Odakyu Electric Railway
|Traded as||TYO: 9007|
|Predecessor(s)||Odawara Express Railway Co., Ltd.
|Founded||Shinjuku, Tokyo, Japan (June 1, 1948 )|
|Headquarters||1-3-3, Nishi-Shinjuku, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-8309, Japan|
|Key people||Toshimitsu Yamaki, President & CEO|
|Revenue||¥154.876 billion (FY2011)|
|Profit||¥7.930 billion (FY2009)|
Odakyu Electric Railway Co., Ltd. (小田急電鉄株式会社 Odakyū Dentetsu Kabushiki-gaisha ), or OER, is a major railway company based in Tokyo, Japan, best known for its Romancecar series of limited express trains from Tokyo to Odawara, Enoshima, Tama New Town, and Hakone.
The Odakyu Electric Railway forms the core of the Odakyu Group, which comprises 102 companies (as of August 1, 2012) and includes the Enoshima Electric Railway, Hakone Tozan Railway, Odakyu Bus, Odakyu Department Store, and Hyatt Regency Tokyo hotel.
The 83 km line from Shinjuku to Odawara opened for service on April 1, 1927. Unlike the Odawara line, rarely were pre-WWII Japanese private railways constructed with double-track and fully electrified from the first day of operation. Two years later, April 1, 1929, the Enoshima Line was added.
The original full name of the railroad was Odawara Express Railway Co., Ltd. (小田原急行鉄道株式会社 Odawara Kyūkō Tetsudō Kabushiki-gaisha ), but this was often shortened to Odawara Kyūkō (Odawara Express). The abbreviation Odakyu was made popular by the title song of the 1929 movie Tokyo Kōshinkyoku and eventually became the official name of the railroad on March 1, 1941.
On May 1, 1942, Odakyu merged with the Tokyo-Yokohama Electric Railway company (now Tokyu Corporation), which controlled all private railway services west and south of Tokyo by the end of World War II. The company regained its independence on June 1, 1948, and it obtained a large amount of Hakone Tozan Railway stocks, instead of separating Keiō Inokashira Line for Keio Corporation. Odakyu restarted Non-stop Limited Express service between Shinjuku and Odawara in 1948. In 1950, Odakyu trains ran through to Hakone-Yumoto on Hakone Tozan Line. Odakyu uses narrow gauge (1,067 mm) tracks, but the Hakone Tozan Railway is standard gauge (1,435 mm), so one track of the section from Odawara to Hakone-Yumoto (6.1 km) was changed to a dual gauge system. Odakyu operated the first Romancecar (1710 series) limited express in 1951.
After the 1950s, due to rapid Japanese economic growth, Odakyu was faced with an explosive increase of population along with its lines. Commuter passengers had to use very crowded trains every morning, and complained strongly with the delay of improvements from the railway company. Odakyu began construction on the - "Shinjuku Station Great Improvement Project" setting 5 lines and 10 platforms long enough for 10 standard commuter cars with service on the Chiyoda Line, among others. Plans for a four-track system in 1964 were prevented by residents of Setagaya Ward in Tokyo, as such the system remains uncompleted. The Setagaya Residents' opposition set the stage for a long-term and remarkable case in the courts and legislature. Odakyu could not take main part of transport from Tama New Town Area, though Odakyu started the operation of Tama Line in 1974. To serve its Mukōgaoka-Yūen Amusement Park, Odakyu operated the Mukōgaoka-Yūen Monorail Line between Mukōgaoka-Yūen and Mukōgaoka-Yūen-Seimon (1.1 km, 2 stations) beginning in 1966 using a Lockheed Corporationstyle monorail system; the system was closed in 2001 when the amusement park was shut down.
Since 2000, Odakyū has been adding track in both directions from Izumi-Tamagawa Station, on Tama River, the border station of Tokyo, to just outside of Setagaya-Daita Station for expanding the availability of express trains, especially for morning commuter service. The lines between Setagaya-Daita and Higashi-Kitazawa Station are still under construction, however. Odakyu announced that the bottle-neck will be resolved by 2013.
With few exceptions, all of its lines are double- or quadruple-tracked, and its Odawara Line acts as a bypass route for the Tōkaidō Main Line from Tokyo to western Kanagawa. The Romancecar 3000 series "SE" was tested at speeds of up to 145 km/h in 1957, achieving a world record for narrow gauge (1067 mm) lines at the time. These tests also provided important data on high-speed electric multiple units (EMU), which Japanese National Railways (JNR) used for its limited express EMUs, 151 series, and 0 Series Shinkansen introduced in the early 1960s.
Odakyu celebrated its 80th anniversary in April 2007. The 50th anniversary of the Romancecar was celebrated in September 2007.
|Line||Section||Length (km)||Stations||Date opened|
|Odawara Line||Shinjuku - Odawara||82.5||47||April 1, 1927|
|Enoshima Line||Sagami-Ōno - Katase-Enoshima||27.4||17||April 1, 1929|
|Tama Line||Shin-Yurigaoka - Karakida||10.6||8||June 1, 1974 (in part)
March 27, 1990 (full)
- Not including the connecting branch between Odawara Line and JR Central Gotemba Line near Shin-Matsuda Station.
- Many Odakyu Tama Line trains (and selected Odawara Line trains from Hon-Atsugi continue on to the Chiyoda and Jōban lines for Ayase and - Toride stations. This service began in 1978 between Hon-Atsugi and Abiko stations.
- Some Odakyū trains continue on the Odakyu-owned Hakone Tozan Line to Hakone-Yumoto.
- Limited express Asagiri trains travel from Shinjuku through on the JR Central Gotemba Line to Numazu Station eight times a day.
(As of March 15, 2008 timetable revision)
|Limited Express||特急||Shinjuku, Kita-Senju, and Shin-Kiba to Hakone-Yumoto, Katase-Enoshima, Karakida or Numazu||Odakyū Odawara, Enoshima, Tama; Hakone Tozan; JR Central Gotemba; and Tokyo Metro Chiyoda and Yūrakuchō lines|
|Rapid Express||快速急行||Shinjuku to Fujisawa (one service on weekdays to Katase-Enoshima) or Odawara||Odakyū Odawara and Enoshima lines|
|Express||急行||Shinjuku to Odawara, Katase-Enoshima or Karakida||Odakyū Odawara, Enoshima, and Tama lines|
|Tama Express||多摩急行||Toride, Abiko or Ayase and Karakida via Yoyogi-Uehara||Odakyū Odawara, Tama; Tokyo Metro Chiyoda, and JR East Jōban lines|
|Semi Express||準急||Shinjuku to Hon-Atsugi (Odawara)||Odakyū Odawara Line|
|Sectional Semi Express||区間準急||Shinjuku to Karakida, Mukogaoka-Yuen or Hon-Atsugi||Odakyū Odawara and Tama lines|
|Local||各駅停車||in all sections, includes to/from Hakone-Yumoto on Hakone Tozan Line (occasionally between Odawara and Shin-Matsuda)||Odakyū Odawara, Enoshima, Tama; and Hakone Tozan lines|
Romancecar limited express services require a supplementary surcharge.
Limited express service
Shinjuku Station routes
Commuter service is shown on each line's page.
|Station||Japanese||Distance (km)||Super Hakone||Hakone||Sagami||Asagiri||Enoshima||Homeway||Lines|
|Shinjuku||新宿||-||●||●||●||●||●||●||Odakyū Odawara Line|
|Hakone-Yumoto||箱根湯本||88.6||●||●||∥||∥||●||Hakone Tozan Line|
|Yamato||大和||39.9||∥||●||●||Odakyū Enoshima Line|
|Odakyū-Nagayama||小田急永山||28.3||∥||●||Odakyū Tama Line|
|Matsuda||松田||71.8||●||JR Central Gotemba Line|
- Asagiri trains run on the connecting branch line just before Shin-Matsuda from Shinjuku and stops at Matsuda on the Gotemba Line. Matsuda and Shin-Matsuda are treated as the same station.
- Homeway trains run from Shinjuku every evening after 18:00. There is no service to Shinjuku.
Tokyo Metro routes
Commuter service is shown on each line's page.
|Station||Japanese||Distance (km)||Metro Homeway||Metro Hakone||Metro Sagami||Bay Resort||Lines|
|Shin-Kiba||新木場||●||Tokyo Metro Yūrakuchō Line|
|Kita-Senju||北千住||0.0||●||●||●||∥||Tokyo Metro Chiyoda Line|
|Odakyū Odawara Line|
|Hakone Tozan Line|
|Odakyū-Nagayama||小田急永山||44.1||●||Odakyū Tama Line|
- At Yoyogi-Uehara, all trains pause, but there is no service for passengers; Odakyū and Tokyo Metro change their operating staff at the station.
- On weekday mornings, Metro Sagami trains run once from Hon-Atsugi to Kita-Senju.
- On weekday evenings, Metro Homeway trains run twice from Hon-Atsugi to Kita-Senju and once from Ōtemachi to Hon-Atsugi.
- On weekends and holidays, Metro Hakone trains run between Kita-Senju and Hakone-Yumoto four times; Metro Sagami (once in the morning) and Metro Homeway (once in the evening) trains also run between Kita-Senju and Hon-Atsugi.
- Once or twice per month, Metro Sagami and Metro Homeway become Bay Resort trains, traveling between Shin-Kiba and Hon-Atsugi. They travel to/from the Tokyo Metro Yūrakuchō and Chiyoda lines.
|●||all trains stop|
|■||some trains stop|
|｜||all trains pass|
|∥||trains do not travel through this section|
- 3000 series "SE" (1957–1991)
- 3100 series "NSE" (1963–2000)
- 7000 series "LSE" (introduced 1980)
- 10000 series "HiSE" (1987–2012)
- 20000 series "RSE" (introduced 1991)
- 30000 series "EXE" (introduced 1996)
- 50000 series "VSE" (introduced 2005)
- 60000 series "MSE" (introduced 2008)
- 1000 series (introduced 1988)
- 2000 series (introduced 1995)
- 3000 series (introduced 2002)
- 4000 series (introduced 2007)
- 5000 series (introduced 1969)
- 8000 series (introduced 1982)
Odakyu Electric Railway in media
The Odakyu Railway has been included in several Japanese language train simulator programs as well as the English language Microsoft Train Simulator program. Microsoft Train Simulator includes the railway's Odawara and Hakone Tozan lines, collectively referred to as the "Tokyo-Hakone" route. You can drive two of the trains that travel on the line; the 2000 series commuter trainset and the 7000 series "LSE" Romancecar trainset. Several "activities", or scenarios, are included.
Various Odakyu add-ins are available for the BVE Train Simulator, a freeware cab view train simulator for Microsoft Windows.
- Ubukata, Yoshio and Morokawa, Hisashi (1988). Odakyu – Color Books No. 768 (in Japanese). Osaka: Hoikusha. p. 148.
- Seidensticker, Edward (1990). Tokyo Rising : the city since the great earthquake. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. ISBN 0-394-54360-2
- Lee, A. (2011). Tokyo commute : Japanese customs and way of life viewed from the Odakyu Line. Folkestone, Kent: Renaissance Books.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Odakyu Electric Railway.|
- Odakyu Electric Railway (Japanese)
- Odakyu Electric Railway (English)
- Evolution of Railway Technology (prominently mentions Odakyu 3000 series SE Romance Car trainsets) (English)
- Shimochika-navi (concerning construction between Higashi-Kitazawa and Setagaya-Daita stations) (Japanese)