|Full name||Open Researcher and Contributor ID|
|Number issued||> 886,000|
|Introduced||16 October 2012|
|Managing organisation||ORCID, Inc.|
|Number of digits||16|
|Check digit||MOD 11-2|
ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors. This addresses the problem that a particular author's contributions to the scientific literature or publications in the humanities can be hard to recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs).
The ORCID organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for author identification in science and academic publishing. On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services  and started issuing user identifiers.
Development and launch
ORCID was first organized as the "Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative". A prototype was developed on software adapted from that used by Thomson Reuters for its ResearcherID system. The registry is now an independent nonprofit organization, ORCID, Inc., incorporated in August 2010. Its executive Director, Laure Haak, was appointed in April 2012. ORCID is freely usable and interoperable with other ID systems. ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers on 16 October 2012. Formally, ORCID IDs are specified as URIs, for example, the ORCID for John Wilbanks is http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4510-0385. However, some publishers use the short form, e.g. "ORCID: 0000-0002-4510-0385".
ORCID is a subset of the International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI), under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (as ISO 27729) and the two organizations are cooperating. ISNI will uniquely identify contributors to books, television programmes, and newspapers, and has reserved a block of identifiers for use by ORCID, in the range 0000-0001-5000-0007 to 0000-0003-5000-0001. It is therefore possible for a person to legitimately have both an ISNI and an ORCID - effectively, two ISNIs.
Both ORCID and ISNI use 16-character identifiers, using the digits 0-9, and separated into groups of four by hyphens. The final character, which may also be a letter "X" representing the value "10" (for example, Nick Jennings' ORCID is http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0166-248X), is a MOD 11-2 check digit conforming to the ISO/IEC 7064:2003 standard.
An ORCID account for a fictitious person, Josiah Carberry, exists as http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1825-0097, for use in testing and training examples.
The aim of ORCID is to aid "the transition from science to e-Science, wherein scholarly publications can be mined to spot links and ideas hidden in the ever-growing volume of scholarly literature". Another suggested use is to provide each researcher with "a constantly updated ‘digital curriculum vitae’ providing a picture of his or her contributions to science going far beyond the simple publication list." The idea is that other organizations will use the open-access ORCID database to build their own services.
It has been noted in an editorial in Nature that ORCID, in addition to tagging the contributions that scientists make to papers, "could also be assigned to data sets they helped to generate, comments on their colleagues’ blog posts or unpublished draft papers, edits of Wikipedia entries and much else besides".
In April 2014, ORCID announced plans to work with the Consortia Advancing Standards in Research Administration Information to record and acknowledge contributions to peer review.
Members, sponsors and registrants
By the end of 2013 ORCID had 111 member organizations and over 460,000 registrants. As of 12 September 2014, the number of registrants was 886,498. The organizational members include many publishers such as Elsevier, Springer, Wiley and Nature Publishing Group. Others are research institutions (among them Caltech and Cornell University), commercial companies including Thomson Reuters, academic societies and a charitable foundation, the Wellcome Trust.
In addition to members and sponsors, journals, publishers, and other services have included ORCID in their workflows or databases. For example, the Journal of Neuroscience, Springer Publishing, the Hindawi Publishing Corporation, Europe PubMed Central, the Japanese National Institute of Informatics's Researcher Name Resolver, Wikipedia, and Wikidata.
Some online services have created tools for exporting data to, or importing data from, ORCID. These include Scopus and Figshare. Thomson Reuters have enabled data exchange between ORCID and its ResearcherID system, and vice versa.
- Editorial (2009). "Credit where credit is due". Nature. 462: 825. doi:10.1038/462825a
- ORCID website
- News (30 May 2012) "Scientists: your number is up: ORCID scheme will give researchers unique identifiers to improve tracking of publications.", Declan Butler, "Nature". 485: 564 doi:10.1038/485564a
- "Ten things you need to know about ORCID right now". ImpactStory. 10 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- CrossRef & ORCID
- "ORCID Launches Registry". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "ORCID vs ISNI; ORCID lanceert vandaag hun Author Register - Artikel - SURFspace". Retrieved 24 October 2012.
- "Register for an ORCID iD". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- "Welcome to the Open Researcher Contributor Identification Initiative (or ORCID) group on Nature Network". Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Press Release: ORCID funding and development efforts on target". 15 August 2011. "ORCID also announced today that Thomson Reuters has provided ORCID with a perpetual license and royalty free use of ResearcherID code and intellectual property, giving ORCID the critical technology to create its system"[dead link]
- Craig Van Dyck. "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing News: An Update on the Open Researcher and Contributor Identifier (ORCID)". Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- Butler, Declan (30 May 2012). "Scientists: your number is up". Nature. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
- "Trademark and iD Display Guidelines". ORCID. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Structure of the ORCID Identifier". ORCID.
- "Wikipedia: John Wilbanks". Wikipedia. Retrieved 21 August 2013.
- "Hiroshi Asakura". Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "ISNI and ORCID". ISNI. Retrieved 29 March 2013.[dead link]
- "What is the relationship between ISNI and ORCID?". Retrieved 23 October 2012.
- "Structure of the ORCID Identifier". ORCID. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
- "ISNI 0000000031979523". ISNI. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "ORCID 0000-0001-5882-6823". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "Nick Jennings". ORCID. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- ORCID: About us
- "Latest news on the stm publishing industry from scope e knowledge center pvt ltd". 9 April 2014. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "2013 Year in review". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- "Members". ORCID, Inc. Retrieved 20 July 2013.
- O'Beirne, Richard. "OUP and ORCID". Oxford Journals. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "ORCID Statistics". ORCID. 15 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014.
- ORCID Sponsors
- Haak, Laure (10 June 2014). "Announcing ORCID's Wikipedian-in-Residence". Retrieved 19 July 2014.
- "Announcements". Journal of Neuroscience. April 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "The Journal of Neuroscience Rolls Out ORCID Integration". Society for Neuroscience. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "Author Zone 16 - ORCID". Springer Publishing. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
- "ORCID Article Claiming". Europe PubMed Central. Retrieved 16 May 2014.
- "ORCID integration". Researcher Name Resolver. National Institute of Informatics. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Wikipedia authors. "Category:Wikipedia articles with ORCID identifiers". Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- Wikidata contributors. "Pages that link to "Property:P496"". Wikdiata. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 20 April 2014.
- "Scopus2Orcid - Use the Scopus to Orcid Author details and documents wizard to collect all your Scopus records in one unique author profile". Scopus. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "RID - ORCID Integration - IP & Science". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
- Thorisson, Gudmundur (13 May 2013). "New ORCID-integrated data citation tool". ODIN Project. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Mendeley to ORCID". Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- "Q&D RDF Browser". Retrieved 17 June 2014.
|Wikidata has a property, P496, for ORCID (see uses)|