Occupation of Poland (1939–45)

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Fourth Partition of Poland—aftermath of the The Nazi-Soviet Pact; division of Polish territories in the years 1939–1941
Operation Tannenberg, 20 October 1939, mass murder of Polish townsmen in western Poland
Changes in administration of Polish territories following the German invasion of Soviet Union in 1941. The map shows the state as of 1944


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See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The prisons, ghettos, internment, transit, labor and extermination camps, roundups, mass deportations, public executions, mobile killing units, death marches, deprivation, hunger, disease, and exposure all testify to the 'inhuman policies of both Hitler and Stalin' and 'were clearly aimed at the total extermination of Polish citizens, both Jews and Christians. Both regimes endorsed a systematic program of genocide.'" Judith Olsak-Glass, Review of Piotrowski's Poland's Holocaust in Sarmatian Review, January 1999.
  2. ^ "Terminal horror suffered by so many millions of innocent Jewish, Slavic, and other European peoples as a result of this meeting of evil minds is an indelible stain on the history and integrity of Western civilization, with all of its humanitarian pretensions" (Note: "this meeting" refers to the most famous third (Zakopane) conference).
    Conquest, Robert (1991). "Stalin: Breaker of Nations". New York, N.Y.: Viking. ISBN 0-670-84089-0
  3. ^ a b c (English) Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide.... McFarland & Company. p. 295. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3.  See also review
  4. ^ a b c AFP/Expatica, Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll, expatica.com, 30 August 2009
  5. ^ a b c Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami, ed. Tomasz Szarota and Wojciech Materski, Warszawa, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction reproduced here)
  6. ^ a b Jan Tomasz Gross, Revolution from Abroad, pp. 4, 5, Princeton, 2005, ISBN 0-691-09603-1.[verification needed] Quote: "The eastern half of Poland could be divided into three zones north to south. A clear Ukrainian majority resided in the south, except in some areas where the number of Poles more or less equaled their Ukrainian neighbors; in the central part, in Polesie and Wołyń, a small Polish minority (14 and 16% respectively) faced a mostly Orthodox peasantry (Ukrainian to the south, then "local" and finally, on the northern fringe increasingly Belarusian); and in the northern part, in Białystok, Wilno and Nowogródek voivodships, Poles were in majority, confronted by a numerically strong Belarusian minority. Jews constituted the principal minority in urban areas"
  7. ^ a b c d e (Polish)"Among the population of Eastern territories were circa 38% Poles, 37% Ukrainians, 14.5% Belarusians, 8.4% Jewish, 0.9% Russians and 0.6% Germans"
    Elżbieta Trela-Mazur (1997). Włodzimierz Bonusiak, Stanisław Jan Ciesielski, Zygmunt Mańkowski, Mikołaj Iwanow, ed. Sowietyzacja oświaty w Małopolsce Wschodniej pod radziecką okupacją 1939–1941 (Sovietization of education in eastern Lesser Poland during the Soviet occupation 1939–1941). Kielce: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna im. Jana Kochanowskiego. p. 294. ISBN 978-83-7133-100-8. 
  8. ^ Piotr Eberhardt, Political Migrations in Poland, 1939–1948. Warsaw 2006, p.24
  9. ^ Pierre Aycoberry, The Social History of the Third Reich, 1933–1945, p 228, ISBN 1-56584-549-8
  10. ^ William J. Duiker, Jackson J. Spielvogel, World History, 1997. Page 794: By 1942, two million ethnic Germans had been settled in Poland.
  11. ^ History of the Krakow Ghetto with photographs, at www.krakow-poland.com  (English)  Retrieved 12 March 2011.
  12. ^ See: Helmut Heiber, "Denkschrift Himmler Uber die Behandlung der Fremdvolkischen im Osten", Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 1957, No. 2. (In) Michael Burleigh; Wolfgang Wippermann (1991). The racial state: Germany, 1933–1945. Cambridge University Press. pp. (337–). ISBN 978-0-521-39802-2. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  13. ^ Jan Grabowski and Zbigniew R. Grabowski (2004). Germans in the Eyes of the Gestapo: The Ciechanów District, 1939–1945. Cambridge University Press: Contemporary European History, No 13. pp. 21–43. 
  14. ^ Powszechny Spis Ludnosci r. 1921
  15. ^ a b "Chapter XIII – GERMANIZATION AND SPOLIATION"
  16. ^ Richard C. Lukas, Did the Children Cry? Hitler's War against Jewish and Polish Children, 1939–1945. Hippocrene Books, New York, 2001.
  17. ^ Ian Kershaw; Hitler a Biography; 2008 Edn; WW Norton & Company; London p.661
  18. ^ Jozef Garlinski; Poland and the Second World War; Macmillan Press, 1985; p 60
  19. ^ a b Jozef Garlinski; Poland and the Second World War; Macmillan Press, 1985; p 60
  20. ^ "Poles". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  21. ^ a b "Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 24 May 2013. 
  22. ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Vikiing; 2003; pp.85-6
  23. ^ a b The Nazi War Against the Catholic Church; National Catholic Welfare Conference; Washington D.C.; 1942; pp. 34-51
  24. ^ The Nazi War Against the Catholic Church; National Catholic Welfare Conference; Washington D.C.; 1942; pp. 49–50
  25. ^ Libionka, Dariusz (2004). "The Catholic Church in Poland and the Holocaust, 1939-1945". In Carol Rittner, Stephen D. Smith, Irena Steinfeldt. The Holocaust And The Christian World: Reflections On The Past Challenges For The Future. New Leaf Press. pp. 74–78. ISBN 978-0-89221-591-1. 
  26. ^ Jozef Garlinski; Poland and the Second World War; Macmillan Press, 1985; p.63.
  27. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Dachau, by Michael Berenbaum.
  28. ^ a b c Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933-1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 085211009; pp. 276-277
  29. ^ Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933-1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 085211009; p.148.
  30. ^ Paul Berben; Dachau: The Official History 1933-1945; Norfolk Press; London; 1975; ISBN 085211009; p.148-9.
  31. ^ a b Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Vikiing; 2003; p.402
  32. ^ Jozef Garlinski; Poland and the Second World War; Macmillan Press, 1985; p. 74
  33. ^ a b Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era, USHMM
  34. ^ "Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era"
  35. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 204 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  36. ^ Pierre Aycoberry, The Social History of the Third Reich, 1933–1945, p 228, ISBN 1-56584-549-8
  37. ^ "Chapter 13. Chapter XIII – GERMANIZATION AND SPOLIATION"
  38. ^ Diemut Majer, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, "Non-Germans" Under the Third Reich: The Nazi Judicial and Administrative System in Germany and Occupied Eastern Europe with Special Regard to Occupied Poland, 1939–1945 Von Diemut Majer, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, JHU Press, 2003, p.240, ISBN 0-8018-6493-3.
  39. ^ Lebensraum, Aryanization, Germanization and Judenrein, Judenfrei: concepts in the holocaust or shoah
  40. ^ a b c d Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression Volume I Chapter XIII Germanization & Spoliation
  41. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p 250 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  42. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 249 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  43. ^ Melissa Eddy (8 May 2007). "Stolen: The Story of a Polish Child 'Germanized' by the Nazis". StarNewsOnline (Wilmington, NC). Associated Press. Retrieved 16 September 2008. "If they met racial guidelines, they were taken; one girl got back home." 
  44. ^ a b HITLER'S PLANS FOR EASTERN EUROPE
  45. ^ Lynn H. Nicholas, Cruel World: The Children of Europe in the Nazi Web p. 400-1 ISBN 0-679-77663-X
  46. ^ Zamoyski, Adam.The Polish Way. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1987
  47. ^ (English) Jerzy Lukowski; Hubert Zawadzki (2001). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-55917-0. 
  48. ^ http://www.yadvashem.org/download/about_holocaust/christian_world/libionka.pdf
  49. ^ http://www.independent.com.mt/articles/2005-04-03/leader/john-pauls-heritage-without-frontiers-73821/
  50. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica Online: Blessed John Paul II; web Apr 2013
  51. ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Viking; 2003; p.200
  52. ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Vikiing; 2003; p594
  53. ^ Donald L. Niewyk, Francis R. Nicosia (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. Columbia University Press. p. 114–. ISBN 978-0-231-11200-0. 
  54. ^ Iwo Pogonowski, Jews in Poland, Hippocrene, 1998. ISBN 0-7818-0604-6. Page 99.
  55. ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Vikiing; 2003; p.200
  56. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Zegota.html
  57. ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Vikiing; 2003; pp. 403-405
  58. ^ Norman Davies; Rising '44: the Battle for Warsaw; Vikiing; 2003; p405-6
  59. ^ a b Piotrowski, Tadeusz (2005). "Project InPosterum: Poland World War II Casualties". Retrieved 15 March 2007. 
  60. ^ Łuczak, Czesław (1994). "Szanse i trudności bilansu demograficcznego Polski w latach 1939–1945". Dzieje Najnowsze (1994/2). 
  61. ^ (Polish) Marek Wierzbicki, Stosunki polsko-białoruskie pod okupacją sowiecką (1939–1941). „Białoruskie Zeszyty Historyczne" (НА СТАРОНКАХ КАМУНІКАТУ, Biełaruski histaryczny zbornik) 20 (2003), p. 186–188. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  62. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1988). "Ukrainian Collaborators". Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918–1947. McFarland. pp. 177–259. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. "How are we ... to explain the phenomenon of Ukrainians rejoicing and collaborating with the Soviets? Who were these Ukrainians? That they were Ukrainians is certain, but were they communists, Nationalists, unattached peasants? The Answer is "yes" – they were all three" 
  63. ^ a b (English) Militargeschichtliches Forschungsamt (corporate author), Gottfried Schramm (1997). Bernd Wegner, ed. From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia and the World, 1939–1941. Berghahn Books. pp. 47–79. ISBN 1-57181-882-0. 
  64. ^ [Simon Sebag Montefiore. Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar, page 313. Vintage Books, New York 2003. Vintage ISBN 1-4000-7678-1]
  65. ^ [Simon Sebag Montefiore. Stalin. The Court of the Red Tsar, page 312. Vintage Books, New York 2003. Vintage ISBN 1-4000-7678-1]
  66. ^ Telegrams sent by Schulenburg, German ambassador to the Soviet Union, from Moscow to the German Foreign Office: No. 317 of 10 September 1939, No. 371 of 16 September 1939, No. 372 of 17 September 1939. The Avalon Project, Yale Law School. Retrieved 14 November 2006.
  67. ^ (Polish) 1939 wrzesień 17, Moskwa Nota rządu sowieckiego nie przyjęta przez ambasadora Wacława Grzybowskiego (Note of the Soviet government to the Polish government on 17 September 1939, refused by Polish ambassador Wacław Grzybowski). Retrieved 15 November 2006.
  68. ^ Sanford, p. 23; (Polish) Olszyna-Wilczyński Józef Konstanty, Encyklopedia PWN. Retrieved 14 November 2006.
  69. ^ (Polish) Śledztwo w sprawie zabójstwa w dniu 22 września 1939 r. w okolicach miejscowości Sopoćkinie generała brygady Wojska Polskiego Józefa Olszyny-Wilczyńskiego i jego adiutanta kapitana Mieczysława Strzemskiego przez żołnierzy b. Związku Radzieckiego. (S 6/02/Zk) at the Wayback Machine (archived January 7, 2005) Polish Institute of National Remembrance. Internet Archive, 16.10.03. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  70. ^ (Polish) Rozstrzelany Szpital (Executed Hospital). Tygodnik Zamojski, 15 September 2004. Retrieved 28 November 2006.
  71. ^ (Polish) Szack. Encyklopedia Interia. Retrieved 28 November 2006.
  72. ^ Fischer, Benjamin B., ""The Katyn Controversy: Stalin's Killing Field", Studies in Intelligence, Winter 1999–2000. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  73. ^ a b Sanford, p. 20–24.
  74. ^ Soviet note unilaterally severing Soviet-Polish diplomatic relations, 25 April 1943. English translation of Polish document. Retrieved 19 December 2005; Sanford, p. 129.
  75. ^ Sanford, p. 127; Martin Dean Collaboration in the Holocaust. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  76. ^ (Polish) Kampania wrześniowa 1939 at the Wayback Machine (archived May 9, 2006) (September Campaign 1939) from PWN Encyklopedia. Internet Archive, mid-2006. Retrieved 16 July 2007.
  77. ^ Davies, Europe: A History, pp. 1001–1003.
  78. ^ Gross, pp. 24, 32–33.
  79. ^ Stachura, p.132.
  80. ^ Piotrowski, pp. 1, 11–13, 32.
  81. ^ Piotrowski, p.11
  82. ^ a b (Polish) Represje 1939–41 Aresztowani na Kresach Wschodnich (Repressions 1939–41. Arrested on the Eastern Borderlands.) Ośrodek Karta. Retrieved 15 November 2006.
  83. ^ Rieber, pp. 14, 32–37.
  84. ^ (Polish) Wojciech Roszkowski (1998). Historia Polski 1914–1997. Warsaw: Wydawnictwa Naukowe PWN. p. 476. ISBN 83-01-12693-0. 
  85. ^ (Polish) various authors (1998). Adam Sudoł, ed. Sowietyzacja Kresów Wschodnich II Rzeczypospolitej po 17 września 1939. Bydgoszcz: Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna. p. 441. ISBN 83-7096-281-5. 
  86. ^ a b (English) various authors (2001). "Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies". In Myron Weiner, Sharon Stanton Russell. Demography and National Security. Berghahn Books. pp. 308–315. ISBN 1-57181-339-X. 
  87. ^ (Polish) Bartłomiej Kozłowski (2005). ""Wybory" do Zgromadzeń Ludowych Zachodniej Ukrainy i Zachodniej Białorusi". Polska.pl. NASK. Retrieved 13 March 2006. 
  88. ^ a b (English) Jan Tomasz Gross (2003). Revolution from Abroad. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 396. ISBN 0-691-09603-1.  [1]
  89. ^ "Ivan Franko National University of L'viv". Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 14 March 2006. 
  90. ^ (Polish)Karolina Lanckorońska (2001). "I – Lwów". Wspomnienia wojenne; 22 IX 1939 – 5 IV 1945. Kraków: ZNAK. p. 364. ISBN 83-240-0077-1. 
  91. ^ (English) Craig Thompson-Dutton (1950). "The Police State & The Police and the Judiciary". The Police State: What You Want to Know about the Soviet Union. Dutton. pp. 88–95. 
  92. ^ (English) Michael Parrish (1996). The Lesser Terror: Soviet State Security, 1939–1953. Praeger Publishers. pp. 99–101. ISBN 0-275-95113-8. 
  93. ^ (English) Peter Rutland (1992). "Introduction". The Politics of Economic Stagnation in the Soviet Union. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-521-39241-1. 
  94. ^ (English) Victor A. Kravchenko (1988). I Chose Justice. Transaction Publishers. p. 310. ISBN 0-88738-756-X. 
  95. ^ (Polish) Encyklopedia PWN, "OKUPACJA SOWIECKA W POLSCE 1939–41", last accessed on 1 March 2006, online, Polish language
  96. ^ Encyklopedia PWN 'KAMPANIA WRZEŚNIOWA 1939', last retrieved on 10 December 2005, Polish language
  97. ^ Out of the original group of Polish prisoners of war sent in large number to the labour camps were some 25,000 ordinary soldiers separated from the rest of their colleagues and imprisoned in a work camp in Równe[[{{subst:DATE}}|{{subst:DATE}}]] [disambiguation needed], where they were forced to build a road. See: (English) "Decision to commence investigation into Katyn Massacre". Institute of National Remembrance website. Institute of National Remembrance. 2004. Archived from the original on 19 July 2006. Retrieved 15 March 2006. 
  98. ^ (English) Marek Jan Chodakiewicz (2004). Between Nazis and Soviets: Occupation Politics in Poland, 1939–1947. Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0484-5. 
  99. ^ (English) Gustaw Herling-Grudziński (1996). A World Apart: Imprisonment in a Soviet Labor Camp During World War II. Penguin Books. p. 284. ISBN 0-14-025184-7. 
  100. ^ (Polish) Władysław Anders (1995). Bez ostatniego rozdziału. Lublin: Test. p. 540. ISBN 83-7038-168-5. 
  101. ^ (Polish) Jerzy Gizella (10 November 2001). "Lwowskie okupacje". Przegląd polski. 
  102. ^ Assembly of Captive European Nations, First Session
  103. ^ The actual number of deported in the period of 1939–1941 remains unknown and various estimates vary from 350,000 ((Polish) Encyklopedia PWN 'OKUPACJA SOWIECKA W POLSCE 1939–41', last retrieved on 14 March 2006, Polish language) to over 2 millions (mostly World War II estimates by the underground). The earlier number is based on records made by the NKVD and does not include roughly 180,000 prisoners of war, also in Soviet captivity. Most modern historians estimate the number of all people deported from areas taken by Soviet Union during this period at between 800,000 and 1,500,000; for example R. J. Rummel gives the number of 1,200,000 million; Tony Kushner and Katharine Knox give 1,500,000 in their Refugees in an Age of Genocide, p.219; in his Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917, p.132. See also: Marek Wierzbicki, Tadeusz M. Płużański (March 2001). "Wybiórcze traktowanie źródeł". Tygodnik Solidarność (2 March 2001).  and (Polish) Albin Głowacki (September 2003). "Formy, skala i konsekwencje sowieckich represji wobec Polaków w latach 1939–1941". In Piotr Chmielowiec. Okupacja sowiecka ziem polskich 1939–1941. Rzeszów-Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej. ISBN 83-89078-78-3. Archived from the original on 2003-10-03. 
  104. ^ (English) Norman Davies (1982). God's Playground. A History of Poland, Vol. 2: 1795 to the Present. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 449–455. ISBN 0-19-925340-4. 
  105. ^ Bernd Wegner, From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia, and the World, 1939–1941, Bernd Wegner, 1997, ISBN 1-57181-882-0. Google Print, p.78
  106. ^ (Polish) various authors; Stanisław Ciesielski, Wojciech Materski, Andrzej Paczkowski (2002). "Represje 1939–1941". Indeks represjonowanych (2nd ed.). Warsaw: Ośrodek KARTA. ISBN 83-88288-31-8. Retrieved March 2006. 
  107. ^ Jan Tomasz Gross (2003). Revolution from Abroad. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 396. ISBN 0-691-09603-1.  [2]
  108. ^ Jan T. Gross, op.cit., p.188
  109. ^ (English) Zvi Gitelman (2001). A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-253-21418-1. 
  110. ^ Jan Tomasz Gross, Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia, Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-691-09603-1, p. 35
  111. ^ Gross, op.cit., page 36
  112. ^ WW II: The Chronicle of Stone
  113. ^ "Pretty pictures: Russia's president makes some surprising new friends". The Economist. March 2, 2006. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 
  114. ^ a b Jessica Jager, Review of Piotrowski's Poland's Holocaust, UC Santa Barbara
  115. ^ This revision of estimated war losses was the topic of articles in the Polish academic journal Dzieje Najnowsze # 2-1994 by Czesław Łuczak and Krystyna Kersten.
  116. ^ "POLES", United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
  117. ^ Vadim Erlikman. Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke : spravochnik. Moscow 2004. ISBN 5-93165-107-1
  118. ^ Donald Kendrick, The Destiny of Europe's Gypsies. Basic Books 1972 ISBN 0-465-01611-1
  119. ^ Martin Gilbert. Atlas of the Holocaust 1988 ISBN 0-688-12364-3

External links[edit]