Oakland International Airport
|Oakland International Airport|
|IATA: OAK – ICAO: KOAK – FAA LID: OAK
– WMO: 72493
|Owner||Port of Oakland|
|Serves||East Bay, California|
|Hub for||FedEx Express|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||9 ft / 3 m|
FAA airport diagram
Oakland International Airport (IATA: OAK, ICAO: KOAK, FAA LID: OAK) is a public airport five miles south of downtown Oakland, in Alameda County, California, United States. It is owned by the Port of Oakland. It is one of three international airports in the San Francisco Bay Area. The airport has passenger service to destinations in the United States, as well as Mexico and Europe. Cargo flights fly to destinations in the United States, Canada and Japan. OAK is the closest airport to the San Francisco financial district—both geographically and by public transit.
Oakland is a focus city for Southwest Airlines and Allegiant Air. As of July 2013, Southwest has 108 daily departures on peak-travel days of the week. Alaska Airlines combined with sister-carrier Horizon Air has been the second-busiest carrier at OAK through 2013. Beginning January 2014, Delta will overtake Alaska as OAK's No. 2 carrier.
The top five airlines by passenger count between February 2012 – January 2013 were Southwest Airlines (69.90%), Alaska Airlines (7.22%), JetBlue Airways (4.99%), Allegiant (3.11%), Skywest (2.77%). Between February 2012 and January 2013, 9,650,000 people traveled through OAK.
Passengers at the airport peaked in 2007 at 14.6 million and declined to 9.3 million in 2011. An advantage of OAK over SFO is OAK's history of a high on-time arrival percentage, despite many days of rainy and foggy weather in each city. In 2009 OAK had the highest on-time arrival percentage among the 40 busiest North American airports.
- 1 History
- 2 Facilities and aircraft
- 3 Airlines and destinations
- 4 Statistics
- 5 Transportation
- 6 Recent publicity
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The city of Oakland looked into the construction of an airport starting in 1925. In 1927 the announcement of the Dole prize for a flight from California to Hawaii provided the incentive to purchase 680 acres in April 1927 for the airport. The 7,020-foot-long runway was the longest in the world at the time, and was built in just 21 days to meet the Dole race start. The airport was dedicated by Charles Lindbergh September 17. In its early days, because of its long runway enabling safe takeoff rolls for fuel-heavy aircraft, Oakland was the departing point of several historic flights, including Charles Kingsford Smith's historic US-Australia flight in 1928, and Amelia Earhart's final flight in 1937. Earhart departed from this airport when she made her final, ill-fated voyage, intending to return there after circumnavigating the globe.
Boeing Air Transport (a predecessor of United Airlines) began scheduled flights to Oakland in December 1927. It was joined by Trans World Airlines (TWA) in 1932. In 1929, Boeing opened the Boeing School of Aeronautics on the field, which expanded rapidly in 1939 as part of the Civilian Pilot Training Program. Thousands of pilots and mechanics were trained before the facility was changed into the United Air Lines training center in 1945.
In 1943, the U.S. Armed Forces temporarily took over Oakland Airport and opened Naval Air Station Oakland. It was transformed into an airlift base for military flights to the Pacific islands, ordering all scheduled service to move to San Francisco International Airport. After the war, airlines slowly returned to Oakland; Western Airlines began flights in 1946, and was followed by American Airlines, TWA, United, Transocean Airlines and Pacific Southwest Airlines (PSA).
The airport's first Jet Age airline terminal (now Terminal 1) was designed by John Carl Warnecke & Associates and opened in 1962, part of a $20 million expansion on bay fill that included the 10,000-foot runway 11/29. The May 1963 OAG showed 15 airline flights arriving in Oakland each day, including nine from San Francisco; in June 1963, TWA flew Oakland's first scheduled jet aircraft, a Convair 880, to Chicago.
During the Vietnam War, World Airways shuttled thousands of military passengers through Oakland to their bases in Southeast Asia, and an international arrivals facility was built, allowing the airport to handle international flights for the first time. By the late 1960s, World Airways had broken ground on the World Airways Maintenance Center at Oakland International Airport. The maintenance hangar could store four Boeing 747's.
After the war, Oakland's traffic slumped, but airline deregulation prompted several low-fare carriers to begin flights. This increase prompted the airport to build a $16.3 million second terminal, the Lionel J. Wilson Terminal 2, with seven gates for PSA and AirCal service.
FedEx Express opened a cargo base at OAK in 1988, which is now one of the busiest air freight terminals in the United States. In 1987 an Air France Concorde visited Oakland. In the 1990s, Southwest Airlines opened a crew base in Oakland, and expanded its flights to become the airport's dominant passenger carrier. The airport has international arrival facilities, including U.S. Customs and Border Protection officials. Mexicana Airlines flew between Oakland and cities in Mexico for many years. In the past Corsairfly flew Orly Airport to OAK to Papeete, Tahiti, Martinair flew to Schiphol Airport and CityBird flew to Brussels Airport in Brussels.
United Airlines vacated its 300,000 sq ft (30,000 m2) Oakland Maintenance Center in May 2003 and transferred work to it's base across the bay at San Francisco International Airport (SFO).
Oakland International Airport began a $300 million expansion and renovation project in 2004, including adding five gates in Terminal 2. The new concourse partially opened in fall 2006, was fully opened by spring 2007, and a new baggage claim in Terminal 2 opened in summer 2006. The former Terminal 2 baggage claim has been replaced by a renovated and expanded security screening area. As part of this program, airport roadways, curbsides and parking lots were also renovated by the end of 2008.
In 2008, Oakland suffered a series of service cutbacks due to high fuel costs and airline bankruptcies, more than other Bay Area airports. In just a few days, Oakland's numerous non-stops to Hawaii were eliminated following the liquidation of ATA Airlines and Aloha Airlines, although Hawaiian Airlines started a daily flight to Honolulu a month later. Skybus Airlines stopped flying to Columbus, OH when it ended operations on April 5. American Airlines and Continental Airlines both dropped Oakland on September 3, United Airlines ended service to Los Angeles on November 2, and TACA ended service to San Salvador on September 1.
- New air traffic control tower
A groundbreaking ceremony for a new control tower took place October 15, 2010. A grant awarded to the Federal Aviation Administration from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) helped fund the project. The new, environmentally "green" tower was opened in 2013 and replaced the previous north and south field towers. The new tower was formally dedicated in a ceremony on November 22, 2013.
- Electric vehicle charging services
The Port of Oakland and Coulomb Technologies has announced that electric vehicle (EV) driver services have arrived at Oakland International Airport (OAK) with the installation of eight ChargePoint Network charging stations for EVs in the Premier Parking Lot.
Oakland International is the first Northern California airport to offer EV charging services as part of the ChargePoint Network, providing drivers EV services including real-time charging station status and reservations.
- Noise management program
For more than 30 years, OAK has worked with it's stakeholders to develop programs that minimize the effect of aircraft noise, to the extent possible, on surrounding communities, while maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation center. Through regularly scheduled stakeholder meetings, a sophisticated noise-monitoring system, proactive communications with neighboring communities and pilot education, the airport has successfully lessened the impact of it's operations on neighboring communities, in order to improve their quality of life.
- Master Plan
For nearly a century, Oakland International has served the shipping and travel needs of the San Francisco Bay Area. The original airfield was built in 1927 and is still used by air cargo, corporate and general aviation operators. In 1962 a new terminal (Terminal 1), 10,000-foot runway and 10-story air traffic control tower was built to usher in the jet-age. Terminal 2 was opened in 1985 and is now used solely by Southwest Airlines.
In 2008 OAK completed its $300 million Terminal Improvement Program, with projects that added a new concourse with five more gates and waiting areas expanded ticketing, security and baggage claim facilities added new utilities and improved terminal access and eased congestion in front of the terminals through a new roadway and curbside system. These projects are one part of the on-going Airport Development Program (ADP).
Even at the completion of these projects, there is already demand driving the need for additional infrastructure improvements. The main planning tool to provide guidance on near-term and long-term Airport land-use is a Master Plan. The airport's 20-year Master Plan was completed in 2006, with input from the OAK Aviation Stakeholder Advisory Committee.
- Environmental Management
Oakland International Airport, a revenue division of the Port of Oakland, takes a leadership role in promoting a sustainable operating environment—whether that's looking at current day-to-day operations or forecasting future needs and requirements.
The Port of Oakland is an independent department of the city of Oakland and is required to do its part to be a good neighbor, an environmental steward, and a responsible business operator in it's efforts to support the city's sustainability goals. Through it's efforts, the Port of Oakland contributed to the recent recognition of the city of Oakland as one of the best examples of urban sustainability at the 2005 United Nations World Environment Day conference in San Francisco.
The Port of Oakland has adopted a sustainability policy, also known as the "Three E's," that is based on the values of environmental responsibility, economic vitality and social equity.
On September 14, 2009, OAK was the scene where Malaysia-based AirAsia honored it's new partners, the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League (NFL). The airline's affiliate, AirAsia X had one of their planes full of it's executives and crew members "touch down" at OAK in acknowledgment of the to-be announced sponsorship. AirAsia executives have new optimism that service between the U.S. and the airline's main base in Kuala Lumpur, could possibly happen earlier than originally expected. 
Allegiant Air inaugurated service at OAK in February 2009, with flights to Bellingham, Washington twice weekly. Service is however doubled, from two to four arrivals and departures each through the summer months, along with added flights during the winter-holiday period. Later in the year, the airline also added service between OAK and Eugene Airport in Oregon twice weekly. In November 2011, Allegiant announced new services between Mesa, AZ and OAK beginning January 18, 2012; in April 2012 services to destinations in Oregon, Idaho and Montana also began, making Oakland a new focus city for the airline. On August 21, Allegiant announced service to Palm Springs nonstop from OAK twice weekly. On March 20, Allegiant announced new Provo flights from OAK with returning flights departing on Friday and Monday.
Adding to Hawaiian Airlines' service to Honolulu, Alaska Airlines added nonstop service to Kona with three flights weekly, and Kahului (Maui) daily, both were unserved prior to Alaska's entrance. A fourth restored destination, Lihue (Kauai), began in early 2011, with four flights weekly. In June 2010, Hawaiian added service to Kahului and Alaska added Honolulu which began in April 2012.
Carlsbad, California-based California Pacific Airlines announced in May 2010, that OAK has been included as one of it's (proposed) original destinations. Nonstop service with Carlsbad was planned to begin in early 2012 but the airline postponed commencing operations. Connections from this northern San Diego County base will include Cabo San Lucas in Baja California, and other resort-locations in Mexico to be announced at a later date. 
Spirit Airlines returned to OAK after several years of absence, with flights to and from Las Vegas that started in August 2011. During the previous decade, Spirit had service from OAK to Detroit. Spirit announced a second daily nonstop flight between Dallas-Fort Worth and OAK that began on April 25, 2013. On January 29, 2014, Spirit announced a third daily nonstop flight between Chicago's O'Hare Airport and OAK starting May 1, 2014.
SeaPort Airlines proposed a new plan for daily flights from Visalia to OAK. SeaPort's fares would be set at $80 per one-way trip to OAK. Also, 9-seat Cessna Caravans and 9-seat Piper Chieftain SeaPort intends to run are newer than the 19-passenger Beech 1900D aircraft by Great Lakes.
Low-cost Mexican airline Volaris started service between OAK and the airline's two main locations: Guadalajara, and Toluca on July 16, 2009. Although Toluca service has not resumed since its April 2010 ending, service to (nearby) Mexico City started in May 2011. OAK was the first airport in the world to receive international nonstop Volaris service to and from the country's capital. Volaris held a "commercial agreement" with Southwest, OAK's largest carrier until the latter's merger with AirTran in 2011.
In 2012, Oakland International Airport celebrated it's 85th Anniversary, commemorating the first transpacific crossing by air from OAK to Hawaii, on June 29, 1927 in The Bird of Paradise, flown by Hegenberger and Maitland.
Terminal 1 is currently undergoing a $200 million upgrade. This building will be renovated and seismically retrofitted over the next few years. Future improvements include larger restrooms, replacing concourse carpeting with terrazzo floors, new airline ticketing and check-in areas, food, beverage and retail concession improvements, and improved universal access and overall comfort and convenience enhancements.
On September 3, Norwegian Air Shuttle (DY) announced new, year-round flights from OAK to Oslo (OSL) and Stockholm (ARN). The new flights will begin in May 2014 using the new state-of-the art Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft seating 291 passengers. The flights are the first-ever nonstop services offered from the two Scandinavian capitals to the San Francisco Bay Area.
In 2014, Hawaiian Airlines has announced it will further expand its Oakland gateway to the islands with new nonstop flights to both Lihue Airport on Kaua'i and Kona International Airport on the Big Island. These new flights will solidify Oakland as Hawaiian's largest Bay Area gateway city and it's second-largest mainland city behind LAX, in addition to being it's only mainland city with flights to all four main Hawaiian islands.
Facilities and aircraft
Oakland International Airport covers 2,600 acres (1,100 ha) and has four runways. Changes to Earth's magnetic field required runways 27 and 29 to be rebranded as 28 and 30, respectively in 2013.
- South Field (Commercial and cargo operations):
- Runway 12/30: 10,520 ft × 150 ft (3,206 m × 46 m) asphalt
- North Field (general aviation operations):
- Runway 10R/28L: 6,213 ft × 150 ft (1,894 m × 46 m) asphalt
- Runway 10L/28R: 5,458 ft × 150 ft (1,664 m × 46 m) asphalt
- Runway 15/33: 3,376 ft × 75 ft (1,029 m × 23 m) asphalt
A number of general aviation FBOs are at the North Field:
- Transient aircraft support
- Kaiser Air
- Landmark Aviation
- Flight schools
- Repair operations
- Oakland Aircraft Maintenance
- Aerial Advertising Services
- Oakland Aviation Museum, formerly Western Aerospace Museum
- Pacific Aerial Surveys
In 2008 the airport had 269,631 aircraft operations, average 740 per day: 46% general aviation (188,064), 42% scheduled commercial, 12% air taxi and <1% military. 277 aircraft are based at this airport: 51% single-engine, 34% multi-engine, 10% jet and 4% helicopter.
There are two terminals at Oakland International Airport:
- Terminal 1
- Terminal 1 has 17 gates (1, 3, 4–7, 8-8A, 9-9A, 10–12, 14-14A, 15, 17).
- All international arrivals are handled in Terminal 1 at Gates 1 and 3.
- Terminal 2
- Terminal 2 has 13 gates (20–32).
Airlines and destinations
|Ameriflight||Burbank, Chico, Fresno, Marysville, Modesto, Portland (OR), Reno/Tahoe, Sacramento, Salinas, San Luis Obispo, Seattle/Tacoma, Ukiah|
|FedEx Express||Anchorage, Fresno, Fort Worth/Alliance, Honolulu, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Memphis, Newark, Ontario, Osaka-Kansai, Phoenix, Portland (OR), Reno/Tahoe, Salt Lake City, Seattle/Tacoma, Tokyo-Narita, Vancouver (operated seasonal by Empire Airlines)|
|UPS Airlines||Columbia (SC), Dallas/Fort Worth, Louisville, Ontario, Philadelphia|
|1||Los Angeles, California||477,000||Delta, Southwest|
|2||Las Vegas, Nevada||405,000||Southwest, Spirit|
|3||Seattle/Tacoma, Washington||395,000||Alaska, Southwest|
|5||San Diego, California||355,000||Southwest|
|6||Phoenix, Arizona (PHX)||334,000||Southwest, US Airways|
|7||Santa Ana, California||293,000||Southwest|
|8||Portland, Oregon||255,000||Alaska, Southwest|
|9||Salt Lake City, Utah||234,000||Delta, Southwest|
The Coliseum–Oakland International Airport line, also known as BART to OAK Airport, is an automated guideway transit (AGT) system that connects BART Coliseum station and Oakland International Airport (BART station) terminal buildings. The AGT vehicles depart from the airport and Coliseum station every five minutes during daily peak hours, and are designed to transport travelers to and from the airport in about eight minutes with an on-time performance of more than 99 percent. The system opened on November 22, 2014.
AC Transit provides service from the Eastmont Transit Center on Line 73 to the Oakland Airport via the BART Coliseum Station. Line 805 provides service to the Oakland International Airport during late night and early morning hours via MacArthur Blvd and the Eastmont Transit Center.
Oakland International is accessible from Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway) which is 2 miles (3 km) away. The airport can be reached by exiting Hegenberger Road or 98th Avenue heading west; both streets converge into Airport Road before looping around in front of the terminals.
Military aircraft mistake
On September 27, 2007, Oakland airport authorities ordered North American Airlines Flight 1777, carrying 200 U.S. Marines home from duty in Iraq, to park 400 yards (370 m) away from the airport terminal and refused to allow the troops to enter the terminal, although they were allowed off the aircraft to stretch their legs and use restrooms. The airliner had stopped in Oakland to refuel and provision. Oakland authorities stated that their decision was based on the fact that, "The airport received information that the passengers were not screened by the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at their originating airport and that weapons were on-board the aircraft." The airplane's passengers, however, had been screened by TSA at John F. Kennedy International Airport and no further screening was necessary. Oakland Airport officials apologized for the mistake – "There was no disrespect that was intended," said Omar Benjamin, executive director of the Port of Oakland, which runs the airport. "There was confusion. There were mistakes that were made." However, U.S. Representative John Mica stated that, "We believe this is not an isolated incident" and asked the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) to investigate.
The DoT released the report of its investigation on January 30, 2008. The investigation concluded that the airport did not break any laws or regulations in the incident. The investigation found that the contract under which military chartered transport aircraft are serviced at the airport does not require access to the terminal facilities for military passengers. The report stated that airport management was concerned that they could not provide "an adequate level of escort and control of such a large group of military personnel in or around the terminal area". The airport personnel were also concerned over the proper safeguarding and securing of the weapons carried on the military transport. The report further stated that a contributing factor was a lack of communication and coordination between the Department of Defense and the Department of Homeland Security, especially with regard to security screenings of military personnel on the chartered flights. The report recommended that a task force be established with representatives from Homeland, Defense, and Transportation departments and airlines and airports to develop a uniform process for handling military personnel on all military chartered flights at U.S. airports. Commenting on the report, Mica stated, "The shocking thing is that there is no protocol for handling our returning troops, and at Oakland they got a very rude welcome. We just need to get some regular order of the process so we don't have a recurrence of what we saw happen here."
The LEED Silver Certification Award has environmentally-cautious initiatives for Terminal 2's renovation and expansion were recognized by the U.S. Green Building Council. During March 2010, for the first time among the country's passenger-terminals, the council awarded OAK's No. 2 for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver Certification.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oakland International Airport.|
- List of airports in the San Francisco Bay Area
- List of airports in California
- California World War II Army Airfields
- FAA Airport Master Record for OAK ( PDF), effective October 25, 2007
- Oakland International Airport – Year-end Airport Statistics Summary (official site)
- "Metropolitan Oakland International Airport". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved May 3, 2009.
- "Fact Sheet". Southwest Airlines. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Official Airline Guide published schedules for Winter/Spring 2014
- "Oakland International Airport: Year-end Airport Statistics Summary". Port of Oakland. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- "Oakland International Airport: Press Releases" (Press release). Port of Oakland. January 12, 2010. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Oakland Best Among Top 40 North American Airports". Flightstats.com. January 6, 2010. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Reuther, Ronald T.; Larkins, William T. Oakland Aviation. p. 17.
- "Oakland Airport". Retrieved November 3, 2011.
- "A History of Aviation Excellence and Importance to the Community". Port of Oakland. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Barnes Warnock McCormick, Conrad F. Newberry, Eric Jumper. Aerospace Engineering Education During The First Century of Flight. p. 858.
- "Oakland International Airport, Terminal 1". Northern California Chapter, Documentation and Conservation of Buildings. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- "FAA Dedicates New Control Tower at Oakland International Airport" (Press release). Federal Aviation Administration. November 22, 2013. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- Bair, Jonathan (September 15, 2009). "In Oakland: The Raiders Plane May Land Again". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "AirAsia Xcellence Flight Lands at OAK" (Press release). Port of Oakland. September 18, 2009. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (January 24, 2012). "Allegiant Air Tabs Oakland for Major Expansion". USA Today. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- Eric Young (August 21, 2012). "Allegiant Air continues expansion in Oakland". Retrieved September 26, 2012.
- "Alaska Airlines Begins Flying from Oakland and San Jose, Calif., to Honolulu". Alaska Air Group. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "Hawaii a Key Market from Oakland International Airport" (Press release). Port of Oakland. March 28, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Yu, Roger (November 1, 2011). "Alaska Airlines to Launch Daily Service to Honolulu From Oakland and San Jose". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- "Grupo Mexicana Suspends Flights Until Further Notice" (Press release). Groupo Mexicana. August 27, 2010. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Fikes, Bradley J. (June 3, 2011). "California Pacific Airlines Plans Take Wing by Early 2012". North County Times. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Plans For New Local Airline Moving Forward". KGTV. April 18, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Spirit Airlines to Begin Service Between Oakland International Airport and Las Vegas" (Press release). Port of Oakland. June 22, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "More Flights, More Destinations From Oakland International Airport in 2002" (Press release). Port of Oakland. February 15, 2002. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (July 3, 2012). "Spirit Adds Baltimore, Houston As Part of Dallas Expansion". USA Today. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "Where Do We Fly?". Volaris. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Volaris Begins New Nonstop Flights to Mexico City from Oakland International Airport" (Press release). Port of Oakland. March 17, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Volaris Begins Service to the San Francisco Bay Area with Flights from OAK to Mexico" (Press release). Port of Oakland. July 17, 2009. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Mutzabaugh, Ben (March 23, 2012). "United Airlines to Ax Oakland Service". USA Today. Retrieved April 19, 2012.[dead link]
- "TUI's ArkeFly to Begin OAK-Amsterdam Service in Summer 2012" (Press release). Port of Oakland. September 28, 2011. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Norwegian Air Shuttle Announces New Nonstop Services to the San Francisco Bay Area at Oakland International Airport" (Press release). Port of Oakland. September 3, 2013. Retrieved September 10, 2013.
- "Hawaiian Airlines to Expand Service Between Oakland and Hawaiian Islands" (Press release). August 1, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2013.
- http://blogs.kqed.org/science/2013/12/12/oakland-airport-runways-renamed-after-changes-in-earths-magnetic-field/. Missing or empty
- "Alameda Aero Club". Alameda Aero Club. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Oakland Flyers". Oakland Flyers. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "Oakland Aircraft Maintenance". Kaiser Air. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- "CA: Metropolitan Oakland International (OAK)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved Oct 27, 2013.
- Lee, Henry K. (October 3, 2007). "Oakland Airport Keeps Marines Out of Terminal in Oakland Stopover". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- Hudson, Audrey (October 3, 2007). "California Airport Isolates Troops". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 4, 2007.
- Hudson, Audrey (January 31, 2008). "Airport Found Legitimate in Troop Treatment". The Washington Times. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
- "Southwest's Oakland Terminal is Awarded LEED Green Building Silver Certification". Nuts About Southwest. March 17, 2010. Retrieved April 19, 2012.
- Oakland International Airport – official site
- (PDF), effective December 11, 2014
- Resources for this airport: