Screenshot of OS X Mavericks
|Company / developer||Apple Inc.|
|Written in||C, C++, Objective-C|
|OS family||Mac OS, Unix|
|Source model||Closed source (with open source components)|
|Initial release||March 24, 2001|
|Latest release||10.9.2 (Build 13C64) (February 25, 2014 ) [±]|
|Latest preview||10.9.3 (Build 13D45a)  (April 21, 2014 ) [±]|
|Marketing target||Personal computing|
|Update method||Apple Software Update
Mac App store
|Kernel type||Hybrid (XNU)|
|Default user interface||Graphical (Aqua)|
|Preceded by||Mac OS 9|
|Official website||Official website|
OS X / /, previously Mac OS X, is a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is designed to run exclusively on Mac computers, having been pre-installed on all Macs since 2002. It was the successor to Mac OS 9, released in 1999, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984. The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, and a desktop version, Mac OS X v10.0 "Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Previous releases of OS X were named after big cats; for example, OS X v10.8 was referred to as "Mountain Lion". However, with the announcement of OS X Mavericks in June 2013, this was dropped in favor of Californian landmarks.
OS X, whose X is the Roman numeral for 10 and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. The 'X' is also used to emphasize the relatedness between OS X and UNIX. Versions 10.5 "Leopard" running on Intel processors, 10.6 "Snow Leopard", 10.7 "Lion", 10.8 "Mountain Lion", and 10.9 "Mavericks" have obtained UNIX 03 certification. iOS, which runs on the iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, and the 2nd and 3rd generation Apple TV, shares the Darwin core and many frameworks with OS X. An unnamed variant of v10.4 powered the first generation Apple TV.
The server edition, OS X Server, was architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart, and included tools to facilitate management of workgroups of OS X machines, and to provide network services. Starting with v10.7 "Lion", OS X Server is no longer offered as a separate operating system product; instead, the server management tools are available for purchase separately, and are preinstalled on the server models of Mac Pro and Mac Mini along with OS X.
|Part of a series on|
- 1 History
- 2 Description
- 3 Compatibility
- 4 Features
- 5 Versions
- 5.1 Public Beta: "Kodiak"
- 5.2 Version 10.0: "Cheetah"
- 5.3 Version 10.1: "Puma"
- 5.4 Version 10.2: "Jaguar"
- 5.5 Version 10.3: "Panther"
- 5.6 Version 10.4: "Tiger"
- 5.7 Version 10.5: "Leopard"
- 5.8 Version 10.6: "Snow Leopard"
- 5.9 Version 10.7: "Lion"
- 5.10 Version 10.8: "Mountain Lion"
- 5.11 Version 10.9: "Mavericks"
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
OS X is based upon the Mach kernel. Certain parts from FreeBSD's and NetBSD's implementation of Unix were incorporated in NeXTSTEP, the core of Mac OS X. NeXTSTEP was the graphical, object-oriented, and UNIX-based operating system developed by Steve Jobs' company NeXT after he left Apple in 1985. While Jobs was away from Apple, Apple tried to create a "next-generation" OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, with little success.
Eventually, NeXT's OS, then called OPENSTEP, was selected to be the basis for Apple's next OS, and Apple purchased NeXT outright. Steve Jobs returned to Apple as interim CEO, and later became CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first known as Rhapsody and was later renamed to Mac OS X.
Mac OS X originally ran on PowerPC-based Macs. In 2006, the first Intel Macs had a specialized version of 10.4 "Tiger". In 2007, 10.5 "Leopard" was the first to run on both PowerPC and Intel Macs with the use of Universal Binaries. 10.6 "Snow Leopard" was the first version of OS X to drop support for PowerPC Macs.
Mac OS X Server 1.x was incompatible with software designed for the original Mac OS and had no support for Apple's own IEEE 1394 (FireWire) interface. Mac OS X 10.x included more backward compatibility through Classic and more functionality by introducing the Carbon API as well as FireWire support. As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the legacy Mac OS to an emphasis on new "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, enhanced business applications (iWork), and integrated home entertainment (the Front Row media center). Each version also included modifications to the general interface, such as the brushed metal appearance added in version 10.3, the non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version 10.4, and in 10.5 the removal of the previous brushed metal styles in favor of the "Unified" gradient window style.
In 2012, with the release of OS X 10.8, the "Mac" prefix was officially dropped in all references to the operating system name within its web site.
OS X is the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, e.g. Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. The letter X in OS X's name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral. It is therefore correctly pronounced "ten" // in this context. However, a common mispronunciation is "X" //.
OS X's core is a POSIX compliant operating system (OS) built on top of the XNU kernel, with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface. Apple has released this family of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin. On top of Darwin, Apple layered a number of components, including the Aqua interface and the Finder, to complete the GUI-based operating system which is OS X.
OS X introduced a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, Mac OS 9. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. Many aspects of OS X's architecture are derived from OPENSTEP, which was designed to be portable, to ease the transition from one platform to another. For example, NeXTSTEP was ported from the original 68k-based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple, and OPENSTEP was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project.
The most visible change was the Aqua theme. The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes—similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs—brought more texture and color to the user interface when compared to what OS 9 and OS X Server 1.0's "Platinum" appearance had offered. According to John Siracusa, an editor of Ars Technica, the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks." Bruce Tognazzini (who founded the original Apple Human Interface Group) said that the Aqua interface in Mac OS X v10.0 represented a step backwards in usability compared with the original Mac OS interface. Third-party developers started producing skins for customizable applications and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company says is derived from its copyrighted design.
OS X includes its own software development tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called Xcode. Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that support several programming languages including C, C++, Objective-C, and Java. For the Apple–Intel transition, it was modified so that developers could build their applications as a universal binary, which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines. First and third-party applications can be controlled programatically using the AppleScript framework, retained from classic Mac OS, or using the newer Automator application.
The Darwin sub-system in Mac OS X is in charge of managing the filesystem, which includes the Unix permissions layer. In 2003 and 2005, two Macworld editors expressed criticism of the permission scheme; Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in Mac OS X, while Rob Griffiths suggested that some users may even have to reset permissions every day, a process which can take up to 15 minutes. More recently, another Macworld editor, Dan Frakes, called the procedure of repairing permissions vastly overused. He argues that OS X typically handles permissions properly without user interference, and resetting permissions should just be tried when problems emerge.
Distribution and languages
As of September 2011, OS X is the second-most-active general-purpose client operating system in use on the World Wide Web, (after Microsoft Windows), with an 8.45% usage share according to statistics compiled by W3Counter. It is the most successful Unix-like desktop operating system on the web, estimated at over 5 times the usage of Linux (which has 1.5%).
There are twenty-two "System Languages" available for the user at the moment of installation (the "system language" is the entire operating system environment). As of Mac OS X Lion, the languages are Arabic, Chinese (Simplified), Chinese (Traditional), Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Hebrew, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazilian), Portuguese (European), Russian, Spanish, Swedish and Turkish. Input methods for typing in dozens of scripts can be chosen independently of the system language.
The APIs that OS X inherited from OpenStep are not backward compatible with earlier versions of Mac OS. These APIs were created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems and are now referred to by Apple as Cocoa. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework, standing variously for Nextstep or NeXT/Sun. The official OpenStep API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and Application Kit and the first to use the "NS" prefix. Apple's Rhapsody project would have required all new development to use these APIs, causing much outcry among existing Mac developers. All Mac software that did not receive a complete rewrite to the new framework would run in the equivalent of the Classic environment. To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to (Mac) OS X, the Carbon Application Programming Interface (API) was created. Applications written with Carbon can be executed natively on both systems. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as "Mac OS X": Mac OS X Server (now referred to as Mac OS X Server 1.x).
OS X also used to support the Java Platform as a "preferred software package"—in practice this means that applications written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical user interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Traditionally, Cocoa programs have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. However, on July 11, 2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10.4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface."
Since OS X is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the *BSDs, Linux, or other Unix-like systems can be recompiled to run on it. Projects such as Homebrew, Fink, MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted packages. From version 10.3 to version 10.7, OS X included X11.app, Apple's version of the X Window System graphical interface for Unix applications, as an optional component during installation. Up to and including Mac OS X v10.4 (Tiger), Apple's implementation was based on the X11 Licensed XFree86 4.3 and X11R6.6. All bundled versions of X11 feature a window manager which is similar to the OS X look-and-feel and has fairly good integration with Mac OS X, also using the native Quartz rendering system. Earlier versions of OS X (in which X11 has not been bundled) can also run X11 applications using XDarwin. With the introduction of version 10.5 Apple switched to the X.org variant of X11. Version Mac OS X 10.7 "Lion" uses X.org Server version 1.10.x Starting with OS X Mountain Lion, X11 is not bundled in OS X; instead, it has to be installed from, for example, the open source XQuartz project.
For the early releases of Mac OS X, the standard hardware platform supported was the full line of Macintosh computers (laptop, desktop, or server) based on PowerPC G3, G4, and G5 processors. Later versions discontinued support for some older hardware; for example, Panther does not support "beige" G3s, and Tiger does not support systems that pre-date Apple's introduction of integrated FireWire ports (the ports themselves are not a functional requirement). Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard", introduced October 2007, has dropped support for all PowerPC G3 processors and for PowerPC G4 processors with clock rates below 867 MHz. Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard" supports Macs with Intel processors, not PowerPC. Mac OS X 10.7 "Lion" requires a Mac with an Intel Core 2 Duo or newer processor.
Tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation disc have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of Mac OS X on systems not officially supported by Apple. This includes a number of pre-G3 Power Macintosh systems that can be made to run up to and including Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, all G3-based Macs which can run up to and including Tiger, and sub-867 MHz G4 Macs can run Leopard by removing the restriction from the installation DVD or entering a command in the Mac's Open Firmware interface to tell the Leopard Installer that it has a clock rate of 867 MHz or greater. Except for features requiring specific hardware (e.g. graphics acceleration, DVD writing), the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware.
PowerPC versions of Mac OS X prior to Leopard retain compatibility with older Mac OS applications by providing an emulation environment called Classic, which allows users to run Mac OS 9 as a process within Mac OS X, so that most older applications run as they would under the older operating system. Classic is not supported on Intel-based Macs or in Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard", but users still requiring Classic applications on Intel Macs can use the SheepShaver emulator to run Mac OS 9 on top of Leopard.
In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Marklar, which ran on Intel x86 processors. The idea behind Marklar was to keep Mac OS X running on an alternative platform should Apple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform. These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as The Wall Street Journal and CNET, announced that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months.
On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs confirmed these rumors when he announced in his keynote address at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would support both platforms during the transition. Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. The last time that Apple switched CPU families—from the Motorola 68K CPU to the IBM/Motorola PowerPC—Apple included a Motorola 68K emulator in the new OS that made almost all 68K software work automatically on the new hardware. Apple had supported the 68K emulator for 11 years, but stopped supporting it during the transition to Intel CPUs. Included in the new OS for the Intel-based Macs is Rosetta, a binary translation layer which enables software compiled for PowerPC Mac OS X to run on Intel Mac OS X machines. Apple dropped support for Classic mode on the new Intel Macs. Third party emulation software such as Mini vMac, Basilisk II and SheepShaver provides support for some early versions of Mac OS. A new version of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers support building universal binaries that will run on either architecture.
PowerPC-only software is supported with Rosetta, though applications may have to be rewritten to run properly on the newer OS X for Intel. Apple initially encouraged developers to produce universal binaries with support for both PowerPC and x86. There is a performance penalty when PowerPC binaries run on Intel Macs through Rosetta. Moreover, some PowerPC software, such as kernel extensions and System Preferences plugins, are not supported on Intel Macs. Some PowerPC applications would not run on Intel OS X at all. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work. While Intel Macs are able to run PowerPC, x86, and universal binaries; PowerPC Macs support only universal and PowerPC builds.
Support for the PowerPC platform was dropped after Mac OS X 10.5. Such cross-platform capability already existed in Mac OS X's lineage; OpenStep was ported to many architectures, including x86, and Darwin included support for both PowerPC and x86. Apple stated that Mac OS X would not run on Intel-based personal computers aside from its own, but a hacked version of the OS compatible with conventional x86 hardware was developed by the OSx86 community.
On June 8, 2009, Apple announced at its Worldwide Developers Conference that Snow Leopard (version 10.6) would drop support for PowerPC processors and be Intel-only. However, Rosetta is still available in Snow Leopard; it is not installed by default, but it is available on the installation DVD as an installable add-on and is installed automatically via the Internet when first attempting to run a PowerPC-based application.
On all versions from (and including) Lion, Rosetta is no longer available.
One of the major differences between the previous versions of Mac OS and OS X was the addition of the Aqua GUI, a graphical user interface with water-like elements. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology. ColorSync, a technology introduced many years before, was improved and built into the core drawing engine, to provide color matching for printing and multimedia professionals. Also, drop shadows were added around windows and isolated text elements to provide a sense of depth. New interface elements were integrated, including sheets (document modal dialog boxes attached to specific windows) and drawers.
Apple has continued to change aspects of the OS X appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar. One example of a UI behavioral change is that previewed video and audio files no longer have progress bars in column view; instead, they have mouse-over start and stop buttons as of 10.5.
The human interface guidelines published by Apple for Mac OS X are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts. In addition, new services for applications are included, which include spelling and grammar checkers, special characters palette, color picker, font chooser and dictionary; these global features are present in every Cocoa application, adding consistency. The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version 10.2, is called Quartz Extreme, a component of Quartz. Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the Portable Document Format (PDF) imaging model, making it easy to output PDF to multiple devices. As a side result, PDF viewing and creating PDF documents from any application are built-in features.
In version 10.3, Apple added Exposé, a feature which includes three functions to help accessibility between windows and desktop. Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop. Also, FileVault was introduced, which is an optional encryption of the user's files with Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128).
Features introduced in version 10.4 include Automator, an application designed to create an automatic workflow for different tasks; Dashboard, a full-screen group of small applications called desktop widgets that can be called up and dismissed in one keystroke; and Front Row, a media viewer interface accessed by the Apple Remote. Moreover, the Sync Services were included, which is a system that allows applications to access a centralized extensible database for various elements of user data, including calendar and contact items. The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.
As of version 10.5, all system icons are scalable up to 512×512 pixels, to accommodate various places where they appear in larger size, including for example the Cover Flow view, a three-dimensional graphical user interface included with iTunes, the Finder, and other Apple products for visually skimming through files and digital media libraries via cover artwork. This version includes Spaces, a virtual desktop implementation which enables the user to have more than one desktop and display them in an Exposé-like interface. Mac OS X v10.5 includes an automatic backup technology called Time Machine, which provides the ability to view and restore previous versions of files and application data; and Screen Sharing was built in for the first time.
Finder is a file browser allowing quick access to all areas of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of Mac OS X. Quick Look is part of Mac OS X Leopard's Finder. It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents, without opening their parent applications. Spotlight search technology, which is integrated into the Finder since Mac OS X Tiger, allows rapid real-time searches of data files; mail messages; photos; and other information based on item properties (meta data) and/or content. Mac OS X makes use of a Dock, which holds file and folder shortcuts as well as minimized windows.
|Version||Codename||Date announced||Release date||Most recent version|
|Rhapsody Developer Release||Grail1Z4 / Titan1U||August 31, 1997||DR2 (May 14, 1998)|
|Mac OS X Server 1.0||Hera||March 16, 1999||1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)|
|Mac OS X Developer Preview||May 11, 1998||March 16, 1999||DP4 (April 5, 2000)|
|Public Beta||Kodiak||September 13, 2000|
|Mac OS X 10.0||Cheetah||March 24, 2001||10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)|
|Mac OS X 10.1||Puma||July 18, 2001||September 25, 2001||10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)|
|Mac OS X 10.2||Jaguar||May 6, 2002||August 24, 2002||10.2.8 (October 3, 2003)|
|Mac OS X 10.3||Panther||June 23, 2003||October 24, 2003||10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)|
|Mac OS X 10.4||Tiger||May 4, 2004||April 29, 2005||10.4.11 (November 14, 2007)|
|Mac OS X 10.5||Leopard||June 26, 2006||October 26, 2007||10.5.8 (August 5, 2009)|
|Mac OS X 10.6||Snow Leopard||June 9, 2008||August 28, 2009||10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011)|
|Mac OS X 10.7||Lion||October 20, 2010||July 20, 2011||10.7.5 (September 19, 2012)|
|OS X 10.8||Mountain Lion||February 16, 2012||July 25, 2012||10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)|
|OS X 10.9||Mavericks||June 10, 2013||October 22, 2013||10.9.2 (13C64) (February 25, 2014)|
With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public beta, OS X versions were named after big cats until version 10.9, when Apple switched to using California locations. Prior to its release, version 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and version 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". After the immense buzz surrounding version 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", 10.4 as "Tiger", 10.5 as "Leopard", 10.6 as "Snow Leopard", 10.7 as "Lion", 10.8 as "Mountain Lion", and 10.9 as "Mavericks". "Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse. Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005 a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.
Public Beta: "Kodiak"
The "PB" as it was known marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.
Version 10.0: "Cheetah"
On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X v10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah). The initial version was slow, incomplete, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent.
Version 10.1: "Puma"
Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X v10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.
Version 10.2: "Jaguar"
On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with Mac OS X v10.2 "Jaguar", the first release to use its code name as part of the branding. It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple ), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat. The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.
Version 10.3: "Panther"
Mac OS X v10.3 "Panther" was released on October 24, 2003. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability. Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.
Version 10.4: "Tiger"
Mac OS X v10.4 "Tiger" was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features. As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with a built-in FireWire port. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release dropping support for the Classic environment. Only PowerPC Macs can be booted from retail copies of the Tiger client DVD, but there is a Universal DVD of Tiger Server 10.4.7 (8K1079) that can boot both PowerPC and Intel Macs.
Version 10.5: "Leopard"
Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 new features. Leopard supports both PowerPC- and Intel x86-based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification. Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications. It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture.
Version 10.6: "Snow Leopard"
Mac OS X v10.6 "Snow Leopard" was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with Intel CPUs, required at least 1 GB of RAM, and dropped default support for applications built for the PowerPC architecture (Rosetta could be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications).
Mac OS X v10.6 also featured new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch, and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL.
Version 10.7: "Lion"
Mac OS X v10.7 "Lion" was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications (Launchpad) and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incapable of running PowerPC applications.
Changes made to the GUI (Graphical User Interface) include the Launchpad (similar to the home screen of iOS devices), auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are being used, and Mission Control, which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface. Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed (similar to iOS). Documents auto-save by default.
Version 10.8: "Mountain Lion"
OS X v10.8 "Mountain Lion" was released on July 25, 2012. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud. Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
Version 10.9: "Mavericks"
OS X 10.9 "Mavericks" was released on October 22, 2013. This is a free upgrade to all users running OS X Snow Leopard or later. Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.
- Comparison of BSD operating systems
- Comparison of operating systems
- List of OS X technologies
- List of Macintosh software
- List of operating systems
- Market share of operating systems
- Dock (OS X)
- "Cocoa - OS X Technology Overview". Apple. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "Mac Technology Overview". Apple. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- "Mac OS X 10.5 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
- "Mac OS X 10.6 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved April 7, 2010.
- "Apple technology brief on UNIX". Apple. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Mac OS X 10.8 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "OS X 10.9 on Intel-based Macintosh computers". The Open Group. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- "Apple seeds OS X Mavericks 10.9.3 build 13D45a to developers".
- "What is an operating system (OS)?". Apple. July 15, 2004. Retrieved December 20, 2006. "The current version of Mac OS is Mac OS X (pronounced "Mac O-S ten")."
- Patel, Nilay (February 16, 2012). "Apple officially renames Mac OS X to OS X, drops the 'Mac'". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Ha, Anthony (June 10, 2013). "Apple Has A New, California-Based Naming Scheme For OS X, Starting With OS X Mavericks". TechCrunch. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Haslam, Karen (January 2007). "Macworld Expo: Optimised OS X sits on 'versatile' flash". Macworld. IDG. Retrieved January 13, 2007.
- Foresman, Chris (September 2010). "Apple TV definitely running iOS, could be jailbreak target". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- Mossberg, Walter S. (March 21, 2007). "From PC to TV – via Apple". All Things Digital. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved May 18, 2008.
- Singh, Amit. "Architecture of Mac OS X". What is Mac OS X?. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
- "Apple Facts". The Apple Museum. Retrieved December 15, 2008. "a joint venture with IBM, called Taligent, but was discontinued soon thereafter"
- Markoff, John (December 23, 1996). "Why Apple Sees Next as a Match Made in Heaven". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). p. D1.
- Fawcett, Neil (February 12, 1998). "Rhapsody suffers an identity crisis". Computer Weekly. Reed Business Information. Retrieved April 19, 2012. (subscription required)
- Spolsky, Joel (June 13, 2004). "How Microsoft Lost the API War". Retrieved April 15, 2009. "The developers of the Macintosh OS at Apple have always been in this camp [i.e. not trying to be backwards compatible no matter what]. It's why so few applications from the early days of the Macintosh still work..."
- W., Jeff (May 27, 2008). "Mac OS X (10.5) – User Interface Changes". University of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 15, 2009.
- Rizzo, John (November 12, 2003). "Mac OS X 10.3 Panther". Retrieved April 15, 2009. "Once you reboot, you'll notice that Apple has abandoned the light and airy Aqua interface for the darker, heavier brushed-metal look of iTunes."
- Patel, Nilay (February 16, 2012). "Apple officially renames Mac OS X to OS X, drops the 'Mac'". The Verge. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Siracusa, John (March 24, 2006). "Five years of Mac OS X". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved April 15, 2009. "Even Steve Jobs still says "ecks" instead of "ten" sometimes."
- Kelly, Spencer (February 26, 2011 time: 00:12:45). "BBC Click programme". BBC. Retrieved March 20, 2011. "Now we have dealt with this a number of times over the years. Of course X // does mean 10, but anyone who used to poke around on Unix systems will know that in those days anything Unix had an X (ˈɛks) in it, and OS Ten is written OS X (ˈɛks) in honour of the fact that it is based on Unix, unlike its predecessors. So, hey, you can say it any way you want; me, I'm showing my age and sticking with X (ˈɛks)."
- Grothaus, Michael (April 12, 2011). "Mac OS X Lion to tone down the Aqua". The Unofficial Apple Weblog. AOL. Retrieved April 9, 2012.
- Raymond, Eric Steven. "The Elements of Operating-System Style". Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Cocoa Fundamentals Guide: A Bit of History". ADC Reference Library. Apple Developer Connection. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- Siracusa, John (October 28, 2007). "Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard: the Ars Technica review". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- Tognazzini, Bruce (February 2000). "OS X: A First Look". Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- Thomas, Matthew Paul (February 16, 2004). "My first 48 hours enduring Mac OS X". Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Apple lowers boom on Aqua 'skins'". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. February 2, 2001. Archived from the original on October 31, 2001. Retrieved May 22, 2006.
- "About the Technologies for Developing Mac OS X Software". Apple. Retrieved April 4, 2012.
- Zepko, Tom (November 6, 2003). "Why Cocoa?". Retrieved April 15, 2009.
- "Adopting Universal Binaries on Mac OS X". Apple. February 22, 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- Griffiths, Rob (February 2005). "Prevent Mac Disasters". Macworld. IDG. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Frakes, Dan (August 2006). "Repairing permissions: what you need to know". Macworld. IDG. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Frakes, Dan (June 2008). "Five Mac maintenance myths". Macworld. IDG. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- "System – New system languages.". Apple. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- "Introduction to Cocoa-Java Integration Guide". ADC Reference Library. Apple Developer Connection. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
- "X11 for Mac OS X 1.0". Apple. October 28, 2003. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- Ben Byer (October 27, 2007). "Re: X11 in Leopard: xterm on start-up". Apple's x11-users mailing list. Retrieved January 18, 2008.
- Michael Larabel (May 28, 2011). "X.Org Server 1.10.2 Brings A Bunch Of Bug-Fixes". phoronix. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
- Slivka, Eric (February 17, 2012). "Apple Removes X11 in OS X Mountain Lion, Shifts Support to Open Source XQuartz". MacRumors. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- "Mac OS X: System Requirements". Apple. April 28, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Rothenbourg, Matthew; dePlume, Nick (August 30, 2002). "Apple Keeps x86 Torch Lit with 'Marklar'". eWeek.com. Retrieved June 8, 2013.
- Clark, Don; Wingfield, Nick (May 23, 2005). "Apple Explores Use Of Chips From Intel For Macintosh Line". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Kanellos, Michael (May 23, 2005). "Apple to Intel: Some advantage, lots of risk". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
- "Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006" (Press release). Apple. June 6, 2005. Retrieved April 8, 2006.
- "Adopting Universal Binaries". Apple. January 2006. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Landau, Ted (May 2006). "OS X First Aid". Macworld. IDG. Retrieved February 8, 2009.
- Stevens, Tim (June 10, 2009). "Snow Leopard officially puts PowerPC Macs on endangered species list". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved June 15, 2009.
- "The Aqua Interface". Apple Human Interface Guidelines. Apple. June 9, 2008. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- Davidson, James Duncan (2002). Learning Cocoa With Objective-C. O'Reilly. p. 6. ISBN 0-596-00301-3.
- O'Malley, Kevin (2003). Programming Mac OS X: A Guide for Unix Developers. Manning. p. 7. ISBN 1-930110-85-5.
- "OS X. It's what makes a Mac a Mac.". Apple. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
- "Mac 101: Exposé". Apple. October 31, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "About FileVault". Mac OS X 10.5 Help. Apple. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Mac 101: Automator". Apple. November 6, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Mac 101: Dashboard". Apple. November 11, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Front Row". Apple. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Why Use Sync Services?". Apple. October 31, 2007. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Spaces. Room for everything.". Apple. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Time Machine. A giant leap backward.". Apple. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- "Finder". Apple. Archived from the original on December 15, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2008.
- Holwerda, Thom (December 6, 2007). "Review: Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard". OS News. Retrieved April 15, 2009. "The next area where Apple claims to have made major improvements is the Finder."
- Siracusa, John (January 26, 2006). "Finding Leopard". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved April 15, 2009. "Unsurprisingly, each new Mac OS X release has been the vehicle for a parade of Finder fantasies."
- Siracusa, John (April 28, 2005). "Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved April 15, 2009.
- "Mac 101: Spotlight". Apple. November 6, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2009.
- Davis, Jim (May 11, 1998). "OS X is the future for Apple". CNET. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- "Apple Previews Next Version of Mac OS X" (Press release). Apple. July 18, 2001. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Apple Previews "Jaguar", the Next Major Release of Mac OS X" (Press release). Apple. May 6, 2002. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Apple Previews Mac OS X "Panther"" (Press release). Apple. June 23, 2003. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Steve Jobs to Kick Off Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference 2004 with Preview of Mac OS X "Tiger"" (Press release). Apple. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Apple Executives to Preview Mac OS X "Leopard" at WWDC 2006 Keynote" (Press release). Apple. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Apple Previews Mac OS X Snow Leopard to Developers" (Press release). Apple. June 9, 2008. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Apple Gives Sneak Peek of Mac OS X Lion" (Press release). Apple. October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Apple Releases OS X Mountain Lion Developer Preview with Over 100 New Features" (Press release). Apple. February 16, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- "Mountain Lion Available Today From Mac App Store" (Press release). Apple. July 25, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "Live From Apple’s WWDC 2013 Keynote" (Press release). TechCrunch. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 10, 2013.
- Trademark #78257226 for Panther, #78269988 for Tiger, #78270003 for Leopard, #78271630 for Cougar and #78271639 for Lynx, all registered in 2004 by Apple Computer, Inc."United States Patent and Trademark Office". Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Kasper, Jade. "Court sides with Apple over "Tiger" trademark dispute". AppleInsider. Retrieved April 25, 2006.
- John Siracusa. "Mac OS X Beta – Page 1 – (10/2000)". Ars Technica. Condé Nast Digital. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- "Mac OS X Public Beta Expires Today | News". The Mac Observer. Retrieved March 11, 2010.
- Although the version is now called Cheetah by users, rare evidences can be found to prove that it was called so internally. For instance, a Q&A was created in 2005 which mentions it."Technical Q&A". Apple. October 4, 2005. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- "Apple Cease-And-Desists Stupidity Leak". Slashdot. 2001. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
- "Apple Makes Mac OS X the Default Operating System on All Macs" (Press release). Apple. January 7, 2002. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
- "Jaguar "Unleashed" at 10:20 pm Tonight" (Press release). Apple. August 23, 2002. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- The headline of the press release mention "Jaguar", while the codename was not mentioned for earlier versions. See Apple.com, "Jaguar" press release, compared to Mac OS X v10.0 press release and Mac OS X v10.1 press release
- "Wayback Machine's Cache of the OS X 10.2 Product Information Page". Apple. August 29, 2002. Archived from the original on August 29, 2002. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "Apple Previews "Jaguar," the Next Major Release of Mac OS X" (Press release). Apple. May 6, 2002. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- "Apple Announces Mac OS X "Panther"" (Press release). Apple. October 8, 2003. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- "Apple Unleashes "Tiger Friday at 6:00 pm" (Press release). Apple. April 28, 2005. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
- "Apple unveils Intel iMacs". AppleInsider. January 2006. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
- "Apple – Mac OS X Leopard – Features – 300+ New Features". Apple. 2008. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- "Apple – BootCamp". Apple. 2006. Archived from the original on June 2, 2006. Retrieved June 5, 2006.
- "Mac OS X Leopard – Technology – UNIX". Leopard Technology Overview. Apple. Retrieved October 26, 2007. "Leopard is now an Open Brand UNIX 03 Registered Product, conforming to the SUSv3 and POSIX 1003.1 specifications for the C API, Shell Utilities, and Threads."
- "Do Classic applications work with Mac OS X 10.5 or Intel-based Macs?". Knowledge Base. Apple. January 13, 2006. Retrieved October 25, 2007.
- Lynch, Steven (June 12, 2008). "Mac OS X Snow Leopard Drops PowerPC Support". HardOCP. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- Reisinger, Don (January 6, 2011). "Mac App Store launches on Snow Leopard". CNET. CBS Interactive.
- "Apple – OS X Lion - The world's most advanced desktop operating system.". Apple. October 20, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Apple – OS X Mountain Lion - The world's most advanced desktop operating system.". Apple. February 16, 2012. Retrieved February 16, 2012.
- Panzarino, Matthew (February 16, 2012). "Apple courts China with Sina Weibo, Baidu, Youku and more integrated in Mountain Lion". The Next Web. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "OS X Mavericks Available Today Free from the Mac App Store" (Press release). Apple Inc. October 22, 2013.
- OS X – official website at Apple
- Downloads page – listings for third party OS X software at Apple
- 22. October 2013, Poornima Gupta, Edwin Chan: Apple gives away Mac software, unveils iPad Air, reuters.com