Oenocarpus bataua

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Oenocarpus bataua
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Arecales
Family: Arecaceae
Tribe: Areceae
Subtribe: Euterpeinae
Genus: Oenocarpus
Species: O. bataua
Binomial name
Oenocarpus bataua
Mart. 1823[1]
Varieties

O. b. var. bataua (Mart.) Burret
O. b. var. oligocarpa (Griseb. & H.Wendl.) A.J.Hend.

The patawa, sehe, hungurahua (Ecuador) or mingucha (Oenocarpus bataua or Jessenia bataua) is a palm tree native to the Amazonia, that produces edible fruits rich in high quality oil.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

It is native to the tropical rainforest and is abundant in the wet zones at elevations less than 1000m, from Panamá to South America: Colombia, Venezuela, Guyanas, Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. It is usually found in sandy soils with a high organic matter content that are subsequent to flooding, possibly because there are few other species which compete with it. It can grow extremely well on unflooded soils as witnessed by high-density stands in the pastures of the Colombian Chocó, though it is rarely found on terra firma in the wild since competition from other species is such that it rarely gets the high light levels it needs to set fruit.[3]

Description[edit]

Its stem is solitary, erect, 10–25 m (33–82 ft) in height and 2–3 dm (8–12 in) diameter, smooth, and ring-shaped. It has 10–16 leaf terminals, petiole 10–50 cm, rachis 3–7 m long; with leaflets up till 2 m long and 15 cm breadth, approximately 100 to each side, placed in the same plane.[4]

The blossom is 1–2 m long, with about 300 rachilas up till 1.3 m length. The flowers are yellow with sepals 2 mm and petals 7 mm long.[4]

Uses[edit]

Patawa fruits are a resource for cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals purposes.[5]

Traditionally the aboriginals have collected the fruit and mature it in tepid water in order to prepare drinks and also to extract oil:[4] its drupes, contains 8–10% oil. The fresh meolo is edible too. Besides, in these palm grow edible larvas of Rhynchophorus.[6]

The oil is used by traditional medicine to mitigate cough and bronchitis[2] and to fortify the hair.

The rachis have been used to manufacture arrows and the leaves to make baskets ant construct provisional housings.[4]

In the future, this palm could be industrialized for oil production,[2] because of its quality, its adaptation in poor soils, and its abundant production of fruits.

Synonyms[edit]

  • Oenocarpus batawa Wallace (1853), orth. var.
  • Jessenia polycarpa H.Karst. (1857).
  • Jessenia oligocarpa Griseb. & H.Wendl. ex Griseb. (1864)
  • Jessenia repanda Engl. (1865).
  • Jessenia bataua (Mart.) Burret (1928).
  • Jessenia weberbaueri Burret (1929).[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martius, Carl von. 1823. Historia Naturalis Palmarum II: 23. Lipsiae (Leipzig): T.O. Weigel.
  2. ^ a b c Vallejo Rendón, Darío 2002. "Oenocarpus bataua, seje"; Colombia Amazónica, separata especies promisorias 1. Corporación Colombiana para la Amazonia –Araracuara- COA.
  3. ^ a b "Oenocarpus bataua var. bataua". Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Retrieved 17 August 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d Galeano, Gloria 1991. Las palmas de la región del Araracuara. Bogotá: TOPEMBOS - Universidad Nacional. Segunda edición, 1992, p.p. 146-148.
  5. ^ Amazonian palm Oenocarpus bataua (“patawa”): chemical and biological antioxidant activity - phytochemical composition. A. Rezaire, J.-C. Robinson, B. Bereau, A. Verbaere, N. Sommerer, M.K. Khan, P. Durand, E. Prost and B. Fils-Lycaon, Food Chemistry, In Press, Accepted Manuscript, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.077
  6. ^ La Rotta, Constanza 1990. Especies utilizadas por la Comunidad Miraña: 296-297. Bogotá: WWF - FEN.

External links[edit]