Office of Management and Budget

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Office of Management and Budget
US-OfficeOfManagementAndBudget-Seal.svg
Agency overview
Formed 1970
Preceding Agency Bureau of the Budget
Headquarters Eisenhower Executive Office Building
Employees 529[1]
Annual budget $92.8 million (FY 2011)
Agency executive Shaun Donovan, Director
Parent agency Executive Office of the President of the United States
Website Office of Management and Budget

The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The Director of the OMB is a member of the executive office of the president. The main function of the OMB is to assist the President in preparing the budget.[2] The OMB also measures the quality of agency programs, policies, and procedures and to see if they comply with the President's policies.

The current OMB Director is Shaun Donovan, who was nominated by the President following Sylvia Mathews Burwell's nomination to become the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services. Donovan was confirmed by the Senate on a vote of 75-22.[3]

History[edit]

The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, which was signed into law by President Warren G. Harding. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939, and reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration.[4] The first OMB included Roy Ash (head), Paul O'Neill (assistant director), Fred Malek (deputy director) and Frank Zarb (associate director) and two dozen others.

In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices.[5]

Purpose[edit]

The OMB's predominant purpose is to assist the President in overseeing the preparation of the federal budget and to supervise its administration in Executive Branch agencies. In helping to formulate the President's spending plans, the OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. The OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the President's Budget and with Administration policies.

In addition, the OMB oversees and coordinates the Administration's procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. In each of these areas, the OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, and to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public.

The OMB's critical missions are:[6]

  1. Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President (EOP) and a device by which a President implements his policies, priorities, and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA.
  2. The OMB manages other agencies' financials, paperwork, and IT.

Structure[edit]

Overview[edit]

The Office contains a significant number of politically appointed staff; OMB staff provide important continuity regardless of which party occupies the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, and the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, and the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions.

The largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the four Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U.S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president’s budget. They perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, and oversee the aspects of the President's Management Agenda including agency management scorecards. They are often called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member. They also provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, and the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.

Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division (BRD), and the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president’s budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, and the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress.

The Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the Administration about the proposal. They are also responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both bodies of Congress for the president’s signature. The Enrolled Bill Memorandum details the particulars of the bill, opinions on the bill from relevant federal departments, and an overall opinion about whether the bill should be signed into law or vetoed. They also issue Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White House’s official position on proposed legislation.

Organization[edit]

  • Director, OMB
    • Deputy Director, OMB
      • Legal Affairs Division
      • Legislative Affairs Division
      • Strategic Planning and Communications Division
      • Management and Operations Division
      • Economic Policy Division
      • Legislative Reference Division
      • Budget Review Division
      • Resource Management Offices
        • Natural Resources Programs
        • Education, Income Maintenance and Labor Programs
        • Health Programs
        • General Government Programs
        • National Security Programs
    • Deputy Director for Management and Chief Performance Officer
      • Office of Federal Financial Management
      • Office of Federal Procurement Policy
      • Office of E-Government and Information Technology
      • Office of Performance and Personnel Management
      • Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs

Key staff[edit]

List of directors[edit]

# Name Dates served President Notes
1 Dawes, Charles G.Charles G. Dawes June 23, 1921 – June 30, 1922 Warren G. Harding Dawes would later become Vice President of the United States under Calvin Coolidge and the U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom under Herbert Hoover
2 Lord, Herbert M.Herbert M. Lord July 1, 1922 – May 31, 1929 Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover
3 Roop, J. ClawsonJ. Clawson Roop August 15, 1929 – March 3, 1933 Herbert Hoover
4 Douglas, Lewis W.Lewis W. Douglas March 7, 1933 – August 31, 1934 Franklin D. Roosevelt
5 Bell, Daniel W.Daniel W. Bell September 1, 1934 – April 14, 1939 Franklin D. Roosevelt
6 Smith, Harold D.Harold D. Smith April 15, 1939 – June 19, 1946 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman
7 Webb, James E.James E. Webb July 13, 1946 – January 27, 1949 Harry S. Truman Webb later became the second administrator of NASA under Presidents Kennedy and Johnson
8 Pace, Jr., FrankFrank Pace, Jr. February 1, 1949 – April 12, 1950 Harry S. Truman
9 Lawton, Frederick J.Frederick J. Lawton April 13, 1950 – January 21, 1953 Harry S. Truman
10 Dodge, Joseph M.Joseph M. Dodge January 22, 1953 – April 15, 1954 Dwight D. Eisenhower
11 Hughes, Rowland R.Rowland R. Hughes April 16, 1954 – April 1, 1956 Dwight D. Eisenhower
12 Brundage, Percival F.Percival F. Brundage April 2, 1956 – March 17, 1958 Dwight D. Eisenhower
13 Stans, Maurice H.Maurice H. Stans March 18, 1958 – January 21, 1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower
14 Bell, David E.David E. Bell January 22, 1961 – December 20, 1962 John F. Kennedy
15 Gordon, KermitKermit Gordon December 28, 1962 – June 1, 1965 John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson
16 Schultze, Charles L.Charles L. Schultze June 1, 1965 – January 28, 1968 Lyndon B. Johnson Schultze later served as Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers under President Jimmy Carter.
17 Zwick, Charles J.Charles J. Zwick January 29, 1968 – January 21, 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson
18 Mayo, Robert P.Robert P. Mayo January 22, 1969 – June 30, 1970 Richard Nixon
19 Shultz, George P.George P. Shultz July 1, 1970 – June 11, 1972 Richard Nixon Shultz had previously served President Nixon as Secretary of Labor and would later serve under him as Secretary of the Treasury and under Ronald Reagan as Secretary of State.
20 Weinberger, Caspar W.Caspar W. Weinberger June 12, 1972 – February 1, 1973 Richard Nixon Weinberger later served as Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare under Presidents Nixon and Ford, and as Secretary of Defense under President Reagan
21 Ash, Roy L.Roy L. Ash February 2, 1973 – February 3, 1975 Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford
22 Lynn, James T.James T. Lynn February 10, 1975 – January 20, 1977 Gerald Ford Lynn left to head Aetna Insurance
23 Lance, BertBert Lance January 21, 1977 – September 23, 1977 Jimmy Carter Lance resigned amid a corruption scandal
24 McIntyre, James T.James T. McIntyre September 24, 1977 – January 20, 1981 Jimmy Carter
25 Stockman, David A.David A. Stockman January 21, 1981 – August 1, 1985 Ronald Reagan
26 Miller III, James C.James C. Miller III October 8, 1985 – October 15, 1988 Ronald Reagan
27 Wright, Jr., Joseph R.Joseph R. Wright, Jr. October 16, 1988 – January 20, 1989 Ronald Reagan
28 Darman, Richard G.Richard G. Darman January 25, 1989 – January 20, 1993 George H. W. Bush
29 Panetta, Leon E.Leon E. Panetta January 21, 1993 – October 1994 Bill Clinton Panetta became President Clinton's Chief of Staff and served under President Obama as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency and later as Secretary of Defense
30 Rivlin, Alice M.Alice M. Rivlin October 17, 1994 – April 26, 1996 Bill Clinton Rivlin became a governor of the Federal Reserve after leaving OMB
31 Raines, Franklin D.Franklin D. Raines September 13, 1996 – May 21, 1998 Bill Clinton Raines became CEO of Fannie Mae
32 Lew, Jacob J.Jacob J. Lew May 21, 1998 – January 19, 2001 Bill Clinton Jacob Lew served as deputy director of OMB from 1995 to 1998 and would serve as director again under Obama from 2010 to 2012
33 Daniels, MitchMitch Daniels January 23, 2001 – June 6, 2003 George W. Bush Daniels left and successfully ran for governor of Indiana
34 Bolten, Joshua B.Joshua B. Bolten June 26, 2003 – April 15, 2006 George W. Bush Bolten became President Bush's Chief of Staff
35 Portman, RobRob Portman May 26, 2006 – June 19, 2007 George W. Bush Portman had previously served President Bush as United States Trade Representative and was elected to the U.S. Senate from Ohio in 2010.
36 Nussle, JimJim Nussle September 4, 2007 – January 20, 2009 George W. Bush
37 Orszag, Peter R.Peter R. Orszag January 20, 2009 – July 30, 2010 Barack Obama Orszag became Vice Chairman of Corporate and Investment Banking and Chairman of the Financial Strategy and Solutions Group at Citigroup
37 Zients, JeffreyJeffrey Zients July 30, 2010 – November 18, 2010 Barack Obama Acting Director during remainder of Orszag's term
38 Lew, Jacob J.Jacob J. Lew November 18, 2010 – January 27, 2012 Barack Obama Previously served under Clinton from 1998 to 2001. Resigned to become Chief of Staff, and later Secretary of the Treasury
39 Zients, JeffreyJeffrey Zients January 27, 2012 – April 24, 2013 Barack Obama Acting Director during remainder of Lew's term
40 Burwell, Sylvia MathewsSylvia Mathews Burwell April 24, 2013 – June 9, 2014 Barack Obama Former deputy director of OMB under President Clinton. Resigned to become the Secretary of Health and Human Services
41 Deese, BrianBrian Deese June 9, 2014 – July 28, 2014 Barack Obama Acting Director after Burwell resigned.
42 Donovan, ShaunShaun Donovan July 28, 2014 – present Barack Obama

Source:[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "FedScope". Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved 19 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "The Mission and Structure of the Office of Management and Budget". Retrieved 8 November 2012. 
  3. ^ Kim, Seung Min. "Senate confirms Shaun Donovan to run OMB". Politico.com. Politico LLC. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  4. ^ "Executive Orders". Archives.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-22. 
  5. ^ "OMB Organization Chart". Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved 17 September 2009. 
  6. ^ [1]{accessdate=3 April 2014}
  7. ^ Daniel Werfel was named Acting Commissioner of Internal Revenue (IRS) by President Barack Obama in the wake of the resignation of the previous one in the May 2013 IRS scandal"Nominations sent to the Senate" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  8. ^ "Nominations sent to the Senate" (Press release). Office of the Press Secretary. 2009-10-05. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  9. ^ "Directors of The Office of Management and Budget and The Bureau of the Budget". Office of Management and Budget(Archived). Retrieved 18 October 2009. 

External links[edit]