October (i// ok-TOH-bər) is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian Calendars and one of seven months with a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old Roman calendar, October retained its name (from the Latin octō meaning "eight") after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans.
October is commonly associated with the season of autumn in the Northern hemisphere and spring in the Southern hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to April in the Northern hemisphere and vice versa. In the Western world, October is also commonly associated with Hallowe'en (All Hallows Eve), which initiates the season of Allhallowtide.
In common years January starts on the same day of the week as October, but no other month starts on the same day of the week as October in leap years. October ends on the same day of the week as February every year and January in common years only. In common years, October starts on the same day of the week as May of the previous year while in leap years, October starts on the same day of the week as August of the previous year. In common years, October ends on the same day of the week as May of the previous year while in leap years, October ends on the same day of the week as August and November of the previous year. In years immediately before common years, October starts on the same day as April and July of the following year while in years immediately before leap years, October starts on the same day of the week as September and December of the following year. In years immediately before common years, October ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. In years immediately before leap years, October ends on the same day of the week as April and December of the following year.
October events and holidays
- National Fire Prevention Week (United States and Canada) - October 7–13, 2012
- Children's Book Week (England) – First Week of October
- National Day (People's Republic of China) – October 1
- Dashain in Nepal
- Independence Day in the Republic of Cyprus – October 1
- Independence Day in Nigeria – October 1
- Gandhi Jayanthi in India. Birthday of Mahatma Gandhi. - October 2
- International Day of Non-Violence – October 2
- German Unity Day – October 3
- World Animal Day – October 4
- Proclamation of Portuguese Republic – October 5
- International World Teachers' day – October 5
- Armed Forces Day in Egypt commemorating the Yom Kippur War – October 6
- World Architecture Day - First Monday of October (established by the International Union of Architects (UIA) to celebrate architecture worldwide.)
- Independence day in Croatia – October 8
- Leif Erikson Day – October 9
- National Day (Taiwan, Republic of China) – October 10
- National Coming Out Day – October 11
- Freethought Day – October 12
- National Day of Spain, Columbus Day – October 12 (Discovery of America)
- Thanksgiving (Canada) – Second Monday of October
- Health and Sports Day (Japan) – Second Monday of October
- Columbus Day (Most of United States) – Second Monday of October
- Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day - October 15
- World Food Day – October 16
- Alaska Day – October 18
- Constitution Day in Niue – October 19
- Spirit Day – October 20
- Apple Day – October 21
- International Stuttering Awareness Day – October 22
- Remembering the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 – October 23
- Mole Day – October 23 (unofficial holiday)
- United Nations Day – October 24
- The beginning of the October Revolution - October 24
- Day of the Romanian Army – October 25
- National Day of Austria - October 26
- Independence Day in St. Vincent & the Grenadines) – October 27
- Independence Day in Turkmenistan) – October 27
- Navy Day (United States) – October 27
- Ochi Day (No Day) & Flag day in Greece – October 28
- Republic Day in Turkey – October 29
- Nevada Day – October 31
- Reformation Day in Slovenia – October 31
- Hallowe'en (All Hallows Eve) – October 31
- Samhain – October 31
- Dwarfism/Little People Awareness Month 
- LGBT History Month (United States)
- National Arts & Humanities Month (United States)
- National Cyber Security Awareness Month (in United States)
- International Walk to School Day (International) 
- National Adopt A Shelter Dog Month (United States)
- German American Heritage Month (September 15 to October 15 in the United States)
- National Hispanic Heritage Month (September 15 to October 15 in the United States)
- Filipino American History Month (United States)
- Black History Month (in United Kingdom)
- Italian American Heritage Month: Italian Heritage and Culture Month
- Polish American Heritage Month
- Brain Tumour Awareness Month (Canada)
- Celiac Sprue Awareness Month
- Health Literacy Month
- Healthy Lung Month
- Liver Awareness Month
- National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (in United States and Canada)
- National Dental Hygiene Month (in United States)
- National Down Syndrome Awareness Month (in United States)
- National Infertility Awareness Month (in United States)
- National Domestic Violence Awareness Month (in United States)
- National Lupus Erythematosus Awareness Month (in United States)
- National Physical Therapy Month (in United States)
- National Spina Bifida Awareness Month (in United States)
- Rett Syndrome Awareness Month (in United States)
- Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Awareness Month (in United States)
- World Blindness Awareness Month
- American Pharmacist Month
- Medical Ultrasound Awareness Month
- 3D Ultrasound Awareness Month
- Mental Illness Awareness Week
- National Pizza Month
- National Popcorn Poppin’ Month
- National Pork Month (United States)
- National Sausage Month
- American Cheese Month
- The last week in October is the only time of the year during which all four major North American professional sports leagues schedule games; the National Basketball Association generally begins its regular season at this time, the National Hockey League is about one month into its regular season, the National Football League is about halfway through its regular season, and Major League Baseball concludes its postseason with the World Series, which lasts from five to nine days.
- The month of October is dedicated to the devotion of the rosary in the Roman Catholic church.
- Slavs call it "yellow month", from the fading of the leaf; to the Anglo-Saxons it was known as Winterfylleth, because at this full moon (fylleth) winter was supposed to begin.
- Eric Whitacre composed a piece based on this month, titled October.
- Neil Gaiman wrote a story personifying the month, titled "October in the Chair", for his 2006 collection Fragile Things.
- Ray Bradbury published a collection of short stories titled The October Country in 1955.
- October's birthstones are the tourmaline and opal.
- Its birth flower is the calendula.
- The zodiac signs for the month of October are Libra (until October 22) or Scorpio (October 23 onwards).
October Star Stones:
- Libra (Sept. 23 to Oct. 22)
Planetary Stone: Sapphire; Lucky Charms: Opal, Sardonyx, Chrysolite; birthstone: pink Tourmaline, Opal
- Scorpio (Oct. 23 to Nov. 21)
Planetary Stone: Garnet, Ruby; Lucky Charms: Aquamarine, Beryl
- October Lokesh birthstone is roser.
- October Mystical birthstone is Jasper.
- October Ayurvedic Birthstone is Opal.
- Chaudhury, Nilova. "October 2 is global non-violence day", hindustantimes.com, Hindustan Times, 15 June 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-15
- "Little People of America".
- http://www.staysafeonline.info/content/about-ncsam[dead link]
- "October is Adopt a Shelter Dog Month". ASPCA. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
- Staff Writer. "ancestry.com". ancestry.com. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Italian Heritage and Culture Month". Italyculturemonth.org. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Polish American Center". Polish American Center. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- Celiac Awareness Month[dead link]
- "Month Home". Health Literacy. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- [dead link]
- "LiverFoundation.org". Retrieved 2013-10-19.
- "National Breast Cancer Awareness Month generating awareness". Retrieved 2008-10-01.
- "ADHA – October is National Dental Hygiene Month". Adha.org. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- National Down Syndrome Society – October is Down Syndrome Awareness Month[dead link]
- "Observing Infertility Awareness Month". Library.adoption.com. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "The Domestic Violence Awareness Month". Nrcdv.org. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- [dead link]
- APTA | National Physical Therapy Month[dead link]
- "Spina Bifida Association – Spina Bifida Association". Sbaa.org. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- [dead link]
- "SUID/SIDS Resource Center". Sidscenter.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- [dead link]
- "American Pharmacists Month 2011". Pharmacist.com. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- [dead link]
- "October is 3D Ultrasound Awareness Month « First Peek Ultrasound Blog". Oakparkultrasound.com. 2010-10-19. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "National Pizza Month". Pizza.com. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "Popcorn Poppin' Month". Popcorn.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- "October is National Pork Month". ThePigSite. 2007-10-02.
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Special Devotions For Months". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 2012-10-24.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "October". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Gemstone Leaflet". Jewelers of America. Retrieved Jan 22, 2012.
- SHG Resources. "Birth Months, Flowers, and Gemstones". SHG Resources. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
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