Odessa Oblast

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Odessa Oblast
Одесская область
Odes’ka oblast’
Oblast
Flag of Odessa Oblast
Flag
Coat of arms of Odessa Oblast
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Одещина (Odeshchyna)
Odessa in Ukraine.svg
Country  Ukraine
Administrative center Odessa
Government
 • Governor Ihor Palytsia[1] (independent[2])
 • Oblast council 120 seats
 • Chairperson Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions)
Area
 • Total 33,310 km2 (12,860 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 1st
Population (September 1, 2013[3])
 • Total Decrease 2,392,487
 • Rank Ranked 6
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 65000-68999
Area code +380-48
ISO 3166 code UA-51
Raions 26
Cities (total)
— Regional cities
19
7
Urban-type settlements 33
Villages 1138
FIPS 10-4 UP17
Website www.odessa.gov.ua

Odessa Oblast (Ukrainian: Одеська область, Odes’ka oblast’; also Odeshchyna (Одещина)) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Its administrative center is the city of Odessa.

History[edit]

The evidence of the earliest inhabitants in this area comes from the settlements and burial grounds of the Neolithic Gumelniţa, Cucuteni-Trypillian and Usatovo cultures, as well as tumuli and hoards of the Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Europeans. In the 1st millennium B.C. the Milesian Greeks built colonies along the North Black Sea Coast, including the towns of Olbia, Tyras, Niconium, Panticapaeum, and Chersonesus. The Greeks left behind painted vessels, ceramics, sculptures, inscriptions, arts and crafts that indicate the prosperity of their ancient civilisation.

The culture of Scythian tribes inhabiting the Black Sea littoral steppes is represented by finds from settlements and burial grounds. There are weapon items, bronze cauldrons, other utensils, adornments. By the beginning of the 1st millennium A.D. the Sarmatians displaced the Scythians. In the 3rd–4th centuries A.D. the tribal alliance, represented by the items of Chernyakhov culture, was created. Since the middle of the first millennium the formation of Slavic people began. In the 9th century they were united into a state with Kiev as a centre. The Khazars, Polovtsy, Pechenegs were the Slavs' neighbours during the different times. The period of the 9th–14th centuries is reflected by the materials from the settlements and cities of Kievan Rus', Belgorod, Caffa-Theodosia, Berezan Island.

Since the modern history period it was known as the Dnieper Provice (Ozu Eyalet) ruled by the Ottoman Empire and was unofficially known as the Khanate of Ukraine. In Russian historiography it was referred to as the Ochakov Oblast. The territory of the Odessa oblast was passed to Russia during the Russian southern expansion towards the Black Sea at the end of 18th century. Since then Russians heavily colonized the area establishing new cities and ports. In less than a hundred years the city of Odessa grew from a small fortress to the biggest metropolis of the New Russia.

After the World War I and February Revolution the area became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic, but soon it was lost first to the Russian Volunteer Army and then the Russian Red Army. By 1920 the territory of Odessa Oblast was secured by the Soviet authorities and became part of the Ukrainian SSR. The oblast was created on 27 February 1932 from five districts: Odessa Okruha, Pervomaisk Okruha, Kirovohrad Okruha, Mykolaiv Okruha, and Kherson Okruha. Before the World War II in 1937 eastern portions of the Odessa Oblast were split to create the Mykolaiv Oblast. During the World War II it was occupied by Romania as the Transnistria Province. After the war it was reestablished with its pre-war borders. Odessa Oblast was expanded in 1954 by absorbing Izmail Oblast (formerly known as Budjak region of Bessarabia).

Geography[edit]

The country's largest oblast by area, it occupies an area of around 33,300 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi). It is characterised by largely flat steppes divided by the estuary of the Dniester river. Its Black Sea coast comprises numerous sandy beaches, estuaries and lagoons. The region's soils are renowned for their fertility, and intensive agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy. The southwest possesses many orchards and vineyards, while arable crops are grown throughout the region.

Points of interest[edit]

Akkerman fortress

Economy[edit]

Rapeseed Field in Odessa Oblast.

Significant branches of the oblast's economy are:

The region's industrial capability is principally concentrated in and around Odessa.

Demographics[edit]

The oblast's population (as of 2004) is 2.4 million people, nearly 40% of whom live in the city of Odessa.

Significant Bulgarian (6.1%) and Romanian (5.0%) minorities reside in the province.[4] It has the highest proportion of Jews of any oblast in Ukraine (although smaller than the Autonomous City of Kiev) and there is a small Greek community in the city of Odessa.

Bulgarians and Moldovans / Romanians represent 21% and 13% respectively, of the population in the region of Budjak, within Odessa oblast.

Year Fertility Birth Year Fertility Birth Year Fertility Birth
1990 1,8 33 166 2000 1,1 20 042 2010 1,6 28 690
1991 1,7 32 119 2001 1,1 20 423 2011 1,6 29 225
1992 1,6 30 155 2002 1,2 21 227 2012 1,7 30 384
1993 1,5 28 185 2003 1,2 22 326
1994 1,4 26 197 2004 1,3 23 343
1995 1,4 24 993 2005 1,3 23 915
1996 1,3 23 666 2006 1,4 25 113
1997 1,2 22 491 2007 1,5 26 759
1998 1,2 21 273 2008 1,6 28 780
1999 1,1 19 969 2009 1,6 28 986

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 15.5% Increase (male 188,937/female 179,536)
15-64 years: 70.7% Decrease (male 812,411/female 867,706)
65 years and over: 14.0% Decrease (male 116,702/female 218,808) (2013 official)

Median age[edit]

total: 38.4 years Steady
male: 35.4 years Steady
female: 41.5 years Increase (2013 official)

Administrative divisions[edit]

Detailed map of Odessa Oblast.

The Odessa Oblast is administratively subdivided into 26 raions (districts) and 7 municipalities which are directly subordinate to the oblast government - 2 mis'krada (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi and Illichivsk); and 5 misto (Izmail, Kotovsk, Teplodar, Yuzhne and the administrative center of the oblast, Odessa).

Name Ukrainian Name Area
(km2)
Population
Census 2001
Population
Estimate[5]
1 Jan 2012
Capital
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (city) * Білгород-Дністровськ (Міськрада) 31 58,436 57,206 Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
Illichivsk (city) Іллічівськ (Міськрада) 25 63,726 71,691 Illichivs'k
Izmail (city) * Ізмаїлі (місто) 53 84,815 73,651 -
Kotovsk (city) Котовськ (місто) 15 40,718 40,700 -
Odesa (city) Одеса (місто) 139 1,029,049 1,008,162 -
Teplodar (city) Теплодар (місто) 3 8,830 10,165 -
Yuzhne (city) Южне (місто) 9 23,977 30,857 -
Ananyiv Raion Ананьївський (район) 1,050 32,619 28,013 Ananyiv
Artsyz Raion * Арцизький (район) 1,379 51,251 46,213 Artsyz
Balta Raion Балтський (район) 1,317 48,697 43,081 Balta
Berezivka Raion Березівський (район) 1,637 36,173 34,006 Berezivka
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion * Білгород-Дністровський (район) 1,852 62,255 60,378 Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
Biliaivka Raion Біляївський (район) 1,497 103,988 93,242 Biliaivka
Bolhrad Raion * Болградський (район) 1,364 73,991 69,572 Bolhrad
Frunzivka Raion Фрунзівський (район) 956 20,944 20,091 Frunzivka
Ivanivka Raion Іванівський (район) 1,162 29,184 26,828 Ivanivka
Izmail Raion * Ізмаїльський (район) 1,194 54,550 52,031 Izmail
Kiliya Raion * Кілійський (район) 1,358 58,707 53,585 Kilia
Kodyma Raion Кодимський (район) 818 34,523 30,484 Kodyma
Kominternivske Raion Комінтернівський (район) 1,499 67,207 69,243 Kominternivske
Kotovsk Raion Котовський (район) 1,037 30,627 28,018 Kotovsk
Krasni Okny Raion Красноокнянський (район) 1,013 22,872 20,433 Krasni Okny
Liubashivka Raion Любашівський (район) 1,100 33,544 31,089 Liubashivka
Mykolaivka Raion Миколаївський (район) 1,093 20,158 16,599 Mykolaivka
Ovidiopol Raion Овідіопольський (район) 829 60,294 72,097 Ovidiopol
Reni Raion * Ренійський (район) 861 39,903 37,986 Reni
Rozdilna Raion Роздільнянський (район) 1,368 56,727 57,677 Rozdilna
Sarata Raion * Саратський (район) 1,474 49,911 45,813 Sarata
Savran Raion Савранський (район) 617 22,176 19,740 Savran
Shyriaieve Raion Ширяївський (район) 1,502 29,754 27,494 Shyriaieve
Tarutyne Raion * Тарутинський (район) 1,874 45,175 41,975 Tarutyne
Tatarbunary Raion * Татарбунарський (район) 1,748 41,573 39,164 Tatarbunary
Velyka Mykhailivka Raion Великомихайлівський (район) 1,436 32,703 31,013 Velyka Mykhailivka
  • Note: An asterisk (*) indicates the two municipalities and nine raions which previously constituted Izmail Oblast until that former oblast's merger with Odessa Oblast on 15 February 1954; these areas lie to the west of the Dniester River, and formerly constituted the territory known as the Budjak (southern Bessarabia).

Nomenclature[edit]

Most of Ukraine's oblasts are named after their capital cities, officially referred to as "oblast centers" (Ukrainian: обласний центр, translit. oblasnyi tsentr). The name of each oblast is a relative adjective, formed by adding a feminine suffix to the name of respective center city: Odessa is the center of the Odes’ka oblast’ (Odessa Oblast). Most oblasts are also sometimes referred to in a feminine noun form, following the convention of traditional regional place names, ending with the suffix "-shchyna", as is the case with the Odessa Oblast, Odeshchyna. In Romanian, it is known as Regiunea Odesa, and in Greek, as Οδησσός.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°00′N 30°00′E / 47.000°N 30.000°E / 47.000; 30.000