Octavian Goga

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Octavian Goga
Octavian Goga.jpg
Prime Minister of Romania
In office
28 December 1937 – 10 February 1938
Monarch Carol II
Preceded by Gheorghe Tătărescu
Succeeded by Miron Cristea
Personal details
Born 1 April 1881
Rășinari, Austria-Hungary
Died 7 May 1938
Ciucea, Romania
Nationality Romanian
Political party Romanian National Party
People's Party
National Agrarian Party
National Christian Party
Spouse(s) 1906-1920: Hortensia (b. Cosma) (first wife); 1921-1938: Veturia (b. Mureșan) (second wife)
Profession poet, journalist
Religion Romanian Orthodox
Signature

Octavian Goga (Romanian pronunciation: [oktaviˈan ˈɡoɡa]; 1 April 1881 – 7 May 1938) was a Romanian politician, poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.

Early life[edit]

Goga was born in Rășinari, near Sibiu.[1]

Politics[edit]

Goga and Aurel Vlaicu

Goga was an active member in the Romanian nationalistic movement in Transylvania and of its leading group, the Romanian National Party (PNR) in Austro-Hungary. Before World War I, Goga was arrested by the Hungarian authorities. At various intervals before the union of Romania and Transylvania in 1918, Goga took refuge in Romania, becoming active in literary and political circles. Because of his political activity in Romania, the Hungarian state sentenced him to death in absentia.


During World War I, he joined the Romanian army and took part as a soldier in the occupation of Dobrudja.

In the interwar period he left the PNR to join General Alexandru Averescu's People's Party (PP), a populist movement created upon the war's end.

Goga clashed with Averescu over the latter's conflict with King Carol II. A founder of the minor PP splinter group naming itself the National Agrarian Party, he led it into an alliance with A. C. Cuza's National-Christian Defense League, forming the National Christian Party.

Goga became Prime Minister of Romania and served from 28 December 1937 to 10 February 1938. He had been appointed by King Carol, in his attempt to enforce his own personal dictatorship.

Very early in its tenure, Goga's government introduced a series of anti-Semitic laws.[2] On 12 January 1938 his government stripped Romanian Jews of their citizenship. Besides being an anti-Semite himself, Goga attempted to outflank the Iron Guard's popular support[clarification needed].

The regime instituted by Goga and Cuza gave itself a paramilitary wing of Fascist character, the Lăncieri ("Lance-bearers"). They borrowed heavily from the Iron Guard, and started competing with it for public attention.


After his resignation, Goga withdrew to his estate in Transylvania, where he suffered a stroke on 5 May 1938. He died two days later.

Writings[edit]

Poetry[edit]

  • Cărbunii ("The Pieces of Coal")
  • Rugăciune ("A Prayer")
  • Plugarii ("The Ploughmen")
  • Oltul ("The Olt River")
  • Din larg ("From the High Seas")
  • Profetul ("The Prophet")
  • Ceahlăul ("The Ceahlău")
  • O ramură întârziată ("A Tardy Branch")
  • Trecutul ("The Past")
  • Apus ("Sunset")
  • Mare eternă ("The Eternal Sea")
  • În mine câteodată ("At Times within Me")

Plays[edit]

Other[edit]

In addition, Goga is known as the translator of works by Sándor Petőfi, Endre Ady, and Imre Madách.

References[edit]

  1. ^ MacGregor-Hastie, Roy (1969). Anthology of contemporary Romanian poetry. Owen. p. 36. 
  2. ^ Quinlan, Paul D. (1977). Clash over Romania: British and American policies toward Romania, 1938-1947. American Romanian Academy of Arts and Sciences. p. 29. 
  3. ^ "Bloodsucker of the Villages". TIME Magazine. 31 January 1938. 
  4. ^ "Jews Spurned in Rumania". The Argus. Independent Cable Service. 24 January 1938. p. 9.