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|Culture of Odisha|
Odissi, also known as Orissi (Oriya: ଓଡ଼ିଶୀ oṛiśī), is one of the eight classical dance forms of India. It originates from the state of Odisha, in eastern India. It is the oldest surviving dance form of India on the basis of archaeological evidences. The classic treatise of Indian dance, Natya Shastra, refers to it as Odra-Magadhi. 1st century BCE bas-reliefs in the hills of Udaygiri (near Bhubaneswar) testify to its antiquity. It was suppressed under the British Raj, but has been reconstructed since India gained independence. It is particularly distinguished from other classical Indian dance forms by the importance it places upon the Tribhangi (literally: three parts break), the independent movement of head, chest and pelvis and upon the basic square stance known as Chauka or Chouka that symbolises Lord Jagannath. This dance is characterised by various Bhangas (Stance), which involves stamping of the foot and striking various postures as seen in Indian sculptures. The common Bhangas are Bhanga, Abanga, Atibhanga and Tribhanga.
- 1 Origin and history
- 2 Tradition and dancers
- 3 Dance vocabulary and repertoire
- 4 Odissi terminology
- 5 Odissi music
- 6 Costume and Jewelry
- 7 Odissi gurus and performers
- 8 Odissi in Popular & Mainstream Culture
- 9 Further reading
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Origin and history
The first clear picture of Odissi dance is found in the Manchapuri cave in Udayagiri which was carved during the time of emperor Kharavela. Flanked by two queens, emperor Kharavela was watching a dance recital where a damsel was performing a dance in front of the court along with the company of female instrumentalists. Thus, Odissi can be traced back to its origin as secular dance. Later it got attached with the temple culture of Odisha. Starting with the rituals of Jagannath temple in Puri it was regularly performed in Shaivite, Vaishnavite and Sakta temples in Odisha. An inscription is found where it was engraved that a Devadasi Karpursri’s attachment to Buddhist monastery, where she was performing along with her mother and grandmother. It proves that Odissi first originated as a court dance. Later, it was performed in all religious places of Jainism as well as Buddhist monasteries. Odissi was initially performed in the temples as a religious offering by the Maharis who dedicated their lives in the services of God. It has the closest resemblance with sculptures of the Indian temples.
The history of Odissi dance has been traced to an early sculptures found in the Ranigumpha caves at Udaygiri (Odisha), dating to the 2nd century BCE. Odissi appears to be the oldest classical dance rooted in rituals and tradition. In fact, the Natya Shastra refers to Odra-Magadhi as one of the Vrittis and Odra refers to Odisha.
In Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Odisha, Udayagiri Caves, Khandagiri Caves and Jain Caves are present which date back to the 2nd century BCE, that served as a royal palace for emperor Kharavela. It is suggested by scholars that Odissi is archaeologically the oldest Indian classical dance form due to sculptural evidence found in the caves. There are several sculptures of dancers and musicians in Konark Sun Temple and Brahmeswara Temple in Bhubaneswar.
In the Tantric temples, such as the Hirapur Shrine, many of the yoginis especially are depicted in poses reminiscent of present day Odissi. When Odisha became a big centre of worship of Lord Shiva, it is only natural that dance would be used as a form of worship, since Lord Shiva was a master dancer himself. He is also known as Nataraj, the Cosmic Lord of Dance. The Shaivite temples of Bhubaneswar display innumerable sculptures in postures of Odissi. The Vaishnavite Temples such as Jagannath Temple and Konark Sun Temple abound with an array of dancing sculptures carved into the temple walls, giving testimony that a particular school of dancing had continued from the Shaivite art tradition to the Vaishnavite art form.
Sage Bharata's Natya Shastra, written in 2nd century CE, speaks of four types of Pravrittis (local usages): Avanti, Dakshinatya, Panchali, and Odra Magadhi, and the areas where each type is employed. Some scholars have interpreted that Odra Magadhi is "the earliest literary reference" to Odissi.
Abhinaya Chandrika written by Maheshvara Mahapatra is a detailed study of the movements of the feet, hands, the standing postures, the movement and the dance repertoire. It includes illustrations of the Karanãs mentioned in NãtyaShãstra.
The illustrated manuscript Shilpaprakãsha deals with Oriya architecture and sculpture as well as the figures of dance. In this, one finds an elaborate analysis of the manner in which the salabhanjikãs or the feminine figures called the Alasa Kanyas are carved in the temple. The illustrations of Shilpaprakãsha reinforces the evidence of sculpture in temples.
A rather unexpected source, the Jain Manuscripts, especially the Kalpasutra and Kalkacharya Kathãs show traces of Oriya dance style although they were being executed in Gujarat. The marginal figures of dancers show women in poses and movements similar to the distinctive style of Odissi. For example, in one of the famous illustrated Jain Manuscripts called the Devasanpada Kalpasutra (1501, Jamnagar), there is depiction of the Samapada, the Tribhangi and the Chuaka.
This shows that there was a great deal of mobility between east and west and many migrations took place. According to some historians, there were groups of dancers who were brought to Puri from Gujarat and Andhra.
Mughal and British period
During the Mughal rule of India, the duties of the Maharis (the temple dancers) shifted, as they were employed to entertain the royal family and courtiers in the royal courts. They became associated with concubinage in respect to the king and ceased to be respected solely as servants to Lord Jagannath. A decline and degradation occurred in all the Indian Classical dance styles during the British period, especially when a bill was passed prohibiting temple dancing. Most of these dancers, losing their well-deserved place in society, were forced to prostitution to survive in the changing climate of political and cultural oppression of the British.
Tradition and dancers
The Odissi tradition existed in three schools: Mahari, Nartaki, and Gotipua.
- Maharis were Oriya devadasis or temple girls, their name deriving from Maha (great) and Nari or Mahri (chosen) particularly those at the temple of Jagganath at Puri. Early Maharis performed mainly Nritta (pure dance) and Abhinaya (interpretation of poetry) based on Mantras and Slokas. Later, Maharis especially performed dance sequences based on the lyrics of Jayadev's Gita Govinda. Bhitari Gauni Maharis were allowed in the inner temple while Bahari Gauni Maharis, though in the temples, were excluded from the sanctum sanctorum.
- By the 6th century, the Gotipua tradition was emerging. One of the reasons given for the emergence of Gotipuas is that Vaishnavas did not approve of dancing by women. Gotipuas were boys dressed up as girls and taught the dance by the Maharis. During this period, Vaishnava poets composed innumerable lyrics in Oriya dedicated to Radha and Krishna. Gotipuas danced to these compositions and gradually stepped out of the precincts of the temples.
- Nartaki dance took place in the royal courts, where it was much cultivated before the British period. At that time the misuse of devadasis came under strong attack, so that Odissi dance withered in the temples and became unfashionable at court. Only the remnants of the Gotipua school remained, and the reconstruction of the style required an archaeological and anthropological effort that has tended to foster a conservative purism.
The consecration of females to the service of temple dancing began in the Shaivite temples and continued in the Jagannath temple in service of the Lord Jagannath. These attendants have been known as Maharis (great women) or Devadasis (servants of the lord), and have been considered the wives of Lord Jagannath. Odissi developed through their art.
The first evidence of the Mahari institution in Odisha comes from a commemorative inscription by Udyota Kesari, the last King of the dynasty. In the 10th century the King’s mother, Kolavati Devi, dedicated temple dancers to Lord Shiva in the Brahmeswara Temple.
Raja Anantavarma Chodagangadeva appointed dancing girls for ritual services in the Jagannatha temple in the 11th century, and these Maharis were the ones responsible for keeping the dance alive for centuries. Through the technique of unequal division of weight and firm footwork balancing a fluid upper torso, the dancer achieves a sensuality that is uncommon in other classical dance styles. Some eminent Mahari dancers are Moni Mahari, Dimmi (Domi) Mahari, Dungri Mahari (Harapriya), and Padmashri Guru Pankaj Charan Das.
In the Oriya language Gotipua means single boy. Gotipua dance is performed only by boys who dress up as females. During the rule of King Prataprudra Dev, who was a follower of Sri Chaityana, renewed this dancing tradition by boys, as the Vaishnavas did not approve of dances by females.
Dance vocabulary and repertoire
Traditional Odissi repertoire consists of:
- An invocation piece. After paying homage to Lord Jagannath a shloka (hymn) in praise of some God or Goddess is sung, the meaning of which is brought out through dance. Mangalacharan also includes the Bhumi Pranam (salutation to Mother Earth) which is offered to Mother Earth as a way of begging forgiveness for stamping on her and the Trikhandi Pranam or the three-fold salutation – above the head to the Gods, in front of the face to the gurus and in front of the chest to the audience.
- Battu Nrutya
- Also known as Sthayee Nrutya or Batuka Bhairava (Furious Dance) it is performed in the honor of Lord Shiva- the cosmic Lord of Dance. It is one of the 64 furious-aspects of Lord Shiva known. The origin of dance is believed to be from Tantrism that had flourished in Odisha. Linga Purana and Mahanirvanatantra give an elaborate description of Batuka Bhairava in three aspects, and the results of their worship have also been explained elaborately in the texts. Battu Nrutya is an item of pure Nrutya (Dance)and remains the most difficult item of Odissi dance. The dance begins with a series of sculpturesque poses depicting such actions as the playing of a Veena (Lute), Mardala or Pakhawaj (Drum), Karatala (Cymbals) and Venu (Flute), that brings out the interrelationships between this dance and the dance sculptures adorning the temples of Odisha. These poses are stringed together with steps in different rhythms. There is no song or recitation accompanying the dance, but throughout the item a refrain of rhythmic syllables is provided. The accompanying refrain is in the form of one line of Ukuta and as this is recited in the Tala, different Jathi-patterns are improvised and are executed with the feet. Some Tala variations are introduced and each sequence of the dance terminates with a Tehdi known as Katam. The last sequence is always in Jhula Pahapata Tala and is performed with a fast tempo.
- A pure dance item in which a raga is elaborated through eye movements, body postures & intricate footwork. Pallavi literally means "blossoming". This is applicable not only to the dance, but also to the music, which accompanies it. Pallavi starts with slow, graceful & lyrical movements of the eyes, neck, torso & feet & slowly builds in a crescendo to climax in a fast tempo at the end. Both the dance and the music evolve in complexity as the dancer traces multiple patterns in space, interpreting the music dexterously in the multilayered dimensions of taal (rhythm) and laya (speed).
- An expressional dance which is an enactment of a song or poetry, where a story conveyed to the audience through mudras (hand gestures), bhavas (facial expression), eye movement and body movement. The dance is fluid, very graceful, and sensual. Abhinaya can be performed on verses in Sanskrit or Oriya language. The verses are extremely ornate in content and suggestion. Most common are Abhinayas on Oriya songs or Sanskrit Ashthapadis or Sanskrit stutis like Dasavatar Stotram (depicting the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu) or Ardhanari Stotram. Most of the Abhinaya compositions are based on the Radha-Krishna theme. The Astapadis of the kãvya Gita Govinda written by the Saint Jayadev are an integral part of its repertoire. The beginning pieces are dedicated to Lord Jagannath – an incarnation of Lord Vishnu.
- Dance drama
- Usually longer than Abhinaya and typically performed by more than one dancers. Some of the much appreciated dance dramas composed by Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra are: Sudama Dharitra Bhanjana, Mathamani Pradhana, Balya Leela, Rutu Samhara, Krishna Sudama, Dushmanta Sakuntala, Utkala Mauda Mani, Yagnaseni, Meghadoot, Kumara Sambhava, Sapan Nayaka. Usually Hindu mythologies are chosen as themes, but experimenting with the theme and form in recent years have led to extremely unique creations. Some worth-mentioning themes in recent years are Panchakanya, Ganga Yamuna, Chitrangadaa, Shrita Kamalam, Mrutyuh, Tantra, Padapallavam, and Raavana.
- The concluding item of a recital. Moksha means “spiritual liberation”. This dance represents a spiritual culmination for the dancer who soars into the realm of pure aesthetic delight. Movement and pose merge to create ever new patterns, ever new designs in space and time. The dance moves onto a crescendo that is thrilling to both, the eye and the ear. With the cosmic sound of the “Om”, the dance dissolves into nothingness — just like Moksha or the deliverance of the soul in real life.
- It is the opening section of a typical Indian classical performance. It is unmetered, improvised (within the raga) and unaccompanied (except for the drone of the Tanpura), and is started at a slow tempo.
- Hide category of the 4 musical divisions, e.g. Mardala or Pakhawaj (Drum), Tabla, and Mridangam.
- Asanjukta Dhvanis
- Sound created by striking the Mardala or Pakhawaj (Drum) with one hand.
- One complete cycle of a taal.
- The spoken drum mnemonics. During dance performances Banis are spoken by the percussionist or the guru.
- In taal, this would be the groups the taal is divided into. Also the points on which the tali, or khali would be e.g., Adital (Odissi) is divided into 4 groups of 4 beats. It is said that Adital has 4 Bhagas. These are the measures.
- It is any type of Indian devotional song and has no fixed form. It may be as simple as a Mantra or Kirtan or as sophisticated as the Dhrupad or Kriti with music based on classical Ragas and Talas. It is normally lyrical, expressing love for the Divine.
- In taal, this would be how the divisions of the taal are made e.g. in Adital (Odissi), the sixteen beats are divided into 4 groups of 4. So the Chanda for Adital is 4 + 4 + 4 + 4. This describes what the Bhagas are.
- They were the original temple dancers who were "Servitress of God". They were dedicated to a deity or a temple. Apart from taking care of the temple and performing various rituals, these women learned and practiced Odissi dance, for dance and music were an essential part of temple worship. They enjoyed a high social status.
- Gita Govinda
- Poet Jayadev's famous work depicting the relationship of Radha, Krishna and Gopis in Vrindavan. Themes from this work have a great significance towards the classical arts of India.
- These are barrel-shaped tension pegs made of wood which adorn the Mardala or Pakhawaj (Drum). The straps (Pitha) connecting the two apertures of the Mardala run over them. These pegs can be moved to either increase or decrease the tension of the leather membranes covering the two apertures of the Mardala and are useful in tuning it.
- Young boys trained in the fine art of Odissi dance. The Gotipuas were allowed to leave the temple and dance for the public. The current form of Odissi is heavily influenced by the Gotipua tradition (and also the temple carvings from Odisha.)
- Khanda Ukutta
- When bani and ukuttas are formed together to make phrases. e.g., Kititaka Gadigana.
- The ending sequence that is repeated to designate that the ending of the piece or of a section that is typically in 3 repeats. People in Odisha interchangeably use Tihai and Mana, but they are the same.
- Maharis or Devadasis
- The original temple dancers of Odisha, but now extinct. This is the root of Odissi dance that was later taught to young boys, Gotipuas. The style is now modernized and work is being done to preserve it.
Odissi dance is accompanied by Odissi music, a synthesis of four classes of music, i.e. Dhruvapada, Chitrapada, Chitrakala and Panchal. The Dhruvapada is the first line or lines to be sung repeatedly. Chitrapada means the arrangement of words in an alliterative style. The use of art in music is called Chitrakala. Kavisurya Baladev Rath, the renowned Oriya poet wrote lyrics, which are the best examples of Chitrakala. All of these were combined to form the style that's peculiar to Odissi music.
Chhanda (metrical section) contains the essence of Odissi music. The Chhandas were composed by combining Bhava (theme), Kala (time), and Swara (tune). The Chaurisha represents the originality of Odissi style. All the thirty four (34) letters of the Oriya alphabet from 'Ka' to 'Ksha' are used chronologically at the beginning of each line.
A special feature of Odissi music is the padi which consists of words to be sung in Druta Tala (fast beat). Odissi music can be sung to different talas: Navatala (nine beats), Dashatala (ten beats) or Egartala (eleven beats). Odissi ragas are different from the ragas of Hindustani and Karnataki classical music. The primary Odissi ragas are Kalyana, Nata, Shree Gowda, Baradi, Panchama, Dhanashri, Karnata, Bhairavee and Shokabaradi.
Odissi music is sung through Raganga, Bhabanga and Natyanga Dhrubapadanga followed by Champu, Chhanda, Chautisa, Pallabi, Bhajan, Janana, and Gita Govinda, which are considered to be a part of the repertoire of Odissi or an allied act form of Odissi.
Odissi music has codified grammars, which are presented with specific Raagas. It has also a distinctive rendition style. It is lyrical in its movement with wave-like ornamentation. The pace of singing in Odissi is not very fast nor too slow, and it maintains a proportional tempo which is very soothing.
Costume and Jewelry
The jewellery is made from intricate filigree silver jewellery pieces. Filigree, in French, means "thin wire", and in Oriya it is called Tarakasi. This highly skilled art form is more than 500 years old and is traditionally done by local artisans on the eastern shores of Odisha. The process of creating each piece takes the collaboration of many artisans each specialised in one step of the many that turns a lump of raw silver into a handcrafted work of art.
The jewellery pieces are an important part of the female Odissi dancer’s costume. The hair is drawn into an elaborate bun on which the Tahiya is placed. The Seenthi is a jewellery piece placed on the hair and forehead. The dancers face is adorned with Tikka (decorations made by hand with sandalwood paste), Mathami or Matha Patti (forehead ornament), Allaka (head piece on which the tikka hangs), unique ear covers called Kapa in intricate shapes usually depicting a peacock’s feathers, an ear chain, Jhumkas (bell shaped earrings), a short necklace, and a longer necklace with a hanging pendant.
The dancer wears a pair of armlets also called Bahichudi or Bajuband, that is worn on the upper arm. They wear a pair of Kankana (bangles) at the wrist. At the waist they wear an elaborate belt made of silver or similar materials that's silver plated. They wear a pair of ankle bells (numerous small bells strung together on a single string) tied around their ankles. The dancer's palms and soles are painted with red coloured dye called the Alta.
The crown or Mukoot or Mookut, worn by the Odissi dancer is made only in the devotional city of Puri in Eastern Odisha. It is formed from the dried reeds called Sola in a tradition called Sola Kama. The reed is carved by a series of cuts into the rod-like stem and forms various types of flowers when a string is tied in the middle of the rod and pulled tight. As the string is tightened, the flowers shape into Jasmines, Champa (one of the five flowers of Lord Krishna’s arrows), and Kadamba (the flowers of the tree under which Radha would wait for her beloved Lord Krishna).
The Mukoot consists of two parts i.e. Ghoba and Tahiya. The flower decorated back piece, called the Ghoba, sits around the dancer’s hair pulled into a bun at the back of the head. This piece represents the Lotus flower with a thousand petals that lies above the head in the head Chakra, or energy center. The longer piece that emerges from the center of the back piece is called the Tahiya, and this represents the temple spire of Lord Jagannath or the flute of Lord Krishna.
The Saree worn by Odissi dancers are generally coloured with bright shades of orange, purple, red or green. These sarees are characterised by features of traditional prints of Odisha, special borders, intricate designs and a shiny embellishment. This costume is drapped around the body in unique traditional way unlike other classical dance forms of India. Sambalpuri Saree and Bomkai Saree are preferred in Odissi dance over other type of Sarees. "Stitched costumes" are popular with the younger generation for its convenience and is composed of five pieces, that includes angrakha, blouse, pyjama, etc. These costumes are created by making use of the Sambalpuri and Bomkai saree materials.
The makeup of an Odissi dancer includes Bindi (red dot), applied on the forehead with a pattern made from sandalwood around it, Kajal (black eyeliner), applied around the eyes with a broad outline to give them an elongated look, among others.
Odissi gurus and performers
Padma Vibushan Kelucharan Mohapatra, Guru Pankaj Charan Das, Guru Deba Prasad Das and Guru Raghunath Dutta were the four major gurus who revived Odissi in the late forties and early fifties. Sanjukta Panigrahi was a leading disciple of Kelucharan Mohapatra who popularised Odissi by performing in India and abroad. In the mid-sixties, two other disciples of Kelucharan Mohapatra, Kumkum Mohanty and Sonal Mansingh, were known for their performances in India and abroad. Shrimati Laximipriya Mohapatra performed a piece of Odissi abhinaya in the Annapurna Theatre in Cuttack in 1948, a show upheld as the first classical Odissi dance performance after its contemporary revival. Padma Shri Mayadhar Raut also played a major role in giving Odissi dance its classical status. He introduced Mudra Vinyoga in 1955 and Sancharibhava in the Odissi dance items, and portrayed Shringara Rasa in Gita Govinda Ashthapadis. His notable compositions include Pashyati Dishi Dishi and Priya Charu Shile, composed in 1961.
Most of the present-day gurus were Gotipua dancers and trainers. In the early fifties, the outside world began to take note of Odissi. Priyambada Mohanty Hejmadi and Susama Tej represented Odisha in the classical dance category at the Inter University Youth Festival, New Delhi, in 1954 and 1955. It was here that Charles Fabri witnessed their performances, hailed Odissi as a great classical dance form, and helped Indrani Rehman and Sonal Mansingh train. Hejmadi moved to the United States for several years, rarely performing, and returned to India in the mid-seventies. By then, Odissi had evolved and performers had become better known, including Sonal Mansingh, Sanjukta Panigrahi, and Kumkum Mohanty.
Eminent contemporary gurus and performers in alphabetic order include Aloka Kanungo, Alpana Nayak, Anandi Ramachandran, Aruna Mohanty, Bichitrananda Swain, Bijayini Satpathy, Chitralekha Patnaik, Daksha Mashruwala, Dibakar Khuntia, Dipanwita Roy, Dr. Bidisha Mohanty, Durga Charan Ranbir, Gangadhar Pradhan, Gita Mahalik, Harekrishna Behra, Ileana Citaristi, Jhelum Paranjape, Jyoti Rout, Kasturi Pattanaik, Kiran Segal, Kumkum Lal, Madhavi Mudgal, Madhumita Raut, Manoranjan Pradhan, Meera Das, Muralidhar Majhi, Nandita Behera, Natabar Maharana, Oopali Operajita, Poushali Mukherjee, Ramani Ranjan Jena, Ramli Ibrahim, Ranjana Gauhar, Ratikant Mohapatra, Ratna Roy, Sharmila Biswas, Sharmila Mukherjee, Sharon Lowen, Snehaprava Samantaray, Sonal Mansingh, Sri Mahdeva Raut, Srinath Raut, Sujata Mohapatra, Surupa Sen, Sutapa Talukdar, Trinath Maharana and several others around the world.
Some of the upcoming Odissi performers in alphabetic order are Aadya Kaktikar, Anindita Nanda, Arushi Mudgal, Ayona Bhaduri, Bani Ray, Bijay Sahoo, Devraj Patnaik, Ellora Patnaik, Kaustavi Sarkar, Kavita Dwivedi, Lingaraj Pradhan, Madhusmita Mohanty, Masako Ono, Niharika Mohanty, Pabitra Kumar Pradhan, Priyadarshini Roy, Puspita Mishra, Rahul Acharya, Rajashree Chintak Behera, Rajashri Praharaj, Rajika Puri, Ramesh Chandra Jena, Rekha Tandon, Sandhyadipa Kar, Saswat Joshi, Saswati Garai-Ghosh, Shibani Patnaik, Shipra Avantica Mehrotra, Shreelina Ghosh, Sonali Mishra, Sreyashi Dey, Srinwanti Chakrabarti, Swapnokalpa Dasgupta, Vishnu Tattva Das, Yudhistir Nayak, and several others around the world.
Odissi in Popular & Mainstream Culture
In Guinness World records
Guinness World Records has acknowledged the feat of the largest congregation of Odissi dancers in a single event. 555 Odissi dancers performed at the event hosted on 23 December 2011, in the Kalinga stadium, Bhubaneswar, Orissa. The dancers performed the Mangalacharan, Battu, Pallavi, Abhinay and Mokshya dance items from the Odissi repertoire.
1993: Dressed in a resplendent orange sanyasin dhoti (probably inspired by the Mayurbhanj Chau costume worn in Shiva Tandava items), renowned Bollywood actress Meenakshi Sheshadri danced a tandava item, composed chiefly in Odissi, in the film Damini – Lightning.
1996: Renowned Bollywood actress Rekha was seen imparting Odissi dance lessons (Shikhandika pose) to a group of young learners, while Indira Varma was shown learning Odissi steps to the accompaniment of the mardala in Mira Nair's magnum opus film Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love.
2003: Renowned Bollywood actress Rani Mukherjee performed a dance at the International Indian Film Academy Awards function dressed in Odissi costume and a number of celebrated Odissi gurus and performers expressed their disapproval for insulting the integrity of the dance and the costume.
2012: National Award-winning Bengali filmmaker Rituparno Ghosh used Odissi dance in his film "Chitrangada: The Crowning Wish". Kolkata-based Odissi exponent and 2012 Sangeet Natak Akademi Awardee Guru Sharmila Biswas taught Rituparno Ghosh Odissi for his film. 
1991: A short (23 second) Odissi dance scene was featured in Michael Jackson's music video of Black or White. The legendary pop-singer and dancer from Sri Lanka named Jamuna, performs some Odissi, too. Jamuna was a disciple of Odissi exponent Gangadhar Pradhan.
1998: Madonna danced along with Odissi dancers live on stage during the 1998 MTV Award ceremony. US-based Odissi performers, Patnaik Sisters, were chosen to choreograph and perform alongside the legendary pop artist.
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- "michael jackson INDIAN Bharatanatyam (Odissi?)". YouTube. 4 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-05-19.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Odissi.|
- Odissi dance at the Open Directory
- Narthaki.com's Odissi Page
- Classical Indian Dance Portal
- History of Odissi