bay), and plans were in place for a tour of various cities in Australia and Asia. The owners, however, went into bankruptcy after the Olympics, and the vehicle was moved into the open air and stored for a year, in a fenced-in parking lot and protected by nothing more than a large tarp, where it suffered deterioration and repeated vandalism.
The OK-GLI test vehicle was then offered for sale, including by a radio auction on Los Angeles' News 980 KFWB-AM with a starting price of $6 million, however it did not receive any genuine bids. In September 2004 a German team of journalists found the OK-GLI test vehicle in Bahrain. It was then bought by the Sinsheim Auto & Technik Museum, to be transported to Germany in 2005. Due to legal issues, it remained in Bahrain for five years, pending settlement of an international court settlement over fees.
The journey got off to an inauspicious start when, during the transfer from the storage barge to the ship, there was a failure of the aft spreader (part of the lifting mechanism) and the tail of the vehicle dropped from just above deck height to the bottom of the hold. Fortunately, no-one was hurt and both the ship and vehicle seemed to suffer only minor damage.
- "Buran Energia Timeline History". Krzys Kotwicki. Retrieved 2006-08-04.
- "Buran Analogue Chronology". astronautix.com. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
- "Transporting the Russian Space shuttle Buran". ProCargo. Archived from the original on 2006-02-10. Retrieved 2006-07-02.
- "Buran Analogue/002 in Sydney". Retrieved 2006-07-02.
- "Russian shuttle lands down under". collectSpace. 2000-02-10. Retrieved 2006-07-02.
- "Analog Buran Test Vehicle". Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- Banke, Jim (2002-05-09). "Russian Shuttle Buran, Slightly Used, Goes Up for Auction Today". Space.com. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
- Banke, Jim (2002-05-23). "Auction Fails to Sell Buran, Russian Shuttle Remains Available". Space.com. Retrieved 2006-07-03.
- "Kurioser Fund: Sowjet-Shuttle am Persischen Golf aufgetaucht (trans. "Strange find: Soviet shuttle found at Persian Gulf")". 22 September 2004. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
- "Sinsheimer Museum kauft den Sowjet-Shuttle (trans. "Sinsheimer museum buys a Soviet shuttle")". 23 September 2004. Retrieved 2006-08-05.
- "Buran case review set". Gulf Daily News. 19 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
- "Russian Space Shuttle Navigates Rhine River". Der Spiegel. April 7, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-07.
- Heinz Elser, Margrit Elser-Haft, Vladim Lukashevich: Buran - History and Transportation of the Russian Space shuttle OK-GLI to the Technik Museum Speyer, two Languages: German and Englisch, 2008, ISBN 3-9809437-7-1
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to OK-GLI.|
- OK-GLI Pictures and videos
- Buran Analog entry at Encyclopedia Astronautica
- Official website by the NPO "Molniya", makers of the Buran
- Energia - all about the HLLV. Includes information about the Buran.
- Homepage of Technikmuseum Speyer, Exhibition of OK-GLI
- Transport of OK-GLI to Germany