There are roughly 400 known ogham inscriptions on stone monuments scattered around the Irish Sea, the bulk of them dating to the 5th and 6th centuries. Their language is predominantly Primitive Irish, but a few examples record fragments of the Pictish language. Ogham itself is an Early Medieval form of alphabet or cypher, sometimes known as the "Celtic Tree Alphabet".
There are a number of different numbering schemes. The most widespread is CIIC, after R. A. S. Macalister. This covers the inscriptions known by the 1940s. Another numbering scheme is that of the Celtic Inscribed Stones Project, CISP, based on the location of the stones; for example CIIC 1 = CISP INCHA/1. Macalister's (1945) numbers run from 1 to 507, including also Latin and Runic inscriptions, with three additional added in 1949. Ziegler lists 344 Gaelic ogham inscriptions known to Macalister (Ireland and Isle of Man), and seven additional inscriptions discovered later.
The inscriptions may be divided into "orthodox" and "scholastic" specimens. "Orthodox" inscriptions date to the Primitive Irish period, and record a name of an individual, either as a cenotaph or tombstone, or documenting land ownership. "Scholastic" inscriptions date from the medieval Old Irish period up to Modern times.
The vast bulk of the surviving ogham inscriptions stretch in arc from County Kerry (especially Corcu Duibne) in the south of Ireland across to Dyfed in south Wales. The remainder are mostly in south-eastern Ireland, eastern and northern Scotland, the Isle of Man, and England around the Devon/Cornwall border. The vast majority of the inscriptions consist of personal names, probably of the person commemorated by the monument.
|Aicme Beithe||Aicme Muine|
|Aicme hÚatha||Aicme Ailme|
In orthodox inscriptions the script was carved into the edge (droim or faobhar) of the stone, which formed the stemline against which individual characters are cut. The text of these "Orthodox Ogham" inscriptions is read beginning from the bottom left-hand side of a stone, continuing upward along the edge, across the top and down the right-hand side (in the case of long inscriptions).
MacManus (1991) lists a total of 382 known Orthodox inscriptions. They are found in most counties of Ireland, concentrated in Southern Ireland: County Kerry (130), Cork (84), Waterford (48), Kilkenny (14), Mayo (9), Kildare (8), Wicklow and Meath (5 each), Carlow (4), Wexford, Limerick, Roscommon (3 each), Antrim, Cavan, Louth, Tipperary (2 each), Armagh, Dublin, Fermanagh, Leitrim, Derry and Tyrone (1 each). Other specimens are known from Wales (ca. 40: Pembrokeshire (16), Breconshire and Carmarthenshire (7 each), Glamorgan (4), Cardiganshire (3), Denbighshire (2), Powys (1), and Caernarvonshire (1)), from England (Cornwall (5) Devon (2), elsewhere (1?)); the Isle of Man (5), and with some doubtful examples from Scotland (2?)
The vast majority of inscriptions consist of personal names and use a series of formula words, usually describing the person's ancestry or tribal affiliation. The formula words used are MAQI ᚋᚐᚊᚔ - 'son' (Modern Irish mac); MUCOI ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ - 'tribe' or 'sept'; ANM ᚐᚅᚋ - 'name' (Modern Irish ainm); AVI ᚐᚃᚔ - 'descendant' (Modern Irish uí); CELI ᚉᚓᚂᚔ - 'follower' or 'devotee' (Modern Irish céile); NETA ᚅᚓᚈᚐ - 'nephew' (Modern Irish nia); KOI ᚕᚑᚔ - 'here is' (equivalent to Latin HIC IACIT). KOI is unusual in that the K is always written using the first supplementary letter Ebad. In order of frequency the formula words are used as follows:
- X MAQI Y (X son of Y)
- X MAQI MUCOI Y (X son of the tribe Y)
- X MAQI Y MUCOI Z (X son of Y of the tribe Z)
- X KOI MAQI MUCOI Y (here is X son of the tribe Y)
- X MUCOI Y (X of the tribe Y)
- X MAQI Y MAQI MUCOI Z (X son of Y son of the tribe Z)
- Single name inscriptions with no accompanying formula word
- ANM X MAQI Y (Name X son of Y)
- ANM X (Name X )
- X AVI Y (X descendant of Y)
- X MAQI Y AVI Z (X son of Y descendant of Z)
- X CELI Y (X follower/devotee of Y)
- NETTA X (nephew/champion of X)
The nomenclature of the Irish personal names is more interesting than the rather repetitive formulae and reveals details of early Gaelic society, particularly its warlike nature. For example, two of the most commonly occurring elements in the names are CUNA ᚉᚒᚅᚐ - 'hound' or 'wolf' (Modern Irish cú) and CATTU ᚉᚐᚈᚈᚒ - 'battle' (Modern Irish cath). These occur in names such as (300) CUNANETAS ᚉᚒᚅᚐᚅᚓᚈᚐᚄ - 'Champion of wolves'; (501) CUNAMAGLI ᚉᚒᚅᚐᚋᚐᚌᚂᚔ - 'prince of wolves'; (107) CUNAGUSSOS - '(he who is) strong as a wolf'; (250) CATTUVVIRR ᚉᚐᚈᚈᚒᚃᚃᚔᚏᚏ - 'man of battle'; (303) CATABAR ᚉᚐᚈᚐᚁᚐᚏ - 'chief in battle'; IVACATTOS ᚔᚃᚐᚉᚐᚈᚈᚑᚄ - 'yew of battle'. Other warlike names include (39) BRANOGENI ᚁᚏᚐᚅᚑᚌᚓᚅᚔ - 'born of raven'; (428) TRENAGUSU ᚈᚏᚓᚅᚐᚌᚒᚄᚒ - 'strong of vigour'; and (504) BIVAIDONAS ᚁᚔᚃᚐᚔᚇᚑᚅᚐᚄ - 'alive like fire'. Elements that are descriptive of physical characteristics are also common, such as (368) VENDUBARI ᚃᚓᚅᚇᚒᚁᚐᚏᚔ - 'fair-headed'; (75) CASONI ᚉᚐᚄᚑᚅᚔ - 'curly headed one'; (119) DALAGNI ᚇᚐᚂᚐᚌᚅᚔ - 'one who is blind'; (46) DERCMASOC ᚇᚓᚏᚉᚋᚐᚄᚑᚉ - 'one with an elegant eye'; (60) MAILAGNI ᚋᚐᚔᚂᚐᚌᚅᚔ - 'bald/short haired one' and (239) GATTAGLAN ᚌᚐᚈᚈᚐᚌᚂᚐᚅ - 'wise and pure'.
Other names indicate a divine ancestor. The god Lugh features in many names such as (4) LUGADDON ᚂᚒᚌᚌᚐᚇᚑᚅ, (286) LUGUDECA ᚂᚒᚌᚒᚇᚓᚉᚐ and (140) LUGAVVECCA ᚂᚒᚌᚐᚃᚃᚓᚉᚉᚐ, while the divine name ERC (meaning either 'heaven or 'cow') appears in names such as (93) ERCAIDANA ᚓᚏᚉᚐᚔᚇᚐᚅᚐ and (196) ERCAVICCAS ᚓᚏᚉᚐᚃᚔᚉᚉᚐᚄ . Other names indicate sept or tribal name, such as (156) DOVVINIAS ᚇᚑᚃᚃᚔᚅᚔᚐᚄ from the Corcu Duibne sept of the Dingle and Iveragh peninsulas in Co. Kerry (named after a local goddess); (215) ALLATO ᚐᚂᚂᚐᚈᚑ from the Altraige of North Kerry and (106) CORIBIRI ᚉᚑᚏᚔᚁᚔᚏᚔ from the Dál Coirpri of Co. Cork. Finally of particular interest is the fact that quite a few names denote a relationship to trees, names like (230) MAQI-CARATTINN ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚉᚐᚏᚐᚈᚈᚔᚅᚅ - 'son of rowan'; (v) MAQVI QOLI ᚋᚐᚊᚃᚔ ᚊᚑᚂᚔ - 'son of hazel' and (259) IVOGENI ᚔᚃᚑᚌᚓᚅᚔ - 'born of yew'.
The content of the inscriptions has led scholars such as McNeill and Macalister to argue that they are explicitly pagan in nature. They argue that the inscriptions were later defaced by Christian converts, who deliberately attacked them by removing the word MUCOI ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ on account of its supposedly tribal, pagan associations, and adding crosses next to them to Christianize them. Other scholars, such as McManus argue that there is no evidence for this, citing inscriptions such as (145) QRIMITIR RONANN MAQ COMOGANN ᚛ᚊᚏᚔᚋᚔᚈᚔᚏ ᚏᚑᚅᚐᚅᚅ ᚋᚐᚊ ᚉᚑᚋᚑᚌᚐᚅᚅ᚜, where QRIMITIR is a loan word from Latin presbyter or 'priest'. McManus argues that the supposed vandalism of the inscriptions is simply wear and tear, and due to the inscription stones being reused as building material for walls, lintels, etc. (McManus, §4.9). McManus also argues that the MUCOI formula word survived into Christian manuscript usage. There is also the fact the inscriptions were made at a time when Christianity had become firmly established in Ireland. Whether those who wrote the inscriptions were pagans, Christians, or a mixture of both remains unclear.
Ireland has the vast majority of inscriptions, with 330 out of 382. One of the most important collections of orthodox ogham inscriptions in Ireland can be seen in University College Cork (UCC) on public display in 'The Stone Corridor'. The inscriptions were collected by antiquarian Abraham Abell 1783-1851 and were deposited in the Cork Institution before being put on display in UCC. He was a member of the Cuvierian Society of Cork whose members, including John Windele, Fr. Matt Horgan and R.R. Brash, did extensive work in this area in the mid-19th century. Another well-known group of inscriptions can be seen at Dunloe, near Killarney in Co. Kerry. The inscriptions are arranged in a semicircle at the side of the road and are very well preserved.
|ID||Text||Translation / Personal names||Location||Notes|
|CIIC 1||᚛ᚂᚔᚓ ᚂᚒᚌᚅᚐᚓᚇᚑᚅ ᚋᚐᚉᚉᚔ ᚋᚓᚅᚒᚓᚆ᚜
LIE LUGNAEDON MACCI MENUEH
|"The stone of Lugnaedon son of Limenueh".||Inchagoill Island, Co Galway||CISP INCHA/1|
|Cloonmorris, Mohill, Co Leitrim||CISP CLOOM/1|
|CIIC 3||᚛ᚉᚒᚅᚐᚂᚓᚌᚔ ᚐᚃᚔ ᚊᚒᚅᚐᚉᚐᚅᚑᚄ᚜
CUNALEGI AVI QUNACANOS
|"Cunalegi, descendant of Qunacanos"||Island, Costello, Co Mayo||CISP ISLAN/1|
|CIIC 4||᚛ᚂᚒᚌᚐᚇᚇᚑᚅ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚂᚒᚌᚒᚇᚓᚉ᚜
LUGADDON MA[QI] L[U]GUDEC
DDISI MO[--]CQU SEL
|Kilmannia, Costello, Co Mayo||CISP KILMA/1|
|CIIC 5||᚛ᚐᚂᚐᚈᚈᚑᚄ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚁᚏ᚜
ALATTOS MAQI BR[
|Rusheens East, Kilmovee, Costello, Co Mayo||CISP RUSHE/1|
|Tullaghaun, Costello, Co Mayo||CISP TULLA/1|
|CIIC 7||᚛ᚋᚐᚊ ᚉᚓᚏᚐᚅᚔ ᚐᚃᚔ ᚐᚈᚆᚓᚉᚓᚈᚐᚔᚋᚔᚅ᚜
MAQ CERAN[I] AVI ATHECETAIMIN
|Son of Ciarán, descendant of the Uí Riaghan||Corrower, Gallen, Co Mayo||CISP CORRO/1|
|CIIC 8||᚛ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ ᚉᚑᚏᚁᚐᚌᚅᚔ ᚌᚂᚐᚄᚔᚉᚑᚅᚐᚄ᚜
MA[QUI MUCOI] CORBAGNI GLASICONAS
|Dooghmakeon, Murrisk, Co Mayo||CISP DOOGH/1|
|Aghaleague, Tirawley, Co Mayo||CISP AGHAL/1 Almost illegible|
|CIIC 10||᚛ᚂᚓᚌᚌ[--]ᚄᚇ[--]ᚂᚓᚌᚓᚄᚉᚐᚇ᚜ / ᚛ᚋᚐᚊ ᚉᚑᚏᚏᚁᚏᚔ ᚋᚐᚊ ᚐᚋᚋᚂᚂᚑᚌᚔᚈᚈ᚜
L[E]GG[--]SD[--] LEGwESCAD / MAQ CORRBRI MAQ AMMLLOGwITT
|Breastagh, Tirawley, Co Mayo||CISP BREAS/1|
|CIIC 141||᚛ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ..ᚑᚌᚌᚑᚇᚔᚉᚐ᚜
|Aglish, Corkaguiney, Co Kerry||CISP AGLIS/1 The ogham stone was cut into an early Christian gravestone, at which time were added a cross pattée and an arrow-like motif flanked by two swastikas|
|CIIC 193||᚛ᚐᚅᚋ ᚉᚑᚂᚋᚐᚅ ᚐᚔᚂᚔᚈᚆᚔᚏ᚜
ANM COLMAN AILITHIR
|"[written in] the name of Colmán, the pilgrim"||Maumanorig, Co Kerry||CISP MAUIG/1|
|CIIC 200||᚛ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚈᚈᚐᚂ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚃᚑᚏᚌᚑᚄ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔᚉᚐᚉ᚜
MAQI-TTAL MAQI VORGOS MAQI MUCOI TOICAC
|Maqi-Ttal, Vorgos, Toicac||Coolmagort, Dunkerron North, Co Kerry||CISP COOLM/4|
|CIIC 300||᚛ᚉᚒᚅᚅᚓᚈᚐᚄ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚌᚒᚉᚑᚔ ᚅᚓᚈᚐ ᚄᚓᚌᚐᚋᚑᚅᚐᚄ᚜
CUNNETAS MAQI GUC[OI] NETA-SEGAMONAS
|Cunnetas, Neta-Segamonas||Old Island, Decies without Drum, Co Waterford||CISP OLDIS/1|
|CIIC 317||᚛ᚇᚑᚈᚓᚈᚈᚑ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚋᚐᚌᚂᚐᚅᚔ᚜
DOTETTO MAQ[I MAGLANI]
|Dotetto, Maglani(?)||Aghascrebagh, Upper Strabane, Co Tyrone||CISP AGHAS/1|
|CIIC 1082||᚛ᚌᚂᚐᚅᚅᚐᚅᚔ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚁᚁᚏᚐᚅᚅᚐᚇ᚜
GLANNANI MAQI BBRANNAD
|Ballybroman, Co Kerry||CISP BALBR/1|
|CIIC 1083||᚛ᚉᚑᚋᚋᚐᚌᚌᚐᚌᚅᚔ ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ ᚄᚐᚋᚋᚅᚅ᚜
COMMAGGAGNI MU[CO]I SAMMNN
|Rathkenny, Ardfert, Corkaguiney, Co Kerry||CISP RTHKE/1|
|—||[A]NM SILLANN MAQ FATTILLOGG||Ratass Church, Tralee, Co Kerry||CISP RATAS/1|
The orthodox inscriptions in Wales are noted for containing names of a Latin origin and some names in Brythonic (or early Welsh), and are mostly accompanied by a Latin inscription in the Roman alphabet. Examples of Brythonic names include (446) MAGLOCUNI ᚋᚐᚌᚂᚑᚉᚒᚅᚔ (Welsh Maelgwn) and (449) CUNOTAMI ᚉᚒᚅᚑᚈᚐᚋᚔ (Welsh cyndaf). Wales has the distinction of the only ogham stone inscription that bears the name of an identifiable individual. The stone commemorates Vortiporius, a 6th-century king of Dyfed (originally located in Clynderwen). Wales also has the only ogham inscription known to commemorate a woman. At Eglwys Cymmin (Cymmin church) in Carmarthenshire is the inscription (362) AVITORIGES INIGENA CUNIGNI ᚛ᚐᚃᚔᚈᚑᚏᚔᚌᚓᚄ ᚔᚅᚔᚌᚓᚅᚐ ᚉᚒᚅᚔᚌᚅᚔ᚜ or 'Avitoriges daughter of Cunigni'. Avitoriges is an Irish name while Cunigni is Brythonic (Welsh Cynin), reflecting the mixed heritage of the inscription makers. Wales also has several inscriptions which attempt to replicate the supplementary letter or forfeda for P (inscriptions 327 and 409).
|ID||Text||Translation / Personal names||Location||Notes|
|Castle Villa, Brawdy, Pembrokeshire||CISP BRAW/1|
|CIIC 426||᚛ᚅᚓᚈᚈᚐᚄᚐᚌᚏᚔ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚓ ᚁᚏᚔᚐᚉᚔ᚜
NETTASAGRI MAQI MUCOE BRIACI
|Nettasagri, Briaci||Bridell, Pembrokeshire||CISP BRIDL/1|
|Magl[ia], Dubr[acunas]||Caldey Island, Penally, Pembrokeshire||CISP CALDY/1|
|Steynton, Pembrokeshire||CISP STNTN/1 Latin "GENDILI"|
England, Isle of Man, Scotland
England has seven or eight ogham inscriptions, five in Cornwall and two in Devon near the Cornish border, which are the product of early Irish settlement in the area. A further inscription in Silchester in Hampshire is presumed to be the work of a lone Irish settler. Perhaps surprisingly, Scotland has only three orthodox inscriptions, as the rest are scholastic inscriptions made by the Picts (see below). The Isle of Man has five inscriptions. One of these is the famous inscription at Port St. Mary (503) which reads DOVAIDONA MAQI DROATA ᚛ᚇᚑᚃᚐᚔᚇᚑᚅᚐ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚇᚏᚑᚐᚈᚐ᚜ or 'Dovaidona son of the Druid'.
|ID||Text||Translation / Personal names||Location||Notes|
|CIIC 466||᚛ᚔᚌᚓᚅᚐᚃᚔ ᚋᚓᚋᚑᚏ᚜
|Lewannick, Cornwall||CISP LWNCK/1 Latin text "INGENVI MEMORIA"|
U[L]CAG[.I] / [.L]CAG[.]I
|Ulcagni||Lewannick, Cornwall||CISP LWNCK/2 Latin text "[HI]C IACIT VLCAGNI"|
|Worthyvale, Slaughterbridge, Minster, Cornwall||CISP WVALE/1 Latin text "LATINI IC IACIT FILIUS MACARI"|
|St. Kew, Cornwall||CISP FARDL/1 A block of granite, Latin "IVSTI" in a cartouche|
|CIIC 489||᚛ᚄᚃᚐᚊᚊᚒᚉᚔ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚊᚔᚉᚔ᚜
SVAQQUCI MAQI QICI
|"[The stone] of Safaqqucus, son of Qicus"||Ivybridge, Fardel, Devon||CISP FARDL/1|
|To compare with the name of the horse of Manannan Mac Lir (Enbarr)||Roborough Down, Buckland Monachorum, Devon||CISP TVST3/1|
|CIIC 496||᚛ᚓᚁᚔᚉᚐᚈᚑᚄ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ᚜
EBICATO[S] [MAQ]I MUCO[I] [
|Silchester, Hampshire||CISP SILCH/1 Excavated 1893|
|CIIC 500||FILIVS-ROCATI | HIC-IACIT
|"Ammecatus son of Rocatus lies here"
"[Am]bicatos son of Rocatos"
|Knoc y Doonee, Kirk Andreas||CISP ANDRS/1 Combined Latin and Ogam|
|CIIC 501||᚛ᚉᚒᚅᚐᚋᚐᚌᚂᚔ ᚋᚐᚉ᚜
|CIIC 502||᚛ᚋᚐᚊ ᚂᚓᚑᚌ᚜
|CIIC 503||᚛ᚇᚑᚃᚐᚔᚇᚑᚅᚐ ᚋᚐᚊᚔ ᚇᚏᚑᚐᚈᚐ᚜
DOVAIDONA MAQI DROATA
|"Dovaido son of the Druid."||Ballaqueeney, Port St Mary, Rushen||CISP RUSHN/1|
|CIIC 504||᚛ᚁᚔᚃᚐᚔᚇᚑᚅᚐᚄᚋᚐᚊᚔᚋᚒᚉᚑᚔ᚜ ᚛ᚉᚒᚅᚐᚃᚐᚂᚔ᚜
BIVAIDONAS MAQI MUCOI CUNAVA[LI]
|"Of Bivaidonas, son of the tribe Cunava[li]"||Ballaqueeney, Port St Mary, Rushen||CISP RUSHN/2|
|CIIC 506||᚛ᚃᚔᚉᚒᚂᚐ ᚋᚐᚊ ᚉᚒᚌᚔᚅᚔ᚜
VICULA MAQ CUGINI
|Vicula, Cugini||Gigha, Argyll||CISP GIGHA/1|
|Poltaloch, Kilmartin, Argyll||CISP POLCH/1 Fragment, recognized in 1931|
|Ballavarkish, Bride||CISP BRIDE/1 Recognized 1911; crosses and animals, 8th or 9th century|
The term 'scholastic' derives from the fact that the inscriptions are believed to have been inspired by the manuscript sources, instead of being continuations of the original monument tradition. Scholastic inscriptions typically draw a line into the stone's surface along which the letters are arranged, rather than using the stone's edge. They begin in the course of the 6th century, and continue into Old and Middle Irish, and even into Modern times. From the High Middle Ages, contemporary to the Manuscript tradition, they may contain Forfeda. The 30 or so Pictish inscriptions qualify as early Scholastic, roughly 6th to 9th century. Some Viking Age stones on Man and Shetland are in Old Norse, or at least contain Norse names.
|ID||Text||Translation / Personal names||Location||Notes|
|Addoaren (Saint Ethernan?)||Brandsbutt, Inverurie, Aberdeenshire||CISP BRATT/1 Pictish(?), dated 6th to 8th century|
|CISP BREAY/1||᚛ᚉᚏᚏᚑᚄᚄᚉᚉ᚜ : ᚛ᚅᚐᚆᚆᚈᚃᚃᚇᚇᚐᚇᚇᚄ᚜ : ᚛ᚇᚐᚈᚈᚏᚏ᚜ : ᚛ᚐᚅᚅ[--] ᚁᚓᚅᚔᚄᚓᚄ ᚋᚓᚊᚊ ᚇᚇᚏᚑᚐᚅᚅ[--]᚜
CRRO[S]SCC : NAHHTVVDDA[DD]S : DATTRR : [A]NN[--] BEN[I]SES MEQQ DDR[O]ANN[--
|Nahhtvdd[add]s, Benises, Dr[o]ann||Bressay, Shetland||CISP BREAY/1 Norse or Gaelic, contains five forfeda|
|a blessing on the soul of L.||Birsay, Orkney||Excavated in 1970. See Buckquoy spindle-whorl|
|Avuo Anuano soothsayer of the Doveni||Auquhollie, near Stonehaven||CISP AUQUH/1|
|Newton Stone||AIDDARCUN FEAN FOBRENNI BA(L or K)S IOSSAR||?||Shevock toll-bar, Aberdeenshire||Contains 2(?) lines of Ogham inscriptions and an undeciphered secondary inscription|
Isle of Man
- CISP KMICH/1, an 11th-century combined Runic and Ogam inscription in Kirk Michael churchyard, Kirk Michael, Isle of Man
- MUUCOMAL LAFIUA MULLGUC
- MAL : LUMKUN : RAISTI : KRUS : ÞINA : IFTIR : MAL : MURU : FUSTRA : SINI : TOTIRTUFKALS : KONA : IS : AÞISL : ATI+
[B]ITRA : IS : LAIFA : FUSTRA : KUÞAN : ÞAN : SON : ILAN +
- An ogham abecedarium (the whole ogham alphabet)
- "Mucomael grandson/descendant of O'Maelguc"
- "Mal Lumkun set up this cross in memory of Mal Mury her foster-son, daughter of Dufgal, the wife whom Athisl married,"
- "Better it is to leave a good foster son than a bad son"
- (The runic part is in Norse.)
- A 19th-century ogham inscription from Ahenny, Co. Tipperary (Raftery 1969)
- Beneath this sepulchral tomb lie the remains of Mary Dempsey who departed this life January the 4th 1802 aged 17 years
- ᚛ᚃᚐᚐᚅᚂᚔᚌᚄᚑᚅᚐᚂᚒᚐᚈᚐᚋᚐᚏᚔᚅᚔᚇᚆᚔᚋᚒᚄᚐ᚜ ᚛ᚑᚋᚁᚐᚂᚂᚔᚅᚐᚌᚉᚏᚐᚅᚔᚁᚆ᚜
- fa an lig so na lu ata mari ni dhimusa / o mballi na gcranibh
- "Beneath this stone lieth Mári Ní Dhíomasaigh from Ballycranna"
- Latin text written in ogham, in the Annals of Inisfallen of 1193 (ms. Rawlinson B. 503, 40c)
- Fictional inscription: a Middle Irish saga text recorded in the Book of Leinster (LL 66 AB) mentions the following ogham inscription:
- ᚛ᚌᚔᚚ ᚓ ᚈᚔᚄᚓᚇ ᚔᚅ ᚃᚐᚔᚇᚉᚆᚓ᚜ ᚛ᚇᚘᚐ ᚋᚁᚐ ᚌᚐᚄᚉᚓᚇᚐᚉᚆ᚜
- ᚛ᚌᚓᚔᚄ ᚃᚐᚔᚏ ᚐᚏ ᚈᚆᚓᚉᚆᚈ ᚇᚔᚅᚇ ᚃᚐᚔᚇᚉᚆᚔ᚜
- ᚛ᚉᚓᚅ ᚉᚆᚑᚋᚏᚐᚉ ᚅᚑᚓᚅᚃᚆᚔᚏ ᚇᚑ ᚃᚆᚒᚐᚉᚏᚐ᚜
- Gip e tised in faidche, dia m-ba gascedach, geis fair ar thecht dind faidchi cen chomrac n-oenfhir do fhuacra.
- "Whoever comes to this meadow, if he be armed, he is forbidden to leave the meadow, without requesting single combat."
- Brash, R. R., The Ogam Inscribed Monuments of the Gaedhil in the British Isles, London (1879).
- J. Higgitt, K. Forsyth, D. Parsons (eds.), Roman, Runes and Ogham. Medieval Inscriptions in the Insular World and on the Continent, Donington: Shaun Tyas (2001).
- Jackson, K.H., Notes on the Ogam inscriptions of southern Britain, in C. Fox, B. Dickins (eds.) The Early Cultures of North-West Europe. Cambridge: 197—213 (1950).
- Macalister, Robert A.S. The Secret Languages of Ireland, pp27 – 36, Cambridge University Press, 1937
- Macalister, R. A. S., Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum Vol. I., Dublin: Stationery Office (1945).
- Macalister, R. A. S., Corpus Inscriptionum Insularum Celticarum' Vol. II., Dublin: Stationery Office (1949).
- McManus, D, A Guide to Ogam, An Sagart, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (1991)
- MacNeill, Eoin. Archaisms in the Ogham Inscriptions, 'Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy' 39, pp 33–53, Dublin
- Ziegler, S., Die Sprache der altirischen Ogam-Inschriften, Göttingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht (1994).
- "INCHA/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "CLOOM/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "ISLAN/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "KILMA/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "RUSHE/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "TULLA/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "CORRO/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "DOOGH/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "AGHAL/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "BREAS/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "AGLIS/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "MAUIG/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "COOLM/4". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "OLDIS/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "AGHAS/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "BALBR/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "RTHKE/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- Discovered in 1975. Thomas Fanning and Donncha Ó Corráin, "An Ogham stone and cross-slab from Ratass Church, Tralee", JKAHS 10 (1977), pp. 14–18.
- Davies, John (2008). The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1953-X.
- "BRAW/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "BRIDL/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "CALDY/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "STNTN/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "LWNCK/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "LWNCK/2". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "WVALE/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "STKEW/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "FARDL/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- J. A. MacCulloch, The Religion of the Ancient Celts
- "TVST3/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "SILCH/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "ANDRS/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "ARBRY/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "ARBRY/2". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "RUSHN/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "RUSHN/2". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "GIGHA/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "POLCH/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "BRIDE/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "BRATT/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- "BREAY/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- Forsyth, Katherine (1995). "The ogham-inscribed spindle-whorl from Buckquoy: evidence for the Irish language in pre-Viking Orkney?". Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 125: 677–696. ISSN 0081-1564.
- "AUQUH/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.
- Brash, Richard Rolt (March 10, 1873). "ON THE OGHAM INSCRIPTION OF THE NEWTON PILLAR-STONE" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland: 139.
- "Site Record for Newton House, The Newton Stone Newton In The Garioch". RCAHMS. Retrieved 3 March 2013.
- "KMICH/1". Celtic Inscribed Stones Project. University College London.