|Locus||Chr. 3 p26-p25|
Obestatin is a hormone that is produced in specialized epithelial cells of the stomach and small intestine of several mammals including humans. Obestatin was originally identified as an anorectic peptide, but its effect on food intake remains controversial.
The obestatin structure to the right was determined by NMR. The length of the polypeptide was found to be 24 residues with a secondary structure 29% helical. Specifically 2 helices and 7 residues are formed.
Gene and transcription
Obestatin is encoded by the same gene that encodes ghrelin, a peptide hormone. The mRNA produced from the GHRL gene has four exons. Five products of similar structure and function arise: the first is the 117-amino acid preproghrelin. (It is homologous to promotilin; both are members of the motilin family). It is cleaved to produce proghrelin which is cleaved to produce a 28-amino acid ghrelin (unacylated) and C-ghrelin(acylated). Obestatin is presumed to be cleaved from C-ghrelin.
As yet no biochemical studies of circulating obestatin have been carried out.
Obestatin opposes the actions of ghrelin which are growth hormone secretion and increased appetite. The purpose of producing two hormones with opposing effects is not clear: removing the ghrelin gene from mice did not significantly reduce food intake. No secretory convertase is capable of cleaving the recombinant proghrelin precursor by cleavage at the single basic residue required for generation of the obestatin sequence. Thus the physiological generation of this particular peptide sequence remains unproven. Obestatin has opposite action to ghrelin on food intake and plays a role in energy balance. Circuit-resistance exercise resulted in a significant change in GH levels, but had no effect on plasma Obestatin levels.
Studies on the obestatin/ghrelin ratio in the gastrointestinal tract and plasma are associated with some diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), obesity, Prader–Willi syndrome, and type II diabetes mellitus.
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- Qi X, Li L, Yang G, Liu J, Li K, Tang Y, Liou H, Boden G (April 2007). "Circulating obestatin levels in normal subjects and in patients with impaired glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes mellitus". Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) 66 (4): 593–7. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02776.x. PMID 17371480.
- Harsch IA, Koebnick C, Tasi AM, Hahn EG, Konturek PC (October 2009). "Ghrelin and obestatin levels in type 2 diabetic patients with and without delayed gastric emptying". Dig. Dis. Sci. 54 (10): 2161–6. doi:10.1007/s10620-008-0622-2. PMID 19082715.
- Holst B, Egerod KL, Schild E et al. (2007). "GPR39 signaling is stimulated by zinc ions but not by obestatin". Endocrinology 148 (1): 13–20. doi:10.1210/en.2006-0933. PMID 16959833.
- Obestatin, A New Physiological Opponent of Ghrelin, PHOENIX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.