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Caffe Cino, July 1965

Off-Off-Broadway theatrical productions in New York City are those in theatres that are smaller than Broadway and Off-Broadway theatres. Off-Off-Broadway theatres are often defined as theatres that have fewer than 100 seats,[1] though the term can be used for any show in the New York City area that employs union actors, but not under an Off-Broadway, Broadway, or LORT contract. It is often used as a term relating to any show with non-union actors. The shows range from professional productions by established artists to small amateur performances.


The Off-Off-Broadway movement began in 1958 as a reaction to Off-Broadway, and a "complete rejection of commercial theatre".[2] Among the first venues for what would soon be called "Off-Off-Broadway" were coffeehouses in Greenwich Village, particularly the Caffe Cino at 31 Cornelia Street, operated by the eccentric Joe Cino, who early on took a liking to actors and playwrights and agreed to let them stage plays there without bothering to read the plays first, or to even find out much about the content. Also integral to the rise of Off-Off-Broadway were Ellen Stewart at La MaMa, and Al Carmines at the Judson Poets' Theater, located at Judson Memorial Church.

Other theaters of note that presented many plays were Playbox Studio, New York Theatre Ensemble, The Old Reliable, and The Dove Company.

Another name worthy of mention is the Nuyorican Poets Café founded by Puerto Rican playwright Miguel Algarín in the mid 1970s.

An Off-Off-Broadway production that features members of Actors Equity is, of necessity, called an Equity Showcase production; not all Off-Off-Broadway shows are Equity Showcases. The union maintains very strict rules about working in such productions, including restrictions on price, the length of the run and rehearsal times. Professional actors' participation in showcase productions is frequent and comprises the bulk of stage work for the majority of New York actors. There has been an ongoing movement to revise the Equity Showcase rules, which many in the community find overly restrictive and detrimental to the creation of New York theatre.[3][4]

The term indie theatre, or independent theatre, coined by playwright Kirk Bromley, has been adopted by many as a replacement for the term Off-Off-Broadway, and is used by groups such as The League of Independent Theater and the website[5]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Off-Off-Broadway, Way Back When". Theater mania. Retrieved 2007-12-13. 
  2. ^ Viagas 2004, p. 72.
  3. ^ "Breaking the Code?". Village Voice. p. 1.
  4. ^ "Cracking the Code, New York equity showcase code renewed", High beam .
  5. ^ Bromley, Kirk, Interview, Nyte small press .


  • Bottoms, Stephen J (2004), Playing Underground: A Critical History of the 1960s Off-Off-Broadway Movement, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-03194-5 .
  • Curley, Mallory (2013), Tales of Off Off Broadway, Randy .
  • Viagas, Robert (2004), The Back Stage Guide to Broadway, New York: Back Stage, ISBN 0-8230-8809-X ..

External links[edit]