Odessa Oblast

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Odessa Oblast
Одеська область
Odes’ka oblast’
Oblast
Flag of Odessa Oblast
Flag
Coat of arms of Odessa Oblast
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Одещина (Odeshchyna)
Odessa in Ukraine.svg
Country  Ukraine
Administrative center Odessa
Government
 • Governor Volodymyr Nemyrovsky[1] (Batkivshchyna[1])
 • Oblast council 120 seats
 • Chairperson Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions)
Area
 • Total 33,310 km2 (12,860 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 1st
Population (September 1, 2013[2])
 • Total Decrease 2,392,487
 • Rank Ranked 6
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 65000-68999
Area code +380-48
ISO 3166 code UA-51
Raions 26
Cities (total)
— Regional cities
19
7
Urban-type settlements 33
Villages 1138
FIPS 10-4 UP17
Website www.odessa.gov.ua

Odessa Oblast (Ukrainian: Одеська область, Odes’ka oblast’; also Odeshchyna (Одещина)) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Its administrative center is the city of Odessa.

History[edit]

The evidence of the earliest inhabitants in this area comes from the settlements and burial grounds of the Neolithic Gumelniţa, Cucuteni-Trypillian and Usatovo cultures, as well as tumuli and hoards of the Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Europeans. In the 1st millennium B.C. the Milesian Greeks built colonies along the North Black Sea Coast, including the towns of Olbia, Tyras, Niconium, Panticapaeum, and Chersonesus. The Greeks left behind painted vessels, ceramics, sculptures, inscriptions, arts and crafts that indicate the prosperity of their ancient civilisation.

The culture of Scythian tribes inhabiting the Black Sea littoral steppes is represented by finds from settlements and burial grounds. There are weapon items, bronze cauldrons, other utensils, adornments. By the beginning of the 1st millennium A.D. the Sarmatians displaced the Scythians. In the 3rd–4th centuries A.D. the tribal alliance, represented by the items of Chernyakhov culture, was created. Since the middle of the first millennium the formation of Slavic people began. In the 9th century they were united into a state with Kiev as a centre. The Khazars, Polovtsy, Pechenegs were the Slavs' neighbours during the different times. The period of the 9th–14th centuries is reflected by the materials from the settlements and cities of Kievan Rus', Belgorod, Caffa-Theodosia, Berezan Island.

Since the modern history period it was known as the Dnieper Provice (Ozu Eyalet) ruled by the Ottoman Empire and was unofficially known as the Khanate of Ukraine. In Russian historiography it was referred to as the Ochakov Oblast. The territory of the Odessa oblast was passed to Russia during the Russian southern expansion towards the Black Sea at the end of 18th century. Since then Russians heavily colonized the area establishing new cities and ports. In less than a hundred years the city of Odessa grew from a small fortress to the biggest metropolis of the New Russia.

After the World War I and February Revolution the area became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic, but soon it was lost first to the Russian Volunteer Army and then the Russian Red Army. By 1920 the territory of Odessa Oblast was secured by the Soviet authorities and became part of the Ukrainian SSR. The oblast was created on 27 February 1932 from five districts: Odessa Okruha, Pervomaisk Okruha, Kirovohrad Okruha, Mykolaiv Okruha, and Kherson Okruha. Before the World War II in 1937 eastern portions of the Odessa Oblast were split to create the Mykolaiv Oblast. During the World War II it was occupied by Romania as the Transnistria Province. After the war it was reestablished with its pre-war borders. Odessa Oblast was expanded in 1954 by absorbing Izmail Oblast (formerly known as Budjak region of Bessarabia).

Geography[edit]

The country's largest oblast by area, it occupies an area of around 33,300 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi). It is characterised by largely flat steppes divided by the estuary of the Dniester river. Its Black Sea coast comprises numerous sandy beaches, estuaries and lagoons. The region's soils are renowned for their fertility, and intensive agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy. The southwest possesses many orchards and vineyards, while arable crops are grown throughout the region.

Points of interest[edit]

Economy[edit]

Rapeseed Field in Odessa Oblast.

Significant branches of the oblast's economy are:

The region's industrial capability is principally concentrated in and around Odessa.

Demographics[edit]

The oblast's population (as of 2004) is 2.4 million people, nearly 40% of whom live in the city of Odessa.

Significant Bulgarian (6.1%) and Romanian (5.0%) minorities reside in the province.[3] It has the highest proportion of Jews of any oblast in Ukraine (although smaller than the Autonomous City of Kiev) and there is a small Greek community in the city of Odessa.

Bulgarians and Moldovans / Romanians represent 21% and 13% respectively, of the population in the region of Budjak, within Odessa oblast.

Year Fertility Birth Year Fertility Birth Year Fertility Birth
1990 1,8 33 166 2000 1,1 20 042 2010 1,6 28 690
1991 1,7 32 119 2001 1,1 20 423 2011 1,6 29 225
1992 1,6 30 155 2002 1,2 21 227 2012 1,7 30 384
1993 1,5 28 185 2003 1,2 22 326
1994 1,4 26 197 2004 1,3 23 343
1995 1,4 24 993 2005 1,3 23 915
1996 1,3 23 666 2006 1,4 25 113
1997 1,2 22 491 2007 1,5 26 759
1998 1,2 21 273 2008 1,6 28 780
1999 1,1 19 969 2009 1,6 28 986

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 15.5% Increase (male 188,937/female 179,536)
15-64 years: 70.7% Decrease (male 812,411/female 867,706)
65 years and over: 14.0% Decrease (male 116,702/female 218,808) (2013 official)

Median age[edit]

total: 38.4 years Steady
male: 35.4 years Steady
female: 41.5 years Increase (2013 official)

Subdivisions[edit]

Detailed map of Odessa Oblast.

The Odessa Oblast is administratively subdivided into 26 raions (districts), as well as 7 misto / mis'krada (municipalities) which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Illichivsk, Izmail, Kotovsk, Teplodar, Yuzhne, and the administrative center of the oblast, Odessa.

Raions of the Odessa Oblast

Autonomous Cities of the Odessa Oblast
In English In Ukrainian Administrative Centre Area in km2 Population at
Census 2001
Population at
Estimate 2012
Odesa misto Одеса, місто 139 1,029,049 1,008,162
Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi mis'krada Білгород-Дністровськ, Міськрада Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi 31 58,436 57,206
Izmaïl misto Ізмаїлі, місто 53 84,815 73,651
Illichivs'k mis'krada Іллічівськ, Міськрада Illichivs'k 25 63,726 71,691
Kotovs'k misto Котовськ, містo 15 40,718 40,700
Teplodar misto Теплодар, місто 3 8,830 10,165
Iuzhne misto Южне, місто 9 23,977 30,857
In English In Ukrainian Administrative Center
Ananyiv Raion Ананьївський район
Anan'yivs'kyi raion
Ananyiv
(City)
Artsyz Raion Арцизький район
Artsyz'kyi raion
Artsyz
(City)
Balta Raion Балтський район
Balts'kyi raion
Balta
(City)
Berezivka Raion Березівський район
Berezivs'kyi raion
Berezivka
(City)
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion Білгород-Дністровський район
Bilhorod-Dnistrovs'kyi raion
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi
(City)
Biliayivka Raion Біляївський район
Biliayivs'kyi raion
Biliayivka
(City)
Bolhrad Raion Болградський район
Bolhrads'kyi raion
Bolhrad
(City)
Frunzivka Raion Фрунзівський район
Frunzivs'kyi raion
Frunzivka
(Urban-type settlement)
Ivanivka Raion Іванівський район
Ivanivs'kyi raion
Ivanivka
(Urban-type settlement)
Izmail Raion Ізмаїльський район
Izmails'kyi raion
Izmail
(City)
Kiliya Raion Кілійський район
Kiliys'kyi raion
Kilia
(City)
Kodyma Raion Кодимський район
Kodyms'kyi raion
Kodyma
(City)
Kominternivske Raion Комінтернівський район
Kominternivs'kyi raion
Kominternivske
(Urban-type settlement)
Kotovsk Raion Котовський район
Kotovs'kyi raion
Kotovsk
(City)
Krasni Okny Raion Красноокнянський район
Krasno-oknians'kyi raion
Krasni Okny
(Urban-type settlement)
Liubashivka Raion Любашівський район
Liubashivs'kyi raion
Liubashivka
(Urban-type settlement)
Mykolaivka Raion Миколаївський район
Mykolayivs'kyi raion
Mykolaivka
(Urban-type settlement)
Ovidiopol Raion Овідіопольський район
Ovidiopols'kyi raion
Ovidiopol
(Urban-type settlement)
Reni Raion Ренійський район
Reniys'kyi raion
Reni
(City)
Rozdilna Raion Роздільнянський район
Rozdil'nians'kyi raion
Rozdilna
(City)
Sarata Raion Саратський район
Sarats'kyi raion
Sarata
(Urban-type settlement)
Savran Raion Савранський район
Savrans'kyi raion
Savran
(Urban-type settlement)
Shyriayeve Raion Ширяївський район
Shyriayivs'kyi raion
Shyriaieve
(Urban-type settlement)
Tarutyne Raion Тарутинський район
Tarutyns'kyi raion
Tarutyne
(Urban-type settlement)
Tatarbunary Raion Татарбунарський район
Tatarbunars'kyi raion
Tatarbunary
(City)
Velyka Mykhailivka Raion Великомихайлівський район
Velykomykhailivs'kyi raion
Velyka Mykhailivka
(Urban-type settlement)

Nomenclature[edit]

Most of Ukraine's oblasts are named after their capital cities, officially referred to as "oblast centers" (Ukrainian: обласний центр, translit. oblasnyi tsentr). The name of each oblast is a relative adjective, formed by adding a feminine suffix to the name of respective center city: Odessa is the center of the Odes’ka oblast’ (Odessa Oblast). Most oblasts are also sometimes referred to in a feminine noun form, following the convention of traditional regional place names, ending with the suffix "-shchyna", as is the case with the Odessa Oblast, Odeshchyna. In Romanian, it is known as Regiunea Odesa, and in Greek, as Οδησσός.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°00′N 30°00′E / 47.000°N 30.000°E / 47.000; 30.000