The Greco-Roman theatre in Oenoanda
|Location||İncealiler, Muğla Province, Turkey|
Oenoanda or Oinoanda (Greek: τὰ Οἰνόανδα) was an ancient Greek city in Lycia, in the upper valley of the River Xanthus. It is noted for the philosophical inscription by the Epicurean, Diogenes of Oenoanda. The ruins of the city lie west of the modern village İncealiler in the Fethiye district of Muğla Province, Turkey, which partly overlies the ancient site.
It was the most southerly of the Kibyran Tetrapolis in the Hellenistic Period, which was dissolved by L. Licinius Murena in 84 BCE, whereupon Oenoanda became part of the koinon of Lycia, as its inscriptions abundantly demonstrate. The early history of the settlement is obscure, in spite of an exploratory survey carried out, with permission of the Turkish authorities, by B.I.A.A. in 1974–76. It seems that Oinoanda became a colony of Termessos about 200-190 BC and was also called Termessos Minor (or Termessos i pros Oinoanda).
The site was first noted by Hoskyns and Forbes, in 1841, and published in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, xii (1843). The philosophical inscription of Diogenes of Oenoanda was identified later from scattered fragments, apparently from the stoa, which it cannot be assumed he erected himself. The stoa of Diogenes was dismantled in the second half of the third century CE to make room for a defensive wall; previously the site had been undefended. By 2012 over 300 fragments have been identified, varying in size from a few letters to passages of several sentences covering more than one block.
- Strabo, xiii.4.17.
- Alan Hall, "The Oenoanda Survey: 1974-76", Anatolian Studies 26 (1976:191-197).
- Rousset D., De Lycie en Cabalide, fouilles de Xanthos X, Droz, Genève 2010
- C.W. Chilton, Diogenes of Oenoanda: The Fragments (1971); Hall 1976:196 note 23.
- Hall 1976:196.
- "The Oinoanda campaign of 2012", German Archaeological Institute (DAI) website (accessed 27 June, 2014)
- N. P. Milner: "A Roman Bridge at Oinoanda", Anatolian Studies, 48 (1998), pp.117–123
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