Oath of office

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Lyndon B. Johnson taking the presidential oath of office in 1963, after the assassination of John F. Kennedy

An oath of office is an oath or affirmation a person takes before undertaking the duties of an office, usually a position in government or within a religious body, although such oaths are sometimes required of officers of other organizations. Such oaths are often required by the laws of the state, religious body, or other organization before the person may actually exercise the powers of the office or any religious body. It may be administered at an inauguration, coronation, enthronement, or other ceremony connected with the taking up of office itself, or it may be administered privately. In some cases it may be administered privately and then repeated during a public ceremony.

Some oaths of office are a statement of loyalty to a constitution or other legal text or to a person or other office-holder (e.g., an oath to support the constitution of the state, or of loyalty to the king). Under the laws of a state it may be considered treason or a high crime to betray a sworn oath of office.

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Belarus[edit]

The Constitution of Belarus requires the president-elect to recite the following oath before taking office:

Assuming the office of President of the Republic of Belarus, I solemnly swear to faithfully serve the people of the Republic of Belarus, to respect and safeguard the rights and liberties of man and citizen, to abide by and protect the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, and to discharge strictly and conscientiously the lofty duties that have been bestowed upon me[1]

Belgium[edit]

King[edit]

In Belgium, the King is not crowned but swears the constitutional oath in front of both Chambers of the federal parliament in the Palace of the Nation in Brussels. The assembly room is rebuilt for this occassion.

First, the parlementary session of the Federal Chamber of Representatives and the Senate is opened. The joint session is presided by the presidents of the Chamber and the Senate.

Afterwards, the King is announced by the usher in the country's three offical languages: le Roi – de Koning – der König. The King enters the assembly room and sits on the throne in the center.

After a speech of the President of the Chamber, the King is invited to take the constitutional oath. This happens in the three official languages:

Dutch: Ik zweer dat ik de Grondwet en de wetten van het Belgische volk zal naleven, 's Lands onafhankelijkheid handhaven en het grondgebied ongeschonden bewaren.

French: Je jure d'observer la Constitution et les lois du peuple belge, de maintenir l'indépendance nationale et l'intégrité du territoire.

German: Ich schwöre, die Verfassung und die Gesetze des belgischen Volkes zu beachten, die Unabhängigkeit des Landes zu erhalten und die Unversehrtheit des Staatsgebietes zu wahren.

In English: I swear that I will observe the constitution and laws of the Belgian people, preserve the country's independence and guarantee its territorial integrity, article 91 of the Belgian constitution.

The King makes his inaugural speech. The President of the Senate congratulates the King. The Royal Band of the Belgian Naval Component performs the Belgian national anthem and the European anthem.

The King leaves and the parliamentary session is closed.

101 canon shots are fired.

Prime minister, ministers and state secretaries[edit]

The prime minister, the ministers and state secretaries of the Belgian federal government swear an oath in front of the Belgian King.

Also the minister-presidents of the Flemish government, of the Walloon government, of the government of the French community , of the government of the German-speaking community and of the Brussels-Capital region government swear the oath at the King. The other members of these governments do not take the oath at the King, but in front of their respective parliaments.

They may choose to take the oath in one or more of the country's languages.

Dutch: Ik zweer getrouwheid aan de Koning, gehoorzaamheid aan de Grondwet en aan de wetten van het Belgische volk.

French: Je jure fidélité au Roi, obéissance à la Constitution et aux lois du Peuple belge.

German: Ich schwöre Treue dem König, Gehorsam der Verfassung und den Gesetzen des belgisches Volkes.

In English: I swear fidelity to the King, obedience to the constitution and to the law of the Belgian people.

Members of the Parliaments[edit]

The members of the Chambers of Representatives, the Senate, the Flemish Parliament, the Walloon Parliament, the Parliament of the French Community, the Parliament of the German-speaking Community and the Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region have to swear the following oath:

Dutch: Ik zweer de Grondwet na te leven.

French: Je jure d'observer la Constitution.

German: Ich schwöre, die Verfassung zu beachten.

In English: I swear obedience to the constitution.

Public servants[edit]

All public servants in judiciary and administration, officers of the civil guards and the army and servants in general of any public office have to swear the same oath as ministers.

Mayors and members of municipal executive and city council[edit]

Flemish mayors and the members of municipal executive and the city council in Flanders have following oath: "Ik zweer de verplichtingen van mijn mandaat trouw na te komen" (I swear to fulfill the duties of my office faithfully).

In Walloon the following version is used: "Je jure fidélité au Roi, obéissance à la Constitution et aux lois du peuple belge."

Brazil[edit]

Dilma Rousseff takes the oath of office of the President of Brazil.

The affirmation required by the Constitution of Brazil to be taken by the president-elect upon entering into office is as follows:

I promise to preserve, defend and uphold the Constitution, observe the Laws, promote the general welfare of the Brazilian people, and to sustain the union, the integrity and the independence of Brazil.

[2][3]

The vice-president is required to take the same pledge.

The affirmations of office required of members of the National Congress of Brazil are specified in the rules of procedure of each house (the Chamber of Deputies and Senate)

The internal rules of the Supreme Federal Court set out the affirmation that must be taken by justices upon their investiture. Other judges make different affirmations, as provided for by law or in the internal rules of each Court.

The Constitution and laws of the several states and the organic laws of the municipalities also specify affirmations that must be made by the key officers of those entities.

Commonwealth realms[edit]

The Commonwealth realms share the same person as their individual monarch. There is only one coronation ceremony, held in Westminster Abbey, wherein the Coronation Oath is taken. The Oath includes elements pertaining to the monarch's role as Supreme Governor of the Church of England as well as the oath-taker's separate roles as monarch of his or her other realms.

Coronation Oath[edit]

The Coronation Oath (from the Order of Service for the Coronation of Elizabeth II in 1953) is administered by the Archbishop of Canterbury in the form of questions:

Archbishop of Canterbury: Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, The Union of South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and the other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?
Queen: I solemnly promise so to do.

Archbishop: Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?
Queen: I will.

Archbishop: Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?
Queen: All this I promise to do.

Then the Queen, arising out of her chair, supported by peers and with the Sword of State being carried before her, goes to the altar to make her solemn oath in the sight of all the people to observe the promises by laying her right hand upon the Holy Gospel in the great Bible (which was before carried in the procession and is now brought from the altar by the Archbishop, and tendered to her as she kneels upon the steps), saying:

Queen: The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God.

Then the Queen kisses the Bible and signs the Oath.[4][5]

Australia[edit]

The Governor-General is required to take two oaths upon taking office. The first, the Oath of Allegiance, is also required to be taken by all Commonwealth Members of Parliament, before taking their seat in Parliament:

I, (name), do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Her heirs and successors according to law. So help me God!

The second is the Oath of Office:

I, (name), do swear that I will well and truly serve Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Her heirs and successors according to law, in the office of Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia, and I will do right to all manner of people after the laws and usages of the Commonwealth of Australia, without fear or favour, affection or ill will. So help me God![6]

In addition to swearing the Oath of Allegiance upon becoming a Member of Parliament, the Prime Minister, Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries also recite an oath of office upon entering office. The wording of this oath is not prescribed within the Constitution and is ultimately determined by the Prime Minister of the Day. Traditionally the oath has repeated the swearing of allegiance to the Sovereign, although this is not required.[7] The current Oath of Office:

I, (name), do swear that I will well and truly serve the people of Australia in the office of (position) and that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second, Queen of Australia. So help me God![8]

Canada[edit]

Further information: Oath of Allegiance (Canada)

Governor General[edit]

The Governor General is required to take the "Oath for the due execution of the Office of Our Governor General and Commander-in-Chief in and over Canada, and for the due impartial administration of justice," which includes swearing allegiance to the reigning Canadian monarch the viceroy is to represent. This oath must be administered by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada or a Puisne Justice, and, though not demanded, this is usually done during a swearing-in ceremony in the Canadian Senate chamber.

Prime Minister[edit]

The Prime Minister takes the oath of office at Rideau Hall and he or she says the following:

I, (name), do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear (or declare) that I will truly and faithfully, and to the best of my skill and knowledge,execute the powers and trust reposed in me as Prime Minister, so help me God.[citation needed]

Ministers[edit]

The Clerk of the Privy Council administers the Oath of Office and Oath of Allegiance to Ministers, including the Prime Minister of Canada, at Rideau Hall. The oath of office is as follows:

I, (name), do solemnly and sincerely promise and swear (or declare) that I will truly and faithfully, and to the best of my skill and knowledge, execute the powers and trusts reposed in me as (office), so help me God.[9]

Ministers affirming use the word "declare" instead of "swear" and omit "so help me God". When not already members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, Ministers also take the Oath of the Members of the Privy Council.[10]

New Zealand[edit]

Governor-General[edit]

The Chief Justice of New Zealand administers the oath of office at the installation of new Governors-General of New Zealand. The oath is as follows:

I, [name], swear that, as Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of the Realm of New Zealand, comprising New Zealand; the self-governing states of the Cook Islands and Niue; Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency, I will faithfully and impartially serve Her [or His] Majesty [specify the name of the reigning Sovereign, as thus: Queen Elizabeth the Second], Queen of New Zealand [or King of New Zealand], Her [or His] heirs and successors, and the people of the Realm of New Zealand, in accordance with their respective laws and customs. So help me God.[11]

United Kingdom[edit]

Coronation Oath[edit]

Made by HM The Queen at her coronation, 2 June 1953:

Archbishop. Will you solemnly promise and swear to govern the Peoples of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon, and of your Possessions and the other Territories to any of them belonging or pertaining, according to their respective laws and customs?

Queen. I solemnly promise so to do.

Archbishop. Will you to your power cause Law and Justice, in Mercy, to be executed in all your judgements?

Queen. I will.

Archbishop. Will you to the utmost of your power maintain the Laws of God and the true profession of the Gospel? Will you to the utmost of your power maintain in the United Kingdom the Protestant Reformed Religion established by law? Will you maintain and preserve inviolably the settlement of the Church of England, and the doctrine, worship, discipline, and government thereof, as by law established in England? And will you preserve unto the Bishops and Clergy of England, and to the Churches there committed to their charge, all such rights and privileges, as by law do or shall appertain to them or any of them?

Queen. All this I promise to do.

Then the Queen arising out of her Chair, supported as before, the Sword of State being carried before her, shall go to the Altar, and make her solemn Oath in the sight of all the people to observe the premisses: laying her right hand upon the Holy Gospel in the great Bible (which was before carried in the procession and is now brought from the Altar by the Arch-bishop, and tendered to her as she kneels upon the steps), and saying these words:

The things which I have here before promised, I will perform and keep. So help me God. [12]


All the following oaths may be replaced at the request of the maker by affirmations (which do not invoke the name of God, but are otherwise in the same terms).

Oath of Allegiance and Official Oath[edit]

The Oath of Allegiance and the Official Oath, as set out in the Promissory Oaths Act 1868 are required to be taken by various office-holders.

Oath of Allegiance[edit]

The Oath of Allegiance is in the following form:

I, (name), do swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, her heirs and successors, according to law. So help me God.

Official Oath[edit]

The Official Oath is in the following form:

I, (name), do swear that I will well and truly serve Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth in the office of (office). So help me God.

The Oath of Allegiance and Official Oath shall be tendered to and taken by each of the following office-holders as soon as may be after his acceptance of office:

The oaths were formerly also taken by the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Chief Commissioner of Works and Public Buildings, the President of the Poor Law Board, the Commander-in-Chief, and the Postmaster General. In relation to Ireland, the oaths were formerly also taken by the Lord Lieutenant, the Lord Chancellor, the Commander of the Forces and the Chief Secretary for Ireland.[13]

The Oath as to England is to be tendered by the Clerk of the Council, and taken in presence of Her Majesty in Council, or otherwise as Her Majesty shall direct.

The Oath as to Scotland is to be tendered by the Lord President of the Court of Session at a sitting of the Court.

Privy Counsellors[edit]

Privy Counsellors take office on being "sworn of the Privy Council". It was formerly regarded as criminal to disclose the form of Privy Council oath, which includes an undertaking of secrecy as to the proceedings in Council (where the Oath is taken). On 28 July 1964 it was published by the President of the Council in answer to a written parliamentary question.

You do swear by Almighty God to be a true and faithful Servant unto the Queen's Majesty, as one of Her Majesty's Privy Council. You will not know or understand of any manner of thing to be attempted, done, or spoken against Her Majesty's Person, Honour, Crown, or Dignity Royal, but you will lett and withstand the same to the uttermost of your Power, and either cause it to be revealed to Her Majesty Herself, or to such of Her Privy Council as shall advertise Her Majesty of the same. You will, in all things to be moved, treated, and debated in Council, faithfully and truly declare your Mind and Opinion, according to your Heart and Conscience; and will keep secret all Matters committed and revealed unto you, or that shall be treated of secretly in Council. And if any of the said Treaties or Counsels shall touch any of the Counsellors, you will not reveal it unto him, but will keep the same until such time as, by the Consent of Her Majesty, or of the Council, Publication shall be made thereof. You will to your uttermost bear Faith and Allegiance unto the Queen's Majesty; and will assist and defend all Jurisdictions, Pre-eminences, and Authorities, granted to Her Majesty, and annexed to the Crown by Acts of Parliament, or otherwise, against all Foreign Princes, Persons, Prelates, States, or Potentates. And generally in all things you will do as a faithful and true Servant ought to do to Her Majesty.

So help you God.[14]

Parliamentarians[edit]

Members of the House of Commons or of the House of Lords are required to take the oath of allegiance in the House at the beginning of a new Parliament, as well as after a Demise of the Crown.

Section 84 of the Scotland Act 1998 requires members of the Scottish Parliament to take the Oath of Allegiance at a meeting of the Parliament. Members of the Scottish Executive and junior Scottish Ministers are additionally required to take the Official Oath.

Section 20 of the Government of Wales Act 1998 requires members of the National Assembly for Wales to take the oath of allegiance. A Welsh form of the Oath is prescribed by the National Assembly for Wales (Oath of Allegiance in Welsh) Order 1999.[15]

Judicial Oath and Affirmation[edit]

Judicial Oath[edit]

I, (name), do swear by Almighty God that I will well and truly serve our Sovereign Lady Queen Elizabeth in the office of (office), and I will do right to all manner of people after the laws and usages of this realm (or colony), without fear or favour, affection or ill will.[16]

Judicial Affirmation[edit]

I, (name), do solemnly sincerely and truly declare and affirm that I will well and truly serve our Sovereign Lady Queen Elizabeth in the office of (office), and I will do right to all manner of people after the laws and usages of this Realm without fear or favour, affection or ill will.[16]

The Judicial Oath and the Oath of Allegiance (see above) are to be taken by each of the following-

The oaths were formerly taken by Lord Chief Justice,[18] the Master of the Rolls,[18] the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, The Lord Justices of the Court of Appeal in Chancery, the Vice Chancellors, the Puisne Justices of the Queen's Bench, the Puisne Justices of the Common Pleas, the Puisne Barons of the Exchequer, the Judge of the Admiralty Court, the Judge of the Probate Court. In Ireland the oaths were formerly taken by the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, the Lord Chief Justice, the Master of the Rolls, the Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, The Chief Baron of the Exchequer, the Lord Justice of the Court of Appeal in Chancery, the Vice Chancellor, the Puisne Justices of the Queen's Bench, the Puisne Justices of the Common Pleas, The Puisne Barons of the Exchequer, The Judge of the Probate Court, the Judges of the Landed Estates Court, the Judge of the Admiralty Court, the Judges of the Court of Bankruptcy and Insolvency, the Recorder of Dublin, and Justices of the Peace for Counties and Boroughs.

In Northern Ireland all references to the Sovereign were removed by the Justice (Northern Ireland) Act 2002.[19]

Section 19(2) provides that the oath is —

I, (name), do swear that I will well and faithfully serve in the office of (office), etc.

Section 19(3) provides that the affirmation and declaration is —

I, (name), do solemnly and sincerely and truly affirm and declare that I will well and faithfully serve in the office of (office), etc.

Military Oath[edit]

All recruits to the British Army, Royal Air Force must take an oath of allegiance upon joining these armed forces, a process known as "attestation". Those who believe in God use the following words:

I swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her heirs and successors and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, her heirs and successors in person, crown and dignity against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her heirs and successors and of the generals and officers set over me.[citation needed]

Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm".

Recruits to the Royal Navy do not swear an oath as they are not established under the Armed Forces Act 1996 (which prescribes the oath), being established instead under the Royal Prerogative.

Constables declaration[edit]

A person appointed to the office of constable of a police force in Scotland is required to make the following declaration:

"I hereby do solemnly and sincerely and truly declare and affirm that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of constable."[20]

Costa Rica[edit]

In Costa Rica, the oath of office is administered to the President-elect on Inauguration Day, and to all other public officials on the day of the undertaking of their duties. The oath of office for the President of Costa Rica is administered to him, or her, by the President of the Asamblea Legislativa de Costa Rica. It is established in the Political Constitution of the Republic of Costa Rica (Article 194):

"El juramento que deben prestar los funcionarios públicos, según lo dispuesto en el artículo 11 de esta Constitución es el siguiente:

-¿Juráis a Dios y prometéis a la Patria, observar y defender la Constitución y las leyes de la República, y cumplir fielmente los deberes de vuestro destino? -Sí, juro-. -Si así lo hiciereis, Dios os ayude, y si no, Él y la Patria os lo demanden."

(Do you swear before God and promise the Country to observe and defend the Constitution and the laws of the Republic and faithfully fulfill the duties of your office?"

Yes, I swear.

If you do, may God help you, and if you do not, may He and the Country call you to account.)[21]

Croatia[edit]

Before assuming duty, the President-elect of the Republic takes oath of office before the judges of the Constitutional Court swearing loyalty to the Constitution:

I solemnly swear to perform the duty of the President of the Republic of Croatia conscientiously and responsibly, to the benefit of the Croatian people and all Croatian citizens. As a Head of the Croatian State, I will keep the Constitution and laws, care for the respect of the Constitutional order of the Republic of Croatia, cherish proper and fair action of all bodies of state authority and keep the independence, existence and unity of the of Croatian State. So help me God![citation needed]

Egypt[edit]

Before assuming duty, the President-elect of the Republic and the ministers takes oath of office :

I swear by Almighty God to uphold the Republican system, to respect the Constitution and the law, to fully safeguard the interests of the people and to protect the independence of the nation and its territorial integrity

Fiji[edit]

In Fiji, the oath of office for the President of Fiji and Vice-President of Fiji are set out in Chapter 17 of the Constitution of Fiji.

Finland[edit]

General oath of office.[edit]

In Finland, the oath of office[22] is sworn by

The oath of office is:

I, (name), promise and swear before almighty and all-knowing God that I will, in the fulfilment of my office, follow the constitution and other laws, acting rightfully and impartially for the sake of the citizens and the society.[citation needed]

Those who do not want to swear the religious oath may give an affirmation. In this case, the words "promise and swear before almighty and all-knowing God" are replaced by "promise and affirm by my honor and by my conscience".

Policemen and some other persons executing justice make a written affirmation of office instead of an oath. The text of the affirmation is

I, (name), promise and affirm by my honour and by my conscience that I will, in the fulfillment of my office, follow the constitution and other laws, acting rightfully and impartially. I will fulfill my duties carefully and as well as I can. Furthermore, I will not divulge to third parties knowledge which I have gained in my office, and which must be kept secret.[citation needed]

In Finnish practice, the oaths of office are given only once. If the person who has given an oath or affirmation moves to another duty where such oath is required, the oath is not given anew.

Presidential affirmation of office[edit]

The President of Finland gives the following affirmation of office:

I, (name), elected by the people of Finland as the President of the Republic, hereby affirm that in my presidential duties I shall sincerely and conscientiously observe the Constitution and the laws of the Republic, and to the best of my ability promote the wellbeing of the people of Finland.[23]

Oath of Judge[edit]

Finnish judges and justices of all courts are required to give the following oath:

I, (name), do promise and swear by God and His Holy Gospels that to the best of my understanding and conscience I wish to and shall in all judgments render justice to poor and rich alike and render judgment in accordance with the laws and lawful rules of God and country: I shall never, under any pretext, pervert the law nor promote injustice because of kinship, relationship, friendship, envy, hatred or fear, or for the sake of gifts or presents or other reasons, nor shall I find an innocent person guilty or a guilty person innocent. Furthermore, I shall not,

before pronouncing a judgment or thereafter, reveal to the parties or to anyone else anything about the deliberations that the Court has held behind closed doors. All of this I wish to and shall fulfil faithfully, honestly and as an earnest judge, without deceit and intrigue, so help me God, in body and mind.[24]

Those taking an affirmation do not use the parts involving God.

All Finnish cabinet ministers are required to give both the general oath or affirmation of office and the oath of judge, unless they have given these oaths and affirmations before. Like the general oath of office, the oath of judge is given only once.

Military oath[edit]

All Finnish conscripts are required to give the military oath or affirmation. The oath or affirmation is given in the end of the basic training using the formula:

I, (name), promise and affirm before the almighty and all-knowing God (in affirmation: by my honour and by my conscience) that I am a trustworthy and faithful citizen of the realm of Finland. I want to serve my country honestly and, to my best ability, seek and pursue her edification and advantage. I want everywhere and in every situation, during the peace and during the war, defend the inviolability of my fatherland, her legal system of government and the legal authority of the realm. If I perceive or gain knowledge of activity to overthrow the legal authority or to subvert the system of government of the country, I want to report it to the authorities without delay. The troop to which I belong and my place in it I will not desert in any situation, but so long as I have strength in me, I will completely fulfill the task I have received. I promise to act properly and uprightly, obey my superiors, comply with the laws and decrees and keep the service secrets trusted in me. I want to be forthright and helpful to my fellow servicemen. Never will I due to kinship, friendship, envy, hatred or fear nor because of gifts or any other reason act contrary to my duty in service. If I be given a position of superiority, I want to be rightful to my subordinates, to take care of their wellbeing, acquire information on their wishes, to be their councillor and guide and, for my own self, set them a good and encouraging example. All this I want to fulfil according to my honour and my conscience.[25]

Germany[edit]

See also: Hitler oath

The oath of office of the Federal President, Federal Chancellor, and other federal ministers in Germany is as follows:

I swear that I will dedicate my efforts to the well-being of the German people, promote their welfare, protect them from harm, uphold and defend the Basic Law and the laws of the Federation, perform my duties conscientiously, and do justice to all. So help me God.

[26]

The religious affirmation may be omitted.[26] The first (and only) chancellor to do this was Gerhard Schröder in 1998.

Each of the 16 Länder (states) has its own oath of office for the Minister Presidents and other ministers, also for the Länder employees.

The oath for soldiers in Germany reads as follows:

I swear to serve loyally the Federal Republic of Germany and to defend bravely the right and the freedom of the German people. So help me God.[citation needed]

Depending on the oath's interpretation, the following translation is also possible:

I swear to serve loyally the Federal Republic of Germany and to defend bravely the justice and the freedom of the German people. So help me God[citation needed]

In both of the above, conscripts say "vow" instead of "swear", and the religious affirmation is not added for conscripts since the vow is not an actual oath.

The oath for federal employees:

I swear to protect the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany and all valid laws within the Federal Republic and to fulfill my duties of the office faithfully, so help me God.[citation needed]

Ghana[edit]

The oath of office of the President of Ghana is as follows:

I, (name), having been elected to the high office of President of the Republic of Ghana do in the name of the Almighty God swear (or do solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful and true to the Republic of Ghana; that I will at all times preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana; and that I dedicate myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of Ghana and to do right to all manner of persons.

I further solemnly swear (or solemnly affirm) that should I at any time break this oath of office I shall submit myself to the laws of the Republic of Ghana and suffer the penalty for it.[citation needed]

For members of the Parliament of Ghana, the oath is:

I, (name), having been elected a member of Parliament do in the name of the Almighty God swear (or do solemnly affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic of Ghana as by law established; that I will uphold, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana; and that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge the duties of a member of Parliament.[citation needed]

Greece[edit]

Article 59 of the Constitution of Greece states that members of parliament must take the following oath:

I swear in the name of the Holy Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity to keep faith in my Country and in the democratic form of government, obedience to the Constitution and the laws and to discharge conscientiously my duties.

Article 33 of the Constitution of Greece states that the President of the Hellenic Republic must take the following oath:

I swear in the name of the Holy, Consubstantial and Indivisible Trinity to safeguard the Constitution and the laws, to ensure their faithful observance, to defend the national independence and territorial integrity of the Country, to protect the rights and liberties of the Greeks and to serve the general interest and the progress of the Greek People.

Guatemala[edit]

Article 181 of the Guatemalan Constitution provides that the incoming president of Guatemala should raises his or her right arm up to shoulder-level before the President of the Congress of Guatemala and say the following oath of office in Spanish:

I promise to make and to keep the political constitution of the Republic Of Guatemala and the laws that came from it,and loyally and faithfully love to my country the position of President of the Republic that the public has given me legally and legitimate, looking above all for the good and the prosperity of the country so help me God; and if I don't do it as such that the nation should demand it from me.[citation needed]

Afterwards, the outgoing President passes him the Guatemalan flag (the Banda Presidential), which is worn from the left shoulder to the right rib, to the new President along with the presidential pin and with the Constitutional Collar.

Hong Kong[edit]

The oath of office for the Chief Executive is as follows:

I, (name), swear that, in the office of Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, I will uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, bear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and serve the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region conscientiously, dutifully, in full accordance with the law, honestly and with integrity, and be held accountable to the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.[27]

The oath of office for the Principal Officials is as follows:

I swear that, in the office of (office) of the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, I will uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, bear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and serve the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region conscientiously, dutifully, in full accordance with the law, honestly and with integrity.[27]

The oath of office for the unofficial members of the Executive Council is as follows:

I swear that, being appointed to the Executive Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, I will uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, bear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and serve the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region conscientiously, dutifully, in full accordance with the law, honestly and with integrity.[27]

The oath of office for the members of the Legislative Council is as follows:

I swear that, being a member of the Legislative Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, I will uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, bear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and serve the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region conscientiously, dutifully, in full accordance with the law, honestly and with integrity.[27]

The oath of office of judges is as follows:

I swear that, in the Office of a Judge of the Judiciary of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, I will uphold the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, bear allegiance to the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, serve the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region conscientiously, dutifully, in full accordance with the law, honestly and with integrity, safeguard the law and administer justice without fear or favour, self-interest or deceit.[27]

During the colonial era, the Governors of Hong Kong were required by Hong Kong Royal Instructions and Hong Kong Letters Patent to take the Oath of Allegiance, the Official Oath and the Judicial Oath of the United Kingdom before assuming the office.

India[edit]

The oath of office for the President of India is as follows:[28]

I, (name), do swear in the name of God (or solemnly affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of the Republic of India, and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law, and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of Republic of India.

The oath of office for the Vice-President of India is as follows:

I, (name), do swear in the name of God (or solemnly affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter.

The oath of office for Judges of Supreme Court or High Court is as follows:

I, (name), having been appointed Chief Justice (or a Judge) of the High Court at (or of) (place) do swear (or affirm) that the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws.

—Schedule III, Constitution of India

Indonesia[edit]

Based on the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Article 9 about the Oath of Office and Promise of President and Vice-President:

Before assuming office, the President and the Vice-President shall take the oath of office according to their religions, or solemnly promise before the People's Consultative Assembly or the People's Representative Council as follows:

The President's/Vice-President's Oath of Office:

In the name of God Almighty, I swear that I will perform the duties of the President (or Vice-President) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my ability and as justly as possible, and that I will strictly observe the Constitution and consistently implement the law and regulations in the service of the country and the people.[citation needed]

The President's/Vice-President's Promise:

I solemnly promise that I will perform the duties of the President (or Vice-President) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my ability and as justly as possible, and that I will strictly observe the constitution and consistently implement the law and regulations in the service of the country and the people.[citation needed]

Iran[edit]

The oath of office for the President of Iran is as follows:

I, as the President, upon the Holy Qur'an and in the presence of the Iranian nation, do hereby swear in the name of Almighty God to safeguard the official Faith, the system of the Islamic republic and the Constitution of the country; to use all my talents and abilities in the discharge of responsibilities undertaken by me; to devote myself to the service of the people, glory of the country, promotion of religion and morality, support of right and propagation of justice; to refrain from being autocratic; to protect the freedom and dignity of individuals and the rights of the Nation recognized by the Constitution; to spare no efforts in safeguarding the frontiers and the political, economic and cultural freedoms of the country; to guard the power entrusted to me by the Nation as a sacred trust like an honest and faithful trustee, by seeking help from God and following the example of the Prophet of Islam and the sacred Imams, peace be upon them, and to entrust it to the one elected by the Nation after me.[citation needed]

For members of the Majlis of Iran, the oath is as follows:

In the presence of the Holy Qur'an I swear to God Almighty and undertake upon my human dignity to protect the sanctity of Islam and safeguard the achievements of the Islamic Revolution of Iranian people and the essentials of the Islamic Republic, to uphold the trust placed in us by the Nation as a just trustee, to observe piety and honesty in the discharge of my functions as a representative of the people, to remain always faithful and true to the independence and dignity of the country, protection of rights of the Nation and service to people, to defend the Constitution, and to uphold the independence of the country and the freedom and interests of the people in words, writings and comments.[citation needed]

According to the Iranian Constitution, MPs belonging to religious minorities may swear by the holy books of their respective faiths.

Oath of Judge[edit]

Iranian judges of all courts are required to give the following oath:[29]

In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate
Oath letter
I, as a judge, in the presence of the Holy Qur'an and before Iranian nation, swear to omnipotent God to follow the Prophet of Islam and the sacred Imams, peace be upon them, and seeking help of the spirits of the martyrs of Islam, guard justice and righteous, and undertake upon my human dignity to be diligent in seeking the truth and justice, administer Islamic justice to demand from oppressor and restore it to its owner and with sustained effort in Judicial position fulfill my obligation to Islamic republic with strengthening the foundations of the Islamic republic and supporting The Leader.
Name and surname
Signature[citation needed]

Ireland[edit]

The Constitution of Ireland specifies, for each of three offices, a "declaration" which the holder must "make and subscribe" before taking office.[30]

Office Declaration: In the presence of Almighty God I, (name), do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will...
President ...maintain the Constitution of Ireland and uphold its laws, that I will fulfil my duties faithfully and conscientiously in accordance with the Constitution and the law, and that I will dedicate my abilities to the service and welfare of the people of Ireland. May God direct and sustain me.
Member of the Council of State ...faithfully and conscientiously fulfil my duties as a member of the Council of State.
Judge ...duly and faithfully and to the best of my knowledge and power execute the office of (office) without fear or favour, affection or ill-will towards any man, and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws. May God direct and sustain me.

The declarations' references to God were criticised in a 1993 report of the United Nations Human Rights Committee.[31] The 1996 Constitution Review Group proposed that the President and members of the Council of State should be permitted to substitute a non-religious affirmation.[31] In contrast, it recommended a uniform non-religious oath for all judges, on the basis that impartiality was more central to the judicial function and would be compromised by providing a choice of words.[31]

The "solemn declaration" for members of the Garda Síochána was revised in 2005. Its reference to God may be omitted. Members pledge not to "belong to or subscribe to, any political party or secret society whatsoever".[32] In the Defence Forces, the "Oath or Declaration" differs between permanent and reserve forces, and between commissioned officers and enlisted members.[33] The wording makes no reference to God; it was changed in 1979 when women were first admitted.[34]

Members of the Oireachtas and of the Government do not make any oath. From the foundation of the Irish Free State in 1922, both had to make an oath of allegiance to the Constitution and of fidelity to King George V.[35] This controversial provision of the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty[36] contributed to the Civil War of 1922–23. The Oath was abolished by Fianna Fáil in 1932–33.[37] Since then, Oireachtas members are required by standing orders to sign the roll before first taking their seats. The Governor-General of the Irish Free State took the same Oath of Allegiance and Oath of Office as the Governor General of Canada. This did not take place in public.

Israel[edit]

In Israel, the Basic Laws specify oaths of office of high-ranking members of the government.

For the President of Israel, there is a "Declaration of Loyalty":

I pledge to maintain loyalty to the State of Israel and to its laws and to faithfully fulfill my duties as President of the State.[38]

In the Knesset, the oath of office (or "declaration of allegiance") is as follows:

Oldest member of Knesset or chairperson: I pledge myself to bear allegiance to the State of Israel and faithfully to discharge my mandate in the Knesset. I pledge myself to bear allegiance to the State of Israel and faithfully to discharge my mandate in the Knesset.

Each other member of the Knesset, in turn: I pledge myself.[39]

The Prime Minister of Israel has to make the following "declaration of allegiance" upon taking office:

I, (name), pledge myself as Prime Minister to bear allegiance to the State of Israel and to its laws, to carry out faithfully my functions as Prime Minister and to comply with the decisions of the Knesset. [40]

Each of the other Ministers has to swear:

I, (name), pledge myself as a member of the Government to bear allegiance to the State of Israel and to its laws, to carry out faithfully my functions as a member of the Government and to comply with the decisions of the Knesset.[40]

Italy[edit]

The oath of office of the President of the Republic is:

I swear to be faithful to the Republic and to loyally observe its Constitution.[citation needed]

The oath for the Prime Minister is:

I swear to be faithful to the Republic; to observe the Constitution and laws; and to exercise my duties in the exclusive interest of the Nation.[41]

Lebanon[edit]

In Lebanon, the president must take the following oath before the Parliament:

I swear by Almighty God to observe the Constitution and the Laws of the Lebanese Nation and to maintain the independence of Lebanon and its territorial integrity.[citation needed]

Luxembourg[edit]

Article 5 of the Constitution of Luxembourg prescribes the following oath for a new Grand Duke:

I swear to observe the Constitution and the laws of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, to maintain the national independence and integrity of the territory, as well as public and individual liberties.[42]

The oath for a Regent is:

I swear to be faithful to the Grand Duke; I swear to observe the Constitution and the laws of the country.[43]

A Lieutenant of the Grand Duke takes an oath to respect the Constitution, but no exact text is prescribed.[44]

Deputies at the Chamber of Deputies (the Luxembourg parliament) take the following oath upon taking office:

I swear to be faithful to the Grand Duke and to obey the Constitution and the laws of the State.[45]

All civil servants take the following oath:

I swear allegiance to the Grand Duke and obedience to the Constitution and the laws of the State. I promise to fulfill my duties with integrity, exactitude, and impartiality.[46]

Malaysia[edit]

Yang di-Pertuan Agong and Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong[edit]

Article 37 of the Federal Constitution requires the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) and his deputy to take the Oath of Office before the Conference of Rulers.

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong take the oath of office as follows:

We, (name), Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia do hereby swear Wallahi; Wabillahi; Watallahi (in Allah's name) and by virtue of that oath do solemnly and truly declare that we shall justify and faithfully perform/carry out our duties in the administration of Malaysia in accordance with its laws and Constitution which have been promulgated or which may be promulgated from time to time in the future. Further we do solemnly and truly declare that we shall at all time protect the religion of Islam and uphold the rules of law and order in the Nation.

Next, the Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong take the oath of office as follows:

We, (name), being elected to be Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Deputy King) of Malaysia do hereby swear Wallahi; Wabillahi; Watallahi (in Allah's name) and by virtue of that oath do solemnly and truly declare that we shall faithfully perform/carry out our duties as Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong as laid down and as may from time to time be laid down by the laws and the Constitution of Malaysia.

Executive and legislative members[edit]

Federal Constitution requires the various executive and legislative members to take the Oath of Office and Allegiance as follows:

I, (name), having been elected/appointed to the office of (office) do solemnly swear/affirm that I will faithfully discharge the duties of that office to the best of my ability, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to Malaysia and will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution.

The oath is read according to the various section of the Constitution:

Article of the Constitution Office
43 (6) Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Ministers, Deputy Ministers and Chief Secretary to the Government
43B (4) Parliamentary Secretary
57 (1A) (a) Speaker and Deputy Speakers of the House of Representatives
142 (6) Royal Commissioners

The Members of Parliament will take the Oath based on Article 59 (1) of the Federal Constitution as follows:

I, (name), having been elected/appointed as a Member of the House of Representatives/the Senate do solemnly swear/affirm that I will faithfully discharge my duties as such to the best of my ability, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to Malaysia and will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution.

Judicial members[edit]

Article 124 of the Federal Constitution requires the Chief Justice, the President of the Appeal Court, Chief Judge of the High Court, higher court justice and judicial commissioners to take the Oath of Office and Allegiance as follows:

I, (name), having been elected/appointed to the office of (office) do solemnly swear/affirm that I will faithfully discharge my judicial duties in that office to the best of my ability, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to Malaysia and will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution.

Mexico[edit]

Article 87 of the Mexican Constitution provides that the incoming president of Mexico should raise his or her right arm up to shoulder-level before the Congress of Mexico and say the following oath of office in Spanish:

I promise to make and to keep the political constitution of the United Mexican States and the laws that from it derive, and with loyalty and patriotism the position of the Republic that the public has given me, looking above all for the good and the prosperity of the Union; and if I don't the nation should demand it from me.[citation needed]

Afterwards, the outgoing President passes him the Mexican flag (the Banda Presidential), which is worn from the left shoulder to the right rib, to the new President.

Moldova[edit]

Article 79 of the Constitution of Moldova provides that the President, no more than 45 days after his election, and before the Parliament and Constitutional Court, gives the following oath:

I solemnly swear to devote all my personal strength and abilities to the advancement and prosperity of the Republic of Moldova, to always abide by the Constitution and the laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of man, and the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Moldova.[citation needed]

Netherlands[edit]

King[edit]

The oath of office for the monarch of the Netherlands, which in accordance with Article 32 of the Constitution is to be declared as soon as possible after the King or Queen takes office in a public united meeting of the States General in the capital of Amsterdam, is as follows:

I swear (affirm) to the peoples of the Kingdom that I will always observe and uphold the Statute for the Kingdom and the Constitution.
I swear (affirm) that I will defend and preserve, with all My power, the independence and territory of the Kingdom; that I will protect the freedom and the rights of all Dutchmen and all residents, and will employ for the maintenance and promotion of the welfare, all the means which the laws place at My disposal, as a good and true King should do.
So help me, God Almighty!
(This I affirm!)[citation needed]

After this declaration the chairman of the States General, in the name of the States General, the States of the Netherlands Antilles and the States of Aruba, pronounces the following solemn declaration:

We receive you and do homage to you as King in the name of the peoples of the Kingdom and by virtue of the Statute for the Kingdom and the Constitution; we swear (affirm) that we will uphold your inviolability and the rights of your crown.
We swear (affirm) that we will do everything that good and true States General, States of Aruba, States of Curaçao and States of Saint Martin should do.
So help us, God Almighty!
(This we affirm!)[citation needed]

The declaration shall then be sworn or confirmed by each of the members individually.

Ministers, state secretaries and members of Parliament[edit]

The oath of office for ministers and state secretaries, which shall be administered by the King, and for members of Parliament is as follows:

I swear (or declare) that in order to be appointed minister / state secretary / member of the States General, I have not promised or given, directly or indirectly, any gifts or presents to any person under whatsoever name or pretext.
I swear (or declare and affirm) that in order to do or refrain from doing anything whatsoever in this office, I have not accepted and will not accept, directly or indirectly, any promises or presents from anyone whomsoever.
I swear (or affirm) allegiance to the King, to the Statute for the Kingdom and to the Constitution.
I swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully perform all the duties which the office lays upon me.
So help me, God Almighty! (or, This I declare and affirm!)[citation needed]

Civil servants[edit]

The oath of office for civil servants is as follows:

I swear (or affirm) allegiance to the King and that I will recpect the Constitution and all other laws of our country;
I swear (or declare) that in relation to my appointment, I have not provided, directly or indirectly, any false information whatsoever;
I swear (or declare) that in relation to my appointment, I have not given or promised and will not give or promise anything to any person whatsoever;
I swear (or declare) that in relation to my appointment, I have not accepted or promised and will not accept or promise any gifts or presents whatsoever;
I swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully perform all the duties which the office lays upon me and that I keep secret everything which, in relation to my office, is told me confidentially or in which I should see the confidential character, to others than whom I obliged to inform by virtue of my office;
I swear (or affirm) that I will behave as a good civil servant should do, that I will be careful, honest and reliable and that I will do nothing that harms the prestige of the office.
So help me God Almighty! (or, This I declare and affirm!)[citation needed]

Norway[edit]

As soon as the King, being of age, accedes to the Government, he shall take the following oath before the Storting (article 9 of the Constitution of Norway):[47]

I promise and swear that I will govern the Kingdom of Norway in accordance with its Constitution and Laws; so help me God, the Almighty and Omniscient.

If the Storting is not in session at the time, the oath shall be made in writing in the Council of State and be repeated solemnly by the King at the first subsequent Storting.

Pakistan[edit]

The oath of office of the President of Pakistan is as follows:

I, (name), do solemnly swear that I am a Muslim and believe in the Unity and Oneness of Almighty Allah, the Books of Allah, the Holy Quran being the last of them, the Prophethood of Muhammad as the last of the Prophets and that there can be no Prophet after him, the Day of Judgment, and all the requirements and teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah:

That I will bear true faith and allegiance to Pakistan:
That, as President of Pakistan, I will discharge my duties, and perform my functions, honestly, to the best of my ability, faithfully in accordance with the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the law, and always in the interest of the sovereignty, integrity, solidarity, well- being and prosperity of Pakistan:
That I will not allow my personal interest to influence my official conduct or my official decisions:
That I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan:
That, in all circumstances, I will do right to all manner of people, according to law, without fear or favor, affection or ill- will:

And that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as President of Pakistan, except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as President.

May Allah Almighty help and guide me (A'meen).[citation needed]

The oath of office of the Prime Minister of Pakistan is as follows:

I, (name), do swear solemnly that I am a Muslim and believe in the Unity and Oneness of Almighty Allah, the Books of Allah, the Holy Quran being the last of them, the Prophethood of Muhammad as the last of the Prophets and that there can be no Prophet after him, the Day of Judgment, and all the requirements and teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah:

That I will bear true faith and allegiance to Pakistan:
That, as Prime Minister of Pakistan, I will discharge my duties, and perform my functions, honestly, to the best of my ability, faithfully in accordance with the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the law, and always in the interest of the sovereignty, integrity, solidarity, well- being and prosperity of Pakistan:
That I will strive to preserve the Islamic Ideology which is the basis for the creation of Pakistan:
That I will not allow my personal interest to influence my official conduct or my official decisions:
That I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan:
That, in all circumstances, I will do right to all manner of people, according to law, without fear or favor, affection or ill- will:
And that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as Prime Minister except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as Prime Minister.

May Allah Almighty help and guide me (A'meen)[citation needed]

Philippines[edit]

The oath of office of the President of the Philippines is as follows:

I, (name), do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully and conscientiously fulfill my duties as President (or Vice-President or Acting President) of the Philippines, preserve and defend its Constitution, execute its laws, do justice to every man, and consecrate myself to the service of the Nation. So help me God." [In case of affirmation, last sentence will be omitted].[48]

The oath from the Filipino language version of the constitution was used for the inauguration of Presidents Fidel V. Ramos, Joseph Estrada and Benigno Aquino III:

"Matimtim kong pinanunumpaan (o pinatotohanan) na tutuparin ko nang buong katapatan at sigasig ang aking mga tungkulin bilang Pangulo (o Pangalawang Pangulo o Nanunungkulang Pangulo) ng Pilipinas, pangangalagaan at ipagtatanggol ang kanyang Konstitusyon, ipatutupad ang mga batas nito, magiging makatarungan sa bawat tao, at itatalaga ang aking sarili sa paglilingkod sa Bansa. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos." (Kapag pagpapatotoo, ang huling pangungusap ay kakaltasin.)[49]

The oath of office requirement for all public officers and employees of the government including every member of the armed forces is follows:

All public officers and employees of the government including every member of the armed forces shall, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, take an oath or affirmation to uphold and defend the Constitution; that he will bear true faith and allegiance to it; obey the laws, legal orders and decrees promulgated by the duly constituted authorities; will well and faithfully discharge to the best of his ability the duties of the office or position upon which he is about to enter; and that he voluntarily assumes the obligation imposed by his oath of office, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion.[50]

The oath of office for members of the Board of Tax Appeals is as follows:

I, (name) of (Residence), hereby elected/appointed to the position of (office), hereby solemnly swear that I will well and faithfully discharge to the best of my ability, the duties of my present position and of all others and may hereafter all, under the Republic of the Philippines, that I will support and defend the Constitution of the Philippines, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same, that I will obey laws, legal orders and decrees, promulgated by the duly constituted authorities of the Republic of the Philippines, and that I impose this obligation upon myself, voluntarily, without mental reservation or purpose of evasion. So Help me God.[citation needed]

Filipino version:

Ako si________________ng______________, naihalal/naitalaga sa katungkulan bilang_____________, ay taimtim na nanunumpa na tutuparin ko ng buong husay at katapatan sa abot ng aking kakayahan, ang mga tungkulin ng aking kasalukuyan katungkulan at ng mga iba pang pagkaraan nito'y gagampanan ko sa ilalim ng Republika ng Pilipinas; na aking itataguyod at ipagtatanggol ang saligang batas/konstitusyon ng Pilipinas; na tunay na mananalig at tatalima ako rito; na susundin ko ang mga

batas; mga kautusang legal at mga dikretong pinaiiral ng mga sadyang may kapangyarihan ng Republika ng Pilipinas, at kusa kong babalikatin ang pananagutang ito na walang anumang pasubali o hangaring umiwas. Kasihan nawa ako ng Diyos[citation needed]

Poland[edit]

President[edit]

Assuming, by the will of the Nation, the office of President of the Republic of Poland, I do solemnly swear to be faithful to the provisions of the Constitution; I pledge that I shall steadfastly safeguard the dignity of the Nation, the independence and security of the State, and also that the good of the Homeland and the prosperity of its citizens shall forever remain my supreme obligation.[51]

Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister[edit]

Assuming this office of Prime Minister (or Deputy Prime Minister or minister), I do solemnly swear to be faithful to the provisions of the Constitution and other laws of the Republic of Poland, and that the good of the Homeland and the prosperity of its citizens shall forever remain my supreme obligation.[52]

"So help me God" (Tak mi dopomóż Bóg) formula at the end is optional.

Sejm Members and Senators[edit]

I do solemnly swear to perform my duties to the Nation diligently and conscientiously, to safeguard the sovereignty and interests of the State, to do all within my power for the prosperity of the Homeland and the well-being of its citizens, and to observe the Constitution and other laws of the Republic of Poland.[53]

"So help me God" (Tak mi dopomóż Bóg) formula at the end is optional.

Portugal[edit]

The Constitution of Portugal requires that the following oath be taken by the President-elect upon entering into office:

In Portuguese:

Juro por minha honra desempenhar fielmente as funções em que fico investido e defender, cumprir e fazer cumprir a Constituição da República Portuguesa.[54]

In English:

I swear by my honour to faithfully perform the functions in which I am invested and to defend and observe the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic and cause it to be observed.[55]

Religious bodies - Catholic Church[edit]

The Roman Catholic Church requires all of its clergy before ordination and most of those promoted to positions of authority to make a "Profession of Faith," as below. It is very similar to the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed (referred to as the Symbol of Faith).

I, (name), with firm faith believe and profess everything that is contained in the Symbol of Faith: namely:

I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty, of heaven and earth, of all that is seen and unseen. I believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father, God from God, Light from Light, true God from true God, begotten not made, one in Being with the Father. Through him all things were made. For us men and for our salvation, he came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit he became incarnate of the Virgin Mary, and became man. For our sake he was crucified under Pontius Pilate; he suffered death and was buried. On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; he ascended into heaven and is seated at the right hand of the Father. He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and his kingdom will have no end. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son. With the Father and the Son he is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken through the Prophets. I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church. I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins. I look forward to resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

With firm faith, I also believe everything contained in the Word of God, whether written or handed down in Tradition, which the Church, either by a solemn judgement or by the ordinary and universal Magisterium, sets forth to be believed as divinely revealed.

I also firmly accept and hold each and everything definitively proposed by the Church regarding teaching on faith and morals.

Moreover, I adhere with religious submission of will and intellect to the teachings which either the Roman pontiff or the College of Bishops enunciate when they exercise their authentic Magisterium, even if they do not intend to proclaim these teachings by a definitive act.[citation needed]

Further, all of those promoted to positions of authority (vicars general, judicial vicars, episcopal vicars, pastors of parishes and superiors within religious orders) or with teaching responsibilities (rectors of seminaries, professors at seminaries, heads or Catholic universities or professors on the faculties of Catholic colleges and universities who teach subjects involving religion), and all those ordained deacons (and therefore all those who will also later be ordained priests) to take the following "Oath of Fidelity"

I, (name), in assuming the office of (office), promise that in my words and in my actions I shall always preserve communion with the Catholic Church.

With great care and fidelity I shall carry out the duties incumbent on me toward the Church, both universal and particular, in which, according to the provisions of the law, I have been called to exercise my service.

In fulfilling the charge entrusted to me in the name of the Church, I shall hold fast to the deposit of faith in its entirety; I shall faithfully hand it on and explain it, and I shall avoid any teachings contrary to it.

I shall follow and foster the common discipline of the entire Church and I shall maintain the observance of all ecclesiastical laws, especially those contained in the Code of Canon Law.

With Christian obedience I shall follow what the Bishops, as authentic doctors and teachers of the faith, declare, or what they, as those who govern the Church, establish.

I shall also faithfully assist the diocesan Bishops, so that the apostolic activity, exercised in the name and by mandate of the Church, may be carried out in communion with the Church.

So help me God, and God's Holy Gospels on which I place my hand.[citation needed]

Romania[edit]

President[edit]

Article 82 of the Constitution of Romania provides that the President, before the Chamber of Deputies and Senate in joint session, gives the following oath:

I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my abilities for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God!

Local officials[edit]

Article 32 of the Law 215 (23 April 2001) provides that all local officials (Local Councilors, Mayors, County Councilors and County Council Presidents), before the assembled Councils and the Prefect of the County, give, in Romanian the following oath.

I solemnly swear to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, and in good faith, to dedicate all my strength and the best of my abilities for the good of the citizens of the commune (city, municipality or county)___. So help me God!

Romanian: Jur să respect Constituţia şi legile ţării şi să fac, cu bună-credinţă, tot ceea ce stă în puterile şi priceperea mea pentru binele locuitorilor comunei (oraşului, municipiului, judeţului)... Aşa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!

The religious formula may be omitted.

Russia[edit]

The oath of office of the President of Russia is prescribed in the Constitution of Russia, in Chapter 4 (The President of the Russian Federation), Article 82:

1. When taking office the President of the Russian Federation shall take the following oath of loyalty to the people:

I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.[56]

2. The oath shall be taken in a solemn atmosphere in the presence of members of the Council of the Federation, deputies of the State Duma and judges of the Constitution Court of the Russian Federation.[56]

Russian Empire[edit]

During the Coronation of the Russian monarch, after his anointing, but prior to partaking of Holy Communion, the Tsar recited a coronation oath, in which he swore to preserve the autocracy intact and to rule his realm with justice and fairness.[57]

Singapore[edit]

The oath of office of the President of Singapore is as follows:

I, (name), having been elected President of the Republic of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully discharge my duties as such to the best of my ability without fear or favor, affection or ill-will, and without regard to any previous affiliation with any political party, and that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic, and that I will preserve, protect, and defend its Constitution.[citation needed]

The Prime Minister of Singapore swears 2 oaths: the Oaths of Office and Oath of Affirmation respectively:

I, (name), having been appointed to the office of Prime Minister, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic of Singapore, and that I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore.[citation needed]

I, (name), being chosen and appointed Prime Minister of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will at all times faithfully discharge my duties as Prime Minister, according to law, to the best of my knowledge and ability, and without fear or favour, affection or ill-will.[citation needed]

For Ministers of the Cabinet of Singapore, they swear the Oaths of Allegiance and Execution of Office respectively:

I, (name), having been appointed to the office of Minister, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic of Singapore, and that I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore.

[citation needed]

I, (name), being chosen as Minister of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will at all times faithfully discharge my duties as Minister according to law, and to the best of my knowledge and ability, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will.[citation needed]

For members of the Parliament of Singapore, it is:

I, (name), having been elected as a Member of the Parliament of Singapore, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully discharge my duties as such to the best of my ability, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Republic of Singapore, and that I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Singapore.[citation needed]

South Africa[edit]

Schedule 2 of the Constitution of South Africa specifies the oaths or affirmations of office for the various high offices of state. These oaths are sworn before the Chief Justice or another judge designated by the Chief Justice.

The President and any Acting President swears the following oath:

In the presence of everyone assembled here, and in full realisation of the high calling I assume as President (or Acting President) of the Republic of South Africa, I, (name), swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa, and will obey, observe, uphold and maintain the Constitution and all other law of the Republic; and I solemnly and sincerely promise that I will always promote all that will advance the Republic, and oppose all that may harm it; protect and promote the rights of all South Africans; discharge my duties with all my strength and talents to the best of my knowledge and ability and true to the dictates of my conscience; do justice to all; and devote myself to the well-being of the Republic and all of its people. (So help me God.)

The Deputy President swears the following oath:

In the presence of everyone assembled here, and in full realisation of the high calling I assume as Deputy President of the Republic of South Africa, I, (name), swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa and will obey, observe, uphold and maintain the Constitution and all other law of the Republic; and I solemnly and sincerely promise that I will always promote all that will advance the Republic, and oppose all that may harm it; be a true and faithful counsellor; discharge my duties with all my strength and talents to the best of my knowledge and ability and true to the dictates of my conscience; do justice to all; and devote myself to the well-being of the Republic and all of its people. (So help me God.)

Ministers and Deputy Ministers of the Cabinet swear the following oath:

I, (name), swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa and will obey, respect and uphold the Constitution and all other law of the Republic; and I undertake to hold my office as Minister (or Deputy Minister) with honour and dignity; to be a true and faithful counsellor; not to divulge directly or indirectly any secret matter entrusted to me; and to perform the functions of my office conscientiously and to the best of my ability. (So help me God.)

Members of the National Assembly, the National Council of Provinces and the provincial legislatures swear the following oath:

I, (name), swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa and will obey, respect and uphold the Constitution and all other law of the Republic, and I solemnly promise to perform my functions as a member of the National Assembly (or permanent delegate to the National Council of Provinces, or member of the legislature of the province of (province)) to the best of my ability. (So help me God.)

Premiers, Acting Premiers and Members of the Executive Council of a province swear the following oath:

I, (name), swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa and will obey, respect and uphold the Constitution and all other law of the Republic; and I undertake to hold my office as Premier (or Acting Premier or member of the Executive Council) of the province of (province) with honour and dignity; to be a true and faithful counsellor; not to divulge directly or indirectly any secret matter entrusted to me; and to perform the functions of my office conscientiously and to the best of my ability. (So help me God.)

Judges and acting judges swear the following oath:

I, (name), swear (or solemnly affirm) that, as a Judge of the (court), I will be faithful to the Republic of South Africa, will uphold and protect the Constitution and the human rights entrenched in it, and will administer justice to all persons alike without fear, favour or prejudice, in accordance with the Constitution and the law. (So help me God.)

Spain[edit]

Article 61 of the Spanish Constitution requires the King to take the following oath as soon as practicable after ascending to the Throne and before performing any other official duty:

I I swear to faithfully execute my duties, obey and enforce the Constitution and the laws, to respect the rights of the citizens and of the Autonomous Communities.

The heir to the Crown, upon becoming of age, and any Regents, upon taking office, are required by the Constitution to take the same oath, adding to it a vow of allegiance to the King.

In an inauguration ceremony a new Spanish Prime Minister takes an oath of office over an open Constitution next to the Holy Bible and before the King of Spain and other dignitaries.

Juro/Prometo, por mi conciencia y honor, cumplir fielmente las obligaciones del cargo de Presidente del Gobierno con lealtad al Rey, guardar y hacer guardar la Constitución como norma fundamental del Estado, así como mantener el secreto de las deliberaciones del Consejo de Ministros.

 

I swear/promise, under my conscience and honor, to faithfully execute the duties of the office of President of the Government with loyalty to the King, obey and enforce the Constitution as the fundamental law of the State, and preserve in secret the deliberations of the Council of Ministers.

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, a judge, whether a legally trained judge or a lay judge (Swedish: nämndeman) shall take the following oath before assuming the duties of their office:

I, (name), promise and affirm on my honour and conscience that I will and shall impartially, as to the rich as well as to the poor, administer justice in all matters to the best of my ability and conscience, and judge according to the law of the Realm of Sweden; that I will never manipulate the law or further injustice for kinship, relation by marriage, friendship, envy, ill-will, or fear, nor for bribes or gifts, or any other cause in whatever guise it may appear; nor will I declare guilty one who is innocent, or innocent one who is guilty. Neither before nor after the pronouncement of the judgment of the court shall I disclose to the litigants or to other persons the in camera deliberations of the court. All this, as a honest and righteous judge, I will and shall faithfully observe.[58]

Taiwan (Republic of China)[edit]

In Chinese territory currently administered by the Republic of China (mostly Taiwan and surrounding islands), oath of office is required to be taken by the President-elect before he assuming office. The Oath of office for the President of the Republic of China is specified in the Constitution of the Republic of China (Article 48):

The President shall, at the time of assuming office, take the following oath:

I do solemnly and sincerely swear before the people of the whole country that I will observe the Constitution, faithfully perform my duties, promote the welfare of the people, safeguard the security of the State, and will in no way betray the people's trust. Should I break my oath, I shall be willing to submit myself to severe punishment by the State. This is my solemn oath.

Turkey[edit]

All members of the Turkish Parliament, as well as cabinet ministers that are not members of parliament are required to take the following oath in a parliamentary session before taking office. The Turkish President takes a slightly modified version of this oath:

I hereby take an oath before the great Turkish nation on my honor and reputation:

To protect the independence of the state, the indivisible unity of the homeland and the nation, and the unconditional sovereignty of the people, To stand by the supremacy of law, the democratic and secular republic, and the principles and reforms of Atatürk, To never refrain from my loyalty to the constitution and to the ideal that allows every citizen to enjoy basic liberties and human rights within the realm of justice, national solidarity, peace and prosperity.[citation needed]

All members of the Turkish Armed Forces should take the following oath before starting their service:

I hereby take an oath on my honor:

To serve my nation and republic in times of war and peace with integrity and affection, on land, on the sea, and in the air, To abide by all rules and regulations and to obey my superiors, To value more than my life, the honor of service and the reputation of the Turkish Flag, And if necessary, to willingly give up my life in the name of duty, homeland, and republic.[citation needed]

Ukraine[edit]

In Ukraine, the Chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine administers the oath of office. The President-elect recites the oath with his hand on the Constitution and the Peresopnytsia Gospels.[59][c] The Ukrainian text of the oath according to the article 104 is:

Я, (ім'я та прізвище), волею народу обраний Президентом України, заступаючи на цей високий пост, урочисто присягаю на вірність Україні. Зобов'язуюсь усіма своїми справами боронити суверенітет і незалежність України, дбати про благо Вітчизни і добробут Українського народу, обстоювати права і свободи громадян, додержуватися Конституції України і законів України, виконувати свої обов'язки в інтересах усіх співвітчизників, підносити авторитет України у світі.

The official English translation:

I, (name and surname), elected by the will of the people as the President of Ukraine, assuming this high office, do solemnly swear allegiance to Ukraine. I pledge with all my undertakings to protect the sovereignty and independence of Ukraine, to provide for the good of the Motherland and the welfare of the Ukrainian people, to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens, to abide by the Constitution of Ukraine and the laws of Ukraine, to exercise my duties in the interests of all compatriots, and to enhance the prestige of Ukraine in the world.[60]

United States[edit]

History of the Oath[edit]

While the oath-taking dates back to the First Congress in 1789, the current oath is a product of the 1860s, drafted by Civil War-era members of Congress intent on ensnaring traitors.

In 1789, the 1st United States Congress created an oath to fulfill the requirement of Article VI of the United States Constitution:

I, A. B. do solemnly swear or affirm (as the case may be) that I will support the Constitution of the United States.[61]

It also passed the Judiciary Act of 1789, which established an additional oath taken by federal judges:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm), that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent on me, according to the best of my abilities and understanding, agreeably to the Constitution, and laws of the United States. [So help me God.]

The outbreak of the Civil War quickly transformed the routine act of oath-taking into one of enormous significance. In April 1861, a time of uncertain and shifting loyalties, President Abraham Lincoln ordered all federal civilian employees within the executive branch to take an expanded oath. When Congress convened for a brief emergency session in July, members echoed the president's action by enacting legislation requiring employees to take the expanded oath in support of the Union. This oath is the earliest direct predecessor of the modern version of the oath.

When Congress returned for its regular session in December 1861, members who believed that the Union had as much to fear from northern traitors as southern soldiers again revised the oath, adding a new first section known as the "Ironclad Test Oath." The war-inspired Test Oath, signed into law on July 2, 1862, required "every person elected or appointed to any office ... under the Government of the United States ... excepting the President of the United States" to swear or affirm that they had never previously engaged in criminal or disloyal conduct.[62] Those government employees who failed to take the 1862 Test Oath would not receive a salary; those who swore falsely would be prosecuted for perjury and forever denied federal employment.

The 1862 oath's second section incorporated a different rendering of the hastily drafted 1861 oath. Although Congress did not extend coverage of the Ironclad Test Oath to its own members, many took it voluntarily. Angered by those who refused this symbolic act during a wartime crisis, and determined to prevent the eventual return of prewar southern leaders to positions of power in the national government, congressional hard-liners eventually succeeded by 1864 in making the Test Oath mandatory for all members.

The Senate then revised its rules to require that members not only take the Test Oath orally, but also that they "subscribe" to it by signing a printed copy. This condition reflected a wartime practice in which military and civilian authorities required anyone wishing to do business with the federal government to sign a copy of the Test Oath. The current practice of newly sworn senators signing individual pages in an oath book dates from this period.

As tensions cooled during the decade following the Civil War, Congress enacted private legislation permitting particular former Confederates to take only the second section of the 1862 oath. An 1868 public law prescribed this alternative oath for "any person who has participated in the late rebellion, and from whom all legal disabilities arising therefrom have been removed by act of Congress."[63] Northerners immediately pointed to the new law's unfair double standard that required loyal Unionists to take the Test Oath's harsh first section while permitting ex-Confederates to ignore it. In 1884, a new generation of lawmakers quietly repealed the first section of the Test Oath, leaving intact the current affirmation of constitutional allegiance.

Federal Executive and Legislative Branch Oaths[edit]

In the United States, the oath of office for the President is specified in the Constitution (Article II, Section 1):

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States."[64]

The oath may be sworn or affirmed (in which case it is called an affirmation instead of oath). Although not present in the text of the Constitution, it is customary for modern presidents to say "So help me God" after the end of the oath. For officers other than the President, the expression "So help me God" is explicitly prescribed, but the Judiciary Act of 1789 also explains when it can be omitted (specifically for oaths taken by court clerks): "Which words, so help me God, shall be omitted in all cases where an affirmation is admitted instead of an oath."[65]

The Constitution (Article VI, clause 3) also specifies:

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

At the start of each new U.S. Congress, in January of every odd-numbered year, newly elected or re-elected Members of Congress – the entire House of Representatives and one-third of the Senate – must recite an oath:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.[66]

This oath is also taken by the Vice President, members of the Cabinet, federal judges and all other civil and military officers and federal employees other than the President.

Federal Judiciary Oaths[edit]

In the United States, federal judges are required to take two oaths. The first oath is this:

I, (name), do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon me as (office) under the Constitution and laws of the United States. [So help me God.][67]

The second is the same oath that members of Congress take:

I, (name), do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. [So help me God.][66]

Federal statute specifically says that the latter oath "does not affect other oaths required by law."[68]

Military Oaths - Federal and State[edit]

See United States Uniformed Services Oath of Office.

State and Local Oaths[edit]

The oaths of state and local officials are largely patterned on the federal oath of constitutional allegiance. Typical would be the oath taken by all New York government officials:

I solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of the State of New York, (and the Charter of the City of New York, e.g.), and that I will faithfully discharge the duties of the office of (mayor of the City of New York, e.g.) to the best of my ability.[69]

(So help me God is traditionally added.)

Tennessee (county offices)[edit]

All elected county officials and the appointed officers such as clerk and master, and deputies to these officers, are required to take an oath of office which actually consists of two oaths: the constitutional oath, and an oath for the particular office or fidelity oath (Tenn. Const. Art. X,Sec. 1). The following is combination fidelity and constitutional oath:

I do solemnly swear that I will perform with fidelity the duties of the office to which I have been elected, and which I am about to assume. I do solemnly swear to support the constitutions of Tennessee and the United States and to faithfully perform the duties of the office of ____________ for ____________ County , Tennessee.[70]

The simple constitutional oath and fidelity oath are taken by persons who do not have a more specific oath prescribed by law (T.C.A. § 8-18-111). This basic oath is used upon entering the following offices: County Executive/Mayor County Clerk (or deputy county clerk by substituting the word “appointed” for “elected”) County Register (or deputy register by substituting the word “appointed” for “elected”) Chief administrative officer of the county highway department

County commissioners may the use the same basic oath as noted above, but phrased as follows:

I do solemnly swear that I will perform with fidelity the duties of the office to which I have been elected, and which I am about to assume. I do solemnly swear to support

the constitutions of Tennessee and the United States and to faithfully perform the duties of the office of county commissioner representing the ____________ district of ____________ County , Tennessee.[70]

Clerks of court, deputy clerks of court, sheriffs, deputy sheriffs, assessors of property and deputy assessors, constables without law enforcement powers, constables without law enforcement powers, general sessions court judges, and school board members in Tennessee all have specific variations of their oaths of office.[70]

Venezuela[edit]

The President of Venezuela, upon assumption of the office on his inauguration, is asked by the Speaker of the National Assembly (until 1999, the Senate President, on behalf of the entire National Federal Congress), holding a copy of the Constitution of Venezuela, the following:

Before God and the Fatherland, Do you swear therefore to perform the duties of the position of Constitutional President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, and in the performance of your duties fulfill the Constitution and laws of the Republic?

With the right hand on the shoulder level he answers with a "Yes I swear" and the Speaker then responds: "If you do so, before God and the Fatherland your duties will be performed, and it will be demanded of you if you not. Therefore, in the name of the Republic and by the authority of the law, I investiture you as Constitutional President of the Republic as of this moment for this term period." Then the Presidential Sash (with the colors and coat of arms from the Flag of Venezuela and Medal is turned over to him from the outgoing President, but if the case is that of succession due to death of office of his predecessor both items are cased and are given to him by the National Assembly President instead. If reelected the method is the same as after the sudden death of the President while in office.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, art. 78
  3. ^ Constituiусo
  4. ^ Rules of Royal Succession: Eleventh Report of Session 2010-12, p. 29
  5. ^ Rebecca Stefoff, Monarchy, p. 11
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  35. ^ Constitution of the Irish Free State (Saorstát Eireann) Articles 17, 55
  36. ^ Anglo-Irish Treaty 1921 Article 4
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  65. ^ Judiciary Act of 1789, Sec. 7. Retrieved 2009-01-24.
  66. ^ a b 5 U.S.C. § 3331, Oath of Office
  67. ^ 28 U.S.C. § 453, Oaths of justices and judges
  68. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 3331}, Oath of Office.
  69. ^ New York State Constitution, Article 8 Section 1
  70. ^ a b c OATHS OF OFFICE (2006), County technical Assistance Servise, University of Tennessee

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]