Office of Policy Coordination
The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) was a United States covert psychological operations and paramilitary action organization. Created as an independent office in 1948, it was merged with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in 1951.
OPC was created in 1948 under the United States National Security Council document NSC 10/2. The OPC's directors included representatives of the State and Defense departments and the CIA. Though a unit of the CIA, the OPC Director reported to the State Department.
5. As used in this directive, “covert operations” are understood to be all activities (except as noted herein) which are conducted or sponsored by this Government against hostile foreign states or groups or in support of friendly foreign states or groups but which are so planned and executed that any US Government responsibility for them is not evident to unauthorized persons and that if uncovered the US Government can plausibly disclaim any responsibility for them. Specifically, such operations shall include any covert activities related to: propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance movements, guerrillas and refugee liberation groups, and support of indigenous anti-communist elements in threatened countries of the free world. Such operations shall not include armed conflict by recognized military forces, espionage, counter-espionage, and cover and deception for military operations.
- Miscamble, 199
- Will Brownell and Richard N. Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt (NY: Macmillan Publishing, 1987), 299
- Foreign Relations of the United States, 1945–1950 Retrospective Volume, Emergence of the Intelligence Establishment, Document 292; 292. National Security Council Directive on Office of Special Projects (June 18 1948)
- "Foreign Relations 1964-1968, Volume XXVI, Indonesia; Malaysia-Singapore; Philippines: Note on U.S. Covert Action Programs". United States Department of State.
- Peter Grosse, Operation Rollback (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2000)
- Wilson D. Miscamble, George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign Policy, 1947-1950 (Princeton University Press, 1992))
- Richard C.S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies, and Secret Operations (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004)