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This article is about the traditional spiritual practices of the Igbo people. For their traditional cultural practices in general, see Igbo culture.
Part of the series on
Igbo mythology and spirituality

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God Almighty

Divinities (Alusi)
Ala | Amadioha | Anyanwu | Igwe
Agwu Nsi | Ekwensu | Ikenga | Ndebunze

Legendary creatures and concepts
Mmuo | Ogu na Ofo
Inouwa | Ogbanje

Legendary figures
Agbala | Eri
Owumiri | Mmanwu

Chi | Ekpe
Osu | Inouwa

Sacred places
Earth | Aguleri | Ibini Ukpabi

Obeah | Jonkonnu

Ọdinani is the traditional religion and cultural beliefs of the Igbo people.[1] Odinani is a monotheistic[2] and panentheistic faith, having a God. Although a pantheon of spirits exists, the lesser spirits prevalent in Odinani expressly serve as elements of Chukwu.[3]


Ọdinani, Ọdinana, and Ọdinala derive from "Ọ di" (Igbo: it is ) + n'(na - Igbo: on/within) + "Ani" (Igbo: the Land or the Earth goddess) in the Northern Igbo dialects.[3]

Omenala, Omenana, and Omenani derive from "O me" (Igbo: it happens ) + n'(na - Igbo: on/within) + "Ala" (Igbo: the Land or the physical manifestation of the Earth goddess as dry land) as used primarily in the Southern Igbo dialects.[4]


Main article: Alusi

Chukwu's incarnations in the world (Igbo: uwa) are the Alusi. The Alusi, who are also known as Arushi, Anusi, or Arusi in differing dialects all spring from Ala the earth spirit who embodies the workings of the world. There are lesser Alusi in Odinani, each of whom are responsible for a specific aspect of nature or abstract concept. According to Igbo belief, these lesser Alusi, as elements of Chukwu, have their own specific purpose.[5]


Main article: Ala (Odinani)

Ala (meaning 'earth' in Igbo) is the earth spirit who is also responsible for morality and fertility and the dead ancestors who are stored in the underworld in her womb. She is the ground itself, and for this reason taboos and crimes are known as nsọ ala ("desecration of Ala"). Ala is depicted in Mbari temples of the Owerre-Igbo, but smaller shrines are placed in the public squares of communities and in the homes of her devotees.


Main article: Amadioha

Amadioha (meaning "free will of the people" in Igbo) is the Alusi of thunder and lightning and is referred to as Amadiora, Kamalu, Kamanu, or Ofufe in certain parts of Igboland.[6][7][8] His governing planet is the Sun.[9] His color is red, and his symbol is a white ram.[10] Metaphysically, Amadioha represents the collective will of the people and he is often associated with Anyanwu.[11] While Anyanwu is more prominent in northern Igboland, Amadioha is more prominent in the south. His day is Afor, which is the second day of the Igbo four day week.[12]


Main article: Anyanwu


Main article: Igwe

Igwe is the Alusi of the sky and the husband of Ala. He produces rain to replenish the earth and the earth goddess to aid her productiveness.[5]

Other Alusi[edit]

Njoku Ji[edit]

Main article: Njoku Ji

Agwu Nsi[edit]

Main article: Agwu Nsi


Main article: Ndebunze

Ndebunze, or Ndichie, are the deceased ancestors. In Odinani, it is believed that the dead ancestors are invisible members of the community; their role in the community, in conjunction with Ala, is to protect the community from epidemics and strife such as famine and small pox.[5]


Main article: Ikenga


Main article: Ekwensu

Ekwensu is an Igbo spirit with a convoluted modern identity. Among the Christian Igbo, this spirit is misrepresented as Satan and is seen as a force which places itself opposite to that of Chukwu.[13] This Alusi was adept at bargains and trade, and praying to Ekwensu was said to guarantee victory in negotiations. As a force of change and chaos, Ekwensu also represented the spirit of war among the Igbo. He was invoked during times of conflict and banished during peacetime to avoid his influences inciting bloodshed in the community. This is based upon the finding of old shrines dedicated to the worship of the spirit[14] as well as the recounting of old oral stories which depict the character of Ekwensu.[15]


Ọdịnala is a panentheistic faith, having a strong central deity at its head. All things spring from this deity. Although semi – pantheon exists in the belief system, as it does in many indigenous African and Eastern religions.

Chukwu is the central deity. Chukwu as the creator of everything (visible and invisible) and the source of other deities is referred to as Chineke. Chukwu is genderless possessing the supreme power in the cosmos control.

To the ancient Igbo, the force that is Chukwu is infinitely powerful that no mmadu (human being) approach this force directly. Also, the force does not impact into our worlds directly but rather through lower force (s). The general truth is that no person can work with or deal with Chukwu directly without passing through the lower force (s). This is why the Igbo people were easily captured by the teachings of the imported western religion which holds that either Christ of Christianity or Mohammed of Islam is a lower force.

The lower force(s) are the outflows from the main stream; sparks from the supreme force that takes forms. They are the incarnations of the almighty Chukwu. Ọdịnala identify these lower forces by their names and use a collective term Arushi to describe them. If an Arushi is assigned to an individual, it becomes a Chi.

The term ‘panentheism’ refer to as a belief system which posits that God personally exists, interpenetrates every part of nature and timelessly extends beyond it. Such interpenetrations in a spiritual view occur as lower deities or Arushi. Ọdịnala therefore, anchored its belief on the existence of only but one Supreme Being: Chukwu (God) and many lower supernatural beings or deities (Arushi).

‘Chukwu’ in Ọdịnala[edit]

In Ọdịnala, every individual is assigned a personal providence; Chi. The mathematics here is very simple. Depending on the number of people living presently on Earth (Uwa), as many as possible number of Chis may exist. A person’s Chi is his right in the main source that is Chukwu. Chi as a spiritual being, takes care of any mmadu (human being) assigned to him in the lower World.

The overall Chi that indirectly takes care of everything (visible and invisible) is therefore, called ‘Chi Ukwu’ or Chukwu, the Supreme Being. This is why the Igbos used the phrases/sentences: ‘chi awughi otu’--- ‘personal guardians are not the same for everybody’; ‘otu Chukwu’ or ‘ofu Chukwu’----‘only one God’; ‘Chukwu ebuka’---- ‘God is great’ and ‘mu na chimu’-----‘me and my godly guardian’.


There is a general spiritual law that one must pass through the lesser supernatural forces before he can make his ways to eternal. There are various routes that enable one to embark on a spiritual journey (i.e. different religion e.g. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Eckankar, Judaism, Godianism, Ọdịnalaism and so on). No matter the route chosen, one must meet these forces severally on the way. These supernatural forces are the agents of purification of human beings (mmadu). They effects compressed the road and make it look very narrow. They may even block the road to eternity and cause people to continue running on cycles and meeting bad spirits.

The purpose of Ọdịnala is to restore peace, love and harmony between mmadu and the supernatural forces or (Arushi or deities). By ensuring that peace reigned, we can then manipulate they negative outcomes (that supposed to intrude into our lives) to yield positive effects. Through this way, we can get to our promise land with less suffering or struggles.

To restore peace, love and harmony between mmadu and Arushi is all about the dictation of our personal providence, Chi and doing the right thing. The spiritual peace, love and harmony will cleansing a person with both inner and outer experiences and prepare his ways back Chukwu. This will also go a longer way to determine a person’s level of morality, peaceful existence, harmony and love to people in the society. Also, the person will be on his way to his destiny in the physical world (Uwa). Once your destiny is actualized, you can then relate religion to humanity.

Chi or karma[edit]

Chi is the personal spiritual guardian of a person. Chi as a personal providence is a divine agent assigned to each human from cradle to the coffin. Chukwu will assign one’s Chi before and at the time of birth, which remains with the person for the rest of his/her lives on Earth (Uwa). Chi simply means an Arushi (supernatural being) that is assigned to a human being for care, guardianship, and providence, which remains with that person until the end of their life on Earth. Unlike Chukwu which is genderless, Chi can be either feminine or masculine. It is the ocean Chukwu’s divine love that takes form on the lower world. It is the spark of Chukwu and the right of any mmadu in the main stream.

Chi determines a person’s successes, misfortunes, and failures throughout her/his lifetime. It serves as an intermediary between mmadu and Chukwu. The Igbo believe that their success in life is determined by their Chi, and that no human can rise past the greatness of his or her own Chi. In this respect, a person’s Chi is analogous to the concept of a guardian angel in Western Christianity, the daimon in ancient Greek religion, and the genius in ancient Roman religion.

To survive spiritually, one must establish a special relationship between oneself and one's godly guardian. This places the human person at the forefront of interlinked activities that involve other cosmic forces. But not so fast: He who walks before his godly guardian runs the race of his life: “Onye buru chi ya uzo, ogbagbue onwe ya n'oso.”

Dictation of Chi[edit]

The Igbo know that the Almighty Chukwu (God) cannot be manipulated in any way. Our lot is etched on the palm of our hands as destiny. One can’t decode it, but one can derail it. Chi, the personal godly guardian, can be coerced to help here: “Onye kwe chi ya ekwe” (whoever believeth, achieveth).

Chi as the lower force of Chukwu is the only means through which one can get connected. One spiritual law here is that “No one reaches Chukwu directly or gets favor directly from the same supreme force except through Chi.” In this sense, dictation of one’s Chi marks the beginning of one’s spiritual journey on Earth. This is one of the major practices of Ndiigbo.

Often, people receive prophecy that the major cause of their failure is a spirit of their home town. This is not a general spirit for everybody but rather one’s personal Chi. If you receive such a prophecy, it means that Ọdịnala is calling you, which is a problem to some people. The only solution to such a problem is to dictate your personal providence, Chi; identify it by name and know what the spirit wants and how to placate/negotiate with it.

This may be difficult if the Dibias (priest in Ọdịnala) are not there. The Dibia can identify a person’s Chi through divination and give more of an idea how to placate it. For such spiritual purposes, one can visit any of the real temples of Ọdịnala e.g. Ukoma/Duruojikeeme Temple, Umunumo Amandugba, Isu, LGA, Imo State. There are many other temples around Igboland and the Igbo diaspora.

Kolanut Communion[edit]

Kolanut communion is the only holy communion in Ọdịnala. It is used to honor Chukwu, Chi, Arushi and Ndiichie. In this case, it is expected that the lower forces will participate and send the glory to almighty Chukwu. Also, by pouring libations, participating in kolanut communions entails being innocent before applying justice ("jide ofo, jide ogu").

Kolanut communion can be performed personally between one and his spirit or in group. It is actually the only time Ndiigbo traditionally pray together. Here, one is expected to go into communion with his personal providence, Chi as well as other concerned Arushi and Ndiichie (ancestors’ saints). This will clear the narrow road to Chukwu and create an increase in spiritual consciousness as you bargain in your spiritual journey.

Taking into Benevolence of Deities[edit]

The spiritual journey back to Chukwu is considered to be too tough; and the road very narrow. The Igbo considered it more appropriate to negotiate and navigate natural forces around them; the will of God cannot be manipulated or changed. They just need to get there without too much hassle.

The Earth Deities control the activities of good and evil spirits, which occasionally attempt to misdirect the destiny of human beings. The Igbo enter into pacts with these forces to take into their benevolence. The process is called "igommuo"(to placate/negotiate—not worship—spirits). Even Agwu ("the divination force" or the trickster Arushi, which causes confusion in the life of human beings) can be manipulated in afa (divination) to yield good effects.

It should be noted that the term ‘igommuo’ is an Igbo word meaning ‘to placate or to negotiate’. This term is sometime used in a derogatory manner by some people who described themselves as children of God and criticized others as children of devil. Meanwhile, as either a practitioner or a spiritual student of Ọdịnala you shouldn’t be afraid when they use the term in such way. You are on the right channel to Chukwu.

Afterlife or the end[edit]

Ọdịnala belief in the concept of ‘life after life’. There are two cycles of life here. One cycle of this life is on earth while the other is in the spiritual world i.e. the other side of the realm. There are also two major calls in these cycles: (a). The inner call (which is to co-work with Chukwu in the spiritual world) and (b). The outer call (which is your destiny).

The final goal in Ọdịnala is anchored on answering the two calls once and for all in this lifetime with not too much hassle. Upon dictation of our personal providence (Chi), we are on our ways to our destiny (akalaaka). Actualizing ones destiny entails relating religion to humanity on Earth, thus answering the first call. The pattern of life chosen after meeting your destiny point will determine your level of acceptability after death as an ichie (a hallowed ancestor spirit or saint) in the spiritual world. In this case those who did good things on earth after meeting their destiny point; respect the laws of the land (iwu ala); died at ripened age and buried according to the traditions of the religion are usually accepted in the spiritual world to answer the final call.


Ekwensu is a deity in Ọdịnala. Ekwensu is also the Igbo word for “the tester”. In Igbo mythology, Ekwensu was explained as a force of change and chaos and also represents the Arushi (deity) of war.

As a male Arushi in Igbo pantheon, he was believed by the ancient Igbo people as a deity who was invoked during times of conflict and banished during peacetime to avoid his influences inciting bloodshed in the community. The ancient Igbo descriptions of Ekwensu could be seen as a deity with a convoluted modern identity.

Among the Christian Igbo, this deity is misrepresented as the Christian ‘Devil’ or ‘Satan’ or ‘Demon’ and is seen as a force which places itself opposite to that of Chukwu (God). They conclusion is that Ekwensu is an evil spirit; thus, creating a false dichotomy. Acceptance of such teaching by some Igbo was possible simply because Ndiigbo have forgotten the Igbo mythology which places God in everything.


Dibias are the spiritual masters and guardian of all spiritual students in the lower world (Uwa). The love of Chukwu has led to many dibias all over the Igbo land. Although, there are a lot of fake dibias and priests but the truth is still prevailing that dibias are the intermediates between a spiritual student and the spiritual world in Ọdịnala.

The physical destiny of a dibia is spiritual work. The dibias can see the spiritual world at any time and interpret what saw to his spiritual students. They are given the power to identify any Arushi by its name and as well prescribe possible ways of placating/negotiating with such spirit. They also use their power to identify herbs and their functions.

Spiritual Students[edit]

Spiritual students could be every other person other than the dibia. They are the followers of the religion. Unlike dibias, spiritual students do not see the spiritual world and are not even in need to do so. They have other business or work doing. They depend on the priest or dibias (i.e. the practitioner) for possible spiritual interpretations, placation / negotiation and divination. They may also depend on the dibias for herbs, charms and talisman –which may be used to overcome evil forces.

Mystic World[edit]

Writing or publishing works enable you understand what you’re doing; the life of Ndiigbo and how it relates to our spiritual journey. Its aim is to reach both practitioner and spiritual students of the religion with the new message especially the outer teachings while a person’s Chi will feed him up with inner teachings. Spiritual practitioner e.g. a dibia can through this means convey the good news to people while a spiritual student can learn from the same channel.


The Igbo believe in the concept of Ofo and Ogu, which is like the law of retributive justice. It is believed that Ofo and Ogu will vindicate anyone that is wrongly accused of a crime as long as their "hands are clean". It is only the one who is on the side of Ogu-na-Ofo that can call its name in prayer. Otherwise such a person will face the wrath of Amadioha (the god of thunder and lightning).[16]



Main article: Ogbanje

An Ogbanje (or Obanje) was believed to be an evil spirit that would deliberately plague a family with misfortune. It was believed[by whom?] that upon being born by the mother, under a certain amount of time (usually before puberty), the Ogbanje would deliberately die and then come back and repeat the cycle, causing the family grief. Female circumcision was sometimes thought to get rid of the evil spirit,[17] whereas finding the evil spirits Iyi-uwa, which they have dug somewhere secret, would ensure the Ogbanje would never plague the family with misfortune again. The Iyi-uwa was the Ogbanje's way of coming back to the world and also a way of finding its targeted family.[18]


The Igbo often make clay altars and shrines of their deities, usually with figures being featured in them. Typically, only men are allowed to make representational figures, however there are exceptions.[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Afulezy, Uju "On Odinani, the Igbo Religion", Niger Delta Congress, Nigeria, April 03, 2010
  2. ^ Ikenga International Journal of African Studies. Institute of African Studies, University of Nigeria. 1972. p. 103. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  3. ^ a b M. O. Ené "The fundamentals of Odinani", KWENU: Our Culture, Our Future, April 03, 2010.
  4. ^ Okwunodu Ogbechie, Sylvester: Ben Enwonwu: the making of an African modernist, page 161. University Rochester Press, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c Ilogu, Edmund (1974). Christianity and Ibo culture. Brill. pp. 34–36. ISBN 90-04-04021-8. 
  6. ^ McCall, John. Dancing Histories: Heuristic Ethnography with the Ohafia Igbo. Page 123
  7. ^ Oriji, John. Sacred Authority in Igbo Society. Page 115
  8. ^ Diala, Isidore. Ritual and Mythological Recuperation in the Drama of Esiaba Irobi. Page 101
  9. ^ Uchendu, Victor C. The Igbo of Southeast Nigeria. Page 96
  10. ^ Diala, Isidore. Ritual and Mythological Recuperation in the Drama of Esiaba Irobi. Page 104
  11. ^ Iwu, Maurice. Handbook of African medicinal plants. Page 320.
  12. ^ Patrick, Iroegbu. Igbo-Okija Oracles and Shrines, Development and Cultural Justice
  13. ^ A.I. Bewaji, John. "OLODUMARE: GOD IN YORUBA BELIEF AND THE THEISTIC PROBLEM OF EVIL.", University of Florida, Gainesville, April 03, 2010
  14. ^ Agozino, Emmanuel. ‘Ekwensu:God of victory not devil’, Nigerian Compass, Nsukka, April 03, 2010
  15. ^ "Ancient Igbo", AfriSacredStar, April 03, 2010
  16. ^ Ofo: Igbo Ritual Symbol by Christopher I. Ejizu
  17. ^ http://fgmnetwork.org/news/show_news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1170937325&archive=&template=
  18. ^ Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe
  19. ^ T. Phillips (ed.) "Ceramic altar for the new yam harvest festival", BritishMuseum.org, London, April 03, 2010

External links[edit]