UC Davis pepper-spray incident
|UC Davis pepper-spray incident|
|Part of the Occupy movement|
News coverage of the pepper spraying incident was shown around the world.
|Location||Davis, California, US|
|Date||November 18, 2011
4:01 pm (Pacific)
|Target||UC Davis students|
|Perpetrators||UC Davis Police|
The UC Davis pepper-spray incident occurred on November 18, 2011, during an Occupy movement demonstration at the University of California, Davis. After asking the protesters to leave, University police pepper-sprayed a group of demonstrators as they were seated on a paved path in the campus quad. A photograph of UC Davis police officer Lt. John Pike pepper spraying demonstrators spread and became an Internet meme as people around the world inserted the pepper spray photo into famous works of art and popular culture.
Lt. John Pike pepper sprayed peaceful protesters at UC Davis. According to The New York Times, multiple videos show a peaceful demonstration with officers "freely moving about".
Following the incident, the police chief and two officers were placed on administrative leave while UC Davis student and faculty organizations called for the resignation of Linda P.B. Katehi, chancellor of UC Davis. Katehi requested an inquiry into the incident and, in response, Mark Yudof, president of the University of California system appointed a task force to investigate the incident composed of students, faculty, staff and members from the UC community and led by former California Supreme Court Justice and UC Davis Professor Emeritus of Law, Cruz Reynoso.
Yudof contracted with Kroll Inc. and its Chairman, former Los Angeles Police Chief William J. Bratton, to conduct the factual investigation and review of police procedures for the Task Force. The Davis Division of the UC Academic Senate (the faculty of the University of California) conducted their own separate investigation concurrently as well. The Yolo County District Attorney's Office and Yolo County Sheriff’s Department, also reviewed the pepper spray incident to determine whether there was any criminal conduct. Following the pepper spray incident President Yudof instructed Christopher Edley, Dean of the UC Berkeley School of Law, and Charles Robinson, General Counsel for the University of California, to conduct a separate review of protocols concerning non-violent protests at all ten UC campuses.
Alleged use of excessive force by police against students and demonstrators was said to be part of a larger pattern observed within the state of California and across the United States. The Board of the Council of UC Faculty Associations said that "police violence" was used against non-violent demonstrators at UC Davis, UCLA, UC Berkeley and at a Cal State Board of Trustees meeting in Long Beach. Rep. Jerrold Nadler of New York’s 8th congressional district and ranking member of the United States House Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, sent a letter to United States Attorney General Eric Holder requesting that the United States Department of Justice investigate the actions of law enforcement during the nationwide Occupy protests to determine if the civil liberties of demonstrators and reporters were violated. According to Nadler, Occupy UC Davis was one of at least eight separate events recorded on video at Occupy demonstrations throughout the United States where "significant and unwarranted force in making arrests" occurred.
As of March 2012, Occupy UC Davis has continued to engage in organized meetings, events, and UC Davis-specific actions, in addition to joining actions of allied occupations such as those of Oakland, UC Berkeley, and Woodland.
On July 31, 2012, a UC Davis spokesman announced that Pike was no longer employed by the university.
In 2009, the University of California Regents approved 32% (compounded for the year) tuition hikes for the 2009-2010 school year.  The following years saw several large protests and actions across California in response to tuition hikes and other complaints against the UC administration, including 52 arrested on November 19, 2009  and an attempt to block the local interstate on March 4, 2010.  During February of 2010, a communique titled "After the Fall: COMMUNIQUÉS FROM OCCUPIED CALIFORNIA" was published that analyzed and summarized an autumn of radical action in terms that resonated with the later Occupy Wall Street movement/tactic. 
Occupy Wall Street (OWS) began on September 17, 2011, in New York City's Zuccotti Park in the Wall Street financial district with protests focused on social and economic inequality, high unemployment, greed, as well as corruption, and the undue influence of corporations—particularly that of the financial services sector—on government. The protesters' slogan, We are the 99%, refers to the growing difference in wealth in the U.S. between the wealthiest 1% and the rest of the population. The protests grew into a world-wide movement known as the Occupy movement and make use of a variety of civil disobedience tactics. Occupy Cal grew out of this movement as a series of protests at UC Berkeley.
A major theme of the Occupy demonstrations at California public universities is the role of education in creating jobs and improving the quality of life of society and the contrasting failure of the UC Regents and the State of California to honor commitments made in the California Master Plan for Higher Education. 81% tuition increases for students, mandatory furloughs (including for professors), firings of lower-ranking workers (especially those working directly with students), and well-publicized raises for the highest paid administrators have further fueled discontent both within the University of California system (of which UC Davis is a part) and within the California State University system, which has also seen large tuition raises and consequent protests.
Occupy UC Davis (distinguished from the off-campus Occupy Davis ) was a name used to refer to those responding to University of California police violence (specifically at Occupy Cal on November 9, 2011), and later grew to encompass other themes. Occupy Davis protestors occupied the city's Central Park in mid-October.
|Police beat and arrest students at UC Berkeley, November 9, 2011|
On November 9, 2011 students and professors at UC Berkeley began with a series of teach-ins around campus, a noon rally, and a march. The event attracted approximately 1,500 demonstrators. Midday, protestors set up seven tents to symbolize their support for the Occupy movement. In response, law enforcement officials from UC Berkeley Police, the Alameda County Sheriff's Office and other UC Police officers, arrived in riot gear to remove the seven tents from the protest site.
Video footage of the afternoon confrontation showed police beating protesters with batons and dragging two protesters by the hair, one of whom was UC Berkeley English professor Celeste Langan. Thirty-nine protesters, including Langan, were arrested for charges including "resisting and delaying a police officer in the performance of their duties, and failure to disperse when given a dispersal order."
The ACLU expressed "grave concerns" about the use of batons on protesters. The UC Student Association released a statement saying "UC Students are outraged by the brutal tactics used by the UCPD against students."  In response to the police brutality and other perceived failings of UC Berkeley chancellor Robert Birgeneau and the UC Regents, the Occupy Cal General Assembly called for a general UC strike on November 15, 2011. Other student groups from around the state announced plans to join in the protest. On November 11, the UC Davis Faculty Association also voted to endorse the November 15 systemwide strike. University Professor Bob Ostertag echoed these sentiments in a public letter about the earlier events at UC Berkeley:
Chancellor Robert Birgeneau thus joins the likes of Bull Connor, the notorious segregationist and architect of the violent repression of the civil rights movement in Birmingham, Alabama, as some of the very few people who view the non-violent tactics of Martin Luther King as violent.
The faculty of the UC Davis Department of English published a statement calling for "the disbanding of the UCPD and the institution of an ordinance against the presence of police forces on the UC Davis campus, unless their presence is specifically requested by a member of the campus community."
Occupy UC Davis 
Rallies and encampment 
On Tuesday, November 15, 2011 several hundred demonstrators rallied on the quad to protest against proposals to increase tuition fees due to state budget cuts. UC Davis was subjected to a 40 percent cut in its general funds and a $130 million deficit in 2011. After marching to Mrak Hall in the administration building, 50 people stayed overnight and two tents were raised outside. The tents were later taken down after a representative for student affairs expressed concerns.
On Thursday, November 17, 2011, a group of Occupy UC Davis demonstrators once again set up tents, this time on the campus quad between Memorial Union and Shields Library. On the morning of Friday, November 18, UC Davis Chancellor Linda P.B. Katehi, citing safety concerns about people from outside the UC Davis community participating in demonstrations on the campus, informed the Occupy UC Davis group in writing that the tents must be removed by 3:00 pm "in the interest of safety, respect for our campus environment and in accordance with our Principles of Community." According to Katehi, the Occupy group did not respond to this request, and they were further informed that if they did not remove the tents, they would be removed.
After being informed of the requests from the administration and police, some students removed their tents. University police announced at the General Assembly that the tents, still numbering approximately 25, would have to be removed by 3:00 pm.
Thanksgiving; winter break 
Demonstrators held Thanksgiving in the quad with a local family donating 10 cooked turkeys and 100 pounds of mashed potatoes. By the end of the quarter, students began to dismantle the encampment on December 8 for winter break. Attorney Bernie Goldsmith told The Davis Enterprise that the Occupy demonstrators plan to return on January 9, 2012.
US Bank protests and subsequent bank closure 
In January 2012, Occupy UC Davis protesters started a two-month-long blockade of the US Bank on the UC Davis campus. This autonomous action involved directly sitting in front of the bank, forcing the bank to effectively shut down every day. The protesters argued that private banks on a public campus created a clear conflict of interest and that collusion between banks and the UC regents, in the form of privatization, was the root cause of rising tuition. After the bank shut down, charges were filed against twelve of the protesters known as the "Davis Dozen" or "Banker's Dozen". They are charged with blocking a sidewalk and conspiracy. If convicted, they face up to 11 years in prison.
Pepper-spray incident 
|Brian Nguyen's flickr set (The California Aggie)|
|Cops Pepper Spray Passive Protesters (Associated Press)|
On November 18, 2011, police arrived wearing riot gear at 3:30 pm and began removing tents and arresting demonstrators obstructing the removal of tents. A group of demonstrators staged a sit-in on the walkway in the quad, linking arms together and refusing to move. Students began surrounding campus police officers and demanded release of the detained protesters in return for letting the officers leave. Campus police officers asked the demonstrators to move several times, but the students refused.
Sometime around 4:00 pm, two officers began spraying pepper spray directly in the faces of the sitting students. Bystanders recorded the incident with cell phone cameras, while members of the crowd chanted "Shame on you" and "Let them go" at the police officers. Eleven protesters received medical treatment; two were hospitalized.
According to university officials, the officers felt like they were surrounded by the demonstrators. One of the officers who used pepper spray on the students was identified as Lieutenant John Pike. Ten arrests were made. Arrestees were "cited and released on misdemeanor charges of unlawful assembly and failure to disperse". Police began to leave the area around 4:10 pm as more students began to arrive.
Lieutenant John Pike and another unnamed UC Davis Police officer were placed on administrative leave shortly after the incident. UC Davis Police Chief Annette Spicuzza was later placed on leave as well.
Silent protest; Katehi asked to resign 
On November 19, after holding a press conference, Chancellor Katehi walked out of the building where she was confronted by hundreds of silent protestors who lined the sidewalks as she made the three block walk to a waiting vehicle. Katehi appeared on CNN shortly after, demonstrating some remorse but ultimately defending her actions. Katehi also called for creation of a task force to review the incident and report their findings and recommendations within 90 days. That evening, approximately 1,000 students and supporters participated in a silent protest against the Chancellor. That evening, the board of UC Davis Faculty issued a statement calling for both the immediate resignation of the Chancellor and for an end to police removal of non-violent protestors from the campus:
Given the recent use of excessive force by police against “occupy” protestors at UC Berkeley and elsewhere, the Chancellor must have anticipated that, by authorizing police action, she was effectively authorizing their use of excessive force against peaceful UCD student protestors. The Chancellor’s role is to enable open and free inquiry, not to suppress it. We also call for a policy that will end the practice of forcibly removing non-violent student, faculty, staff, and community protestors by police on the UC Davis campus. The University of California should be taking a leadership role in encouraging the exercise of free speech, not in suppressing it.
|UC Davis chancellor sorry for pepper spray incident (Reuters)|
The Davis Faculty Association is an advocacy group that represents only about 110 active tenured and tenure-track faculty members, or less than 5 percent of the more than 2,500 faculty members on the UC Davis campus. The largest faculty group – the Academic Senate – is composed of more than 1,500 tenured and tenure-track faculty members. In addition, there are another 1,000 faculty members on campus made up of adjunct professors, lecturers, University Extension educators and other non-tenure-track academic appointments. Linda Bisson, chair of the Academic Senate, called for a faculty investigation, but she believes most faculty want Katehi to stay in her post.
On November 21, a 1,729 person General Assembly was held on the UC Davis campus. That body voted (with 99.5% consensus) to stage an education-wide general strike on Monday, November 28.
Apology from Katehi 
On November 21, Katehi attended a large student protest attended by an estimated 5,000 people. After listening to their statements, Katehi said she was there to apologize. On the following day, she stated that the police had gone against her specific orders to act peacefully when removing tents or equipment, and not to proceed if there were too many students, and she had not approved the police use of riot gear. At a town hall meeting, she told around 1,000 students, "I want to unequivocally apologize to the entire community for the appalling use of pepper spray. I will do everything in my power to make sure nothing like that ever happens again." She said, "My instructions were for no arrests and no police force. I explicitly directed the chief of police that violence should be avoided at all costs."
Katehi and State Assembly Speaker John A. Pérez requested an outside investigation, and Mark G. Yudof appointed former Los Angeles Police Department Chief William J. Bratton to head the investigation.
The Board of the Council of UC Faculty Associations said that "police violence" was used against non-violent demonstrators throughout the state of California:
This week, we have seen excessive force used against non-violent protesters at UC Berkeley, UCLA, CSU Long Beach, and UC Davis. Student, faculty and staff protesters have been pepper-sprayed directly in the eyes and mouth, beaten and shoved by batons, dragged by the arms while handcuffed, and submitted to other forms of excessive force. Protesters have been hospitalized because of injuries inflicted during these incidents. The violence was unprovoked, disproportional and excessive.
Bratton, chairman of the Kroll Security Group, was accused by critics and the Council of UC Faculty Associations as having a potential conflict of interest. Kroll, which holds security contracts in the UC system, is a subsidiary of Altegrity Risk International and works closely with the financial sector on Wall Street.
On December 6, 2011, Rep. Jerrold Nadler of New York’s 8th congressional district and ranking member of the United States House Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, sent a letter to Eric Holder, the United States Attorney General, requesting that the United States Department of Justice "launch a thorough investigation into law enforcement activities surrounding Occupy Wall Street — and its national offshoots — to determine whether the police have indeed violated the civil liberties of demonstrators or members of the media." In the letter, Nadler notes that Occupy UC Davis was one of at least eight separate events recorded on video at Occupy demonstrations throughout the United States where "significant and unwarranted force in making arrests" occurred.
In Sacramento, on December 14, 2011, state legislators questioned UC Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi in regard to the pepper spraying incident. Concerns were discussed about the current rules for policing protests and use of force. A second hearing will take place when results are in from the investigations.
The release of a report by the university's task force investigating the crackdown was delayed in March 2012, when the police officers' union filed suit to prevent its release without redacting the names of the officers involved. The Reynoso report was finally released on April 11, 2012. The report found that the police officers involved had acted out of a perception that they were confronted by a hostile crowd and needed to clear a path through the protest for safety reasons.
On July 31, 2012, a UC Davis spokesman announced that Pike was no longer employed by the university.
On 19 September 2012, the Yolo County District Attorney's office, citing insufficient evidence, announced that it would not prosecute any of the police officers involved in the incident for illegal use of force. John Pike responded that he was "relieved" by the decision.
On 26 September 2012, The University of California announced its decision to offer $30,000 to each of 21 plaintiffs who were pepper-sprayed by John Pike, according to a proposed settlement of a class-action lawsuit. The school also offered to pay $250,000 of the students' legal fees and set aside an additional $100,000 for any future claims related to the incident, which would allow each additional claimant up to $20,000 in damages. As part of the settlement offer, the school stated that it had, in relation to the pepper incident, "acted reasonably and with good intentions, without violating the rights."
Media reaction 
Journalist Laura Flanders described the events as a "Bull Connor Moment," in reference to the Birmingham, Alabama leader who infamously deployed firehoses and attack dogs against peaceful protestors during the American Civil Rights Movement. Viewing footage of the events, political strategist Ron Christie described it as "excessive force" saying, "I wouldn't call that pepper-spray, I'd say that was a pepper-hose." Kamran Loghman, who helped develop pepper spray into a weapons-grade material with the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the 1980s, said, "I have never seen such an inappropriate and improper use of chemical agents."
Internet meme 
The image of John Pike using his pepper spray on the occupy protesters has become an internet meme. Images have been manipulated to depict him pepper spraying various famous people, objects and works of art.
The incident sparked public debate regarding the appropriate use of pepper spray. On Monday, November 21, 2011, Fox News commentator Megyn Kelly appeared on political talk show The O'Reilly Factor saying of pepper spray "it’s like a derivative of real pepper. It’s a food product essentially." In response, a petition was published on political website change.org to have Megyn Kelly eat or drink a full dose of pepper spray on national television. The meme was also reported in the British press.
Anonymous response 
- The California Aggie (November 18, 2011). "Students being maced by police". @CaliforniaAggie. Twitter. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Ternus-Bellamy, Anne. (November 21, 2011). "2002 court ruling limits use of pepper spray". The Davis Enterprise. p. A1. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- "Lt. John Pike sprayed from close range about a dozen seated protesters with pepper spray. Afterward, 11 were treated by paramedics, while two were treated then released from Sutter Davis Hospital." Golden, Cory. (November 18, 2011). "UCD police chief placed on administrative leave". The Davis Enterprise. p. A1. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- O'Brien, C. (November 23, 2011). O'Brien: How one student's pepper spray photo became an Internet meme. San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Annette Spicuzza, the U.C. Davis police chief, told The Sacramento Bee that the officers used pepper spray on Friday because the police were surrounded by students. 'There was no way out of that circle,' she told the newspaper. 'They were cutting the officers off from their support. It's a very volatile situation.' The videos, however, show officers freely moving about and show students behaving peacefully. The university reported no instances of violence by any protesters." Stelter, B. (November 20, 2011). U.C. Davis to Investigate Use of Pepper Spray at Protest. The New York Times, 28. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- Strumwasser, H. (December 5, 2011). UC President announces task force members. The California Aggie.
- Pringle, P., Quinones, S. (November 20, 2011). UC Davis chief launches probe into pepper-spraying of Occupy protesters. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- "In New York, many of these reports involve allegations of excessive force used by NYPD officers against OWS protestors. These allegations, many of which are supported by extensive documentation on video and in press accounts, involve numerous incidents over the course of the several weeks...OWS in New York is only one of several protests around the country where similar tactics have been reported. Demonstrators participating in Occupy Oakland, Occupy Berkeley, Occupy Seattle, Occupy U.C. Davis, Occupy D.C., Occupy Los Angeles and Occupy Philadelphia have all made public videos and recordings showing police using significant and unwarranted force in making arrests." Sonmez, F. (December 6, 2011). Occupy Wall Street police response should be investigated by DoJ, Nadler says. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2011.
- "Occupy UC Davis". Occupyucdavis.org (Official website). Retrieved March 3, 2012.
- "UC Davis Students at Occupy Oakland". The Californian Aggie.
- Greenwald, David. "Occupy Protest Shuts Down Operations at Monsanto Today and Tomorrow". Davis Vanguard. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- "Officer at center of pepper-spraying incident no longer works at UC Davis", Sacramento Bee, August 1, 2012
- "UC Regents approve 2009-10 student fees". May 5th, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Stuessy, Lauren (November 30, 2009). "District Attorney won’t charge UC Davis protestors". The California Aggie. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- "Protestors clash with police in attempt to block I-80". The California Aggie. March 5, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
- Sakash, Tom (October 13, 2011). "Occupy Davis chooses Central Park as its focus". Davis Enterprise. p. A5. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Hollyfield, Amy (November 10, 2011). "Occupy Cal calm, but ready for showdown". KGO-TV. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Asimov, Nanette (November 11, 2011). "Occupy Cal protesters vote to strike on Tuesday". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Asimov, Nanette (November 10, 2011). "UC campus police move in on student protesters". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Gollan, Jennifer (November 11, 2011). "UC Berkeley Pledges to Investigate Police Response to Occupy Cal Protest". The Bay Citizen. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Bowe, Rebecca (November 10, 2011). "Occupy Cal makes its dramatic entrance". San Francisco Bay Guardian. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Applegate, Jamie (November 13, 2011). "Reactions to the police response to Occupy Cal on Nov. 9". The Daily Californian. Retrieved November 13, 2011.
- Davis Faculty Association Endorses Occupy Cal’s Call for Strike
- Bob Ostertag. Militarization of Campus Police, Huffington Post
- Department of English accessed Nov 22, 2011
- Golden, C. (December 10, 2011). Katehi, chief huddled with 13 on decision to remove camp. The Davis Enterprise, A1.
- Golden, C. (November 15, 2011). UCD rally ties tuition fight to Occupy movement. The Davis Enterprise, A1.
- Katehi, L. (November 18, 2011). UC Davis Chancellor Linda Katehi's messages to campus, Nov. 18-20. The Sacramento Bee.
- Knight, H. (November 21, 2011). UC officials to review responses to protests. San Francisco Chronicle, A9.
- Biele, C. (November 24, 2011). Thanksgiving with Occupy UC Davis. KTXL-TV.
- "UC Davis protesters dismantle tent camp as winter break arrives". The Sacramento Bee. December 14, 2011. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- "U.S. Bank closes branch, terminates agreements with the campus". UC Davis Dateline. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- "US Bank Blockade Pamphlet". Occupy UC Davis. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- Memmott, M. (November 21, 2011). UC Davis Pepper-Spraying: Police Chief Put On Leave, Chancellor Speaks. National Public Radio.
- Castle, Adam (December 12, 2011). "What Really Happened At The "Occupy" UC Davis Confrontation". Pipeline News. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- Burr, E. (November 30, 2011). Los Altos native pepper-sprayed at UC Davis protests. Los Altos Town Crier.
- "California university launches inquiry into pepper spray of protesters". CNN. November 21, 2011. Retrieved November 20, 2011.
- CBS Sacramento. (November 18, 2011). Police Defend Use Of Force On ‘Occupy UC Davis’. CBS.
- "UCD to review pepper-spraying, clearing of protesters". Davis Enterprise. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- Kent, Julie (November 19, 2011). "UC Davis Police Brutally Pepper Spray OWS Protesters Sitting Peacefully on Campus". The Cleveland Leader. Retrieved November 21, 2011.
- Guy Adams, Outcry over 'chilling' campus pepper spray use, The Independent, November 20, 2011
- "Video In pepper spray aftermath"
- Brad Knickerbocker, “UC Davis pepper spray incident goes viral”, The Christian Science Monitor, November 20, 2011
- CBS Sacramento. (November 18, 2011). ‘Occupy UC Davis’ Protesters Vow To Stay Despite Police Raid. CBS.
- Wells, Matt (November 20, 2011). "UC Davis police placed on leave after pepper spray video outrage". The Guardian (London). Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- UC Davis police chief put on leave as tensions continue to rise after pepper spray incident
- Memmott, Mark (November 20, 2011). "After Pepper-Spraying, A Powerfully Silent Protest At UC Davis". The Two-Way, NPR's News Blog. National Public Radio. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "California campus police on leave after pepper-spraying". CNN. November 20, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "Task Force Created To Review Pepper Spray Incident". KCRA-TV. Retrieved November 19, 2011.
- UC Davis: Speechless
- DFA Board Calls for Katehi’s Resignation
- "Chancellor apologizes for pepper spraying". UC Davis News Service. Retrieved 2011-11-21.
- "UC Davis Facts: Faculty & Staff". UC Davis. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- / "UC Davis chancellor apologizes for pepper spray incident". LA Times. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
- "Occupy UC Davis Calls for a General Strike"
- Fagan, K. (November 22, 2011). UC Davis protesters confront chancellor. San Francisco Chronicle, A1. Retrieved December 14, 2011.
- Stanton, Sam; Sangree, Hudson; Fletcher, Ed; Lindelof, Bill (Nov. 22, 2011, last modified Nov. 23). "Chancellor Katehi apologizes to protesters for UC Davis pepper-spraying - Sacramento News - Local and Breaking Sacramento News". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- Stanton, Sam (Nov. 22, 2011). "UC Davis chancellor says police defied her orders when they used pepper spray on protesters - Wire - Lifestyle - bellinghamherald.com". The Bellingham Herald. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- Chea, Terence; Lin, Judy (Nov. 23, 2011). "CA chancellor under fire for pepper-spray incident - Sacramento News - Local and Breaking Sacramento News". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- Gordon, Larry (November 23, 2011). Bratton to lead investigation of UC Davis pepper-spraying. Los Angeles Times
- The Council of UC Faculty Associations. (November 19, 2011). The Council of UC Faculty Associations Condemns Police Violence Against Non-Violent Protesters. cucfa.org.
- Price, Andrew. (November 30, 2011). "Is UC Davis's Pepper Spray Investigation Truly Independent?". The Atlantic; Rivera, Carla. (November 24, 2011). "UC Faculty group decries Bill Bratton leading pepper spray probe". Los Angeles Times.
- "Legislators demand campus change". The Davis Enterprise. December 15, 2011. Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- "Judge to rule on release of UC pepper-spray report". Findlaw News. Associated Press. March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 16, 2012.
- Medina, Jennifer. (April 11, 2012). Campus Task Force Criticizes Pepper Spraying of Protesters. The New York Times.
- Associated Press, "Pepper-spraying campus police won't face charges", Yahoo! News, 20 September 2012
- Associated Press, "Pepper-spraying campus police won't face charges", Yahoo! News, 20 September 2012
- CNN, "", CNN.com, 26 September 2012
- NBC News, "", nbcnews.com, 26 September 2012
- Harrison, Jenna, ABC News, "UC Davis in $1M Pepper Spray Settlement", Yahoo! News, 27 September 2012
- PBS's Eyes on the Prize segment, including video of Connor. Connor's Tank Returns to Birmingham; Laura Flanders, Nov 19, 2011 "Up with Chris Hayes"
- Seelye, Katharine Q. (November 22, 2011). Pepper spray’s fallout, from crowd control to mocking images. New York Times
- Xeni Jardin (Wednesday 23 November 2011). "The pepper-spraying cop gets Photoshop justice". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Xeni Jardin (20 November 2011). "Occupy Lulz". boingboing. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Bank, Justin (November 23, 2011). "Megyn Kelly minimizes pepper spray; Should she test it out?". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- Douglas, Nick (November 23, 2011). "Fox News anchor Megyn Kelly: Eat or drink a full dose of pepper spray on national television.". change.org. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- Xeni Jardin (November 23, 2011). "The pepper-spraying cop gets Photoshop justice". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- "Pepper spraying The Beatles? Occupy protest cop becomes an internet craze". Daily Mail Online. November 24, 2011.
Additional sources 
- "‘Occupy UC Davis’ Targeting On-Campus Bank". CBS Sacramento. February 1, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- "Students sue over pepper-spraying at UC Davis". CBS News. February 22, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
- Stanton, Sam; Reese, Phillip (October 10, 2012). "Documents shed light on impact of pepper-spraying crisis at UC Davis". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
Further reading 
- Black, D. (December 3, 2011). Pepper spray inventor blasts improper use. Toronto Star, A24.
- Cohen, S. (December 5, 2011). Task Force of 13 Will Investigate UC Davis Pepper Spray Incident. KTXL-TV.
- Fagan, K. (November 23, 2011). Pepper spray's sting spreads. San Francisco Chronicle, A1.
- Katehi, L. P. B. (November 19, 2011). Chancellor creates task force to review Friday's incident. University of California, Davis.
- McDonald, I. (November 29, 2011). State Attorney General's Assistance Requested in UC Davis Pepper Spray Investigation. KTXL-TV.
- Vise, D. D. (November 29, 2011). At UC-Davis, a strike over tuition. The Washington Post.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: UC Davis pepper-spray incident|
|Wikinews has related news: California campus pepper spray police suspended|
- Occupy UC Davis Official website
- UC Davis Police Response to Occupy UC Davis on the DavisWiki
- Occupy UC Davis on the DavisWiki