The first name of the village was "Otolteshusir" in 814.
The name came from Otolt or Odholt - the oldest clan in the area, which live there around 600 or earlier.
The village was built next to the brook, as there were sufficient pasture fields for a farming community.
Odelzhausen has a castle, that was already built by 1247. The owners changed often, there were noble and civilian owners, and owners that were only interested in the attached brewery. Today the castle still has a functioning brewery, and also functions as a hotel and restaurant.
In the middle of the 14th century the old and decrepit Roman road was replaced with country roads from Munich through Dachau and Odelzhausen, heading to Freising and Augsburg.
For the first time in 1440 the village earner the designation "Hofmark" - signaling a right of self-rule for the village and its district.
During the 30 Year War the village incurred a heavy toll. The church was burnt down, the castle was plundered.
Since around 1700 there has been a school in Odelzhausen, used by the people in neighboring areas.
Since 1803 Odelzhausen has possessed "Das Marktrecht", or the ability to host markets.