He received his doctorate from the University of Paris, where he studied under Paul Georges Dieulafoy (1839–1911), Joseph Babinski (1857–1932) and Pierre Marie (1853–1940). During his medical career he was associated with the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris and Salpêtrière Hospital.
Crouzon specialized in hereditary neurological diseases, especially spinocerebellar ataxia. He also did extensive work involving cervical and lumbar spine deformities, as well studies of chronic rheumatic and arthritic disorders. Crouzon was the first to describe a condition he called "craniofacial dysostosis", which is a genetic branchial arch disorder that results in abnormal facial features. Today this condition is known as Crouzon's syndrome.
During his career he was president of the Paris Neurological Society and secretary of the journal Revue Neurologique.
- Dysostose cranio-faciale héréditaire. Bulletin de la Société des Médecins des Hôpitaux de Paris, (1912).
- Une nouvelle famille atteinte de dysostose cranio-faciale héréditaire. Archives de médecine des enfants, Paris, (1915).