Ohio and Erie Canal

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Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District
Ohio Canal.jpg
The Ohio and Erie canal in 1902
Location Independence and
Valley View,
Cuyahoga County, Ohio
Area 24.5 acres (99,000 m2)[1]
Built 1825
Architect Unknown
Architectural style No Style Listed
Governing body National Park Service
NRHP Reference # 66000607
Significant dates
Added to NRHP November 13, 1966[2]
Designated NHLD November 13, 1966[3]

The Ohio and Erie Canal was a canal constructed in the 1820s and early 1830s in the U.S. state of Ohio. It connected Akron, Summit County, with the Cuyahoga River near its mouth on Lake Erie in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, and a few years later, with the Ohio River near Portsmouth, Scioto County, and then connections to other canal systems in Pennsylvania.

The canal carried freight traffic from 1827 to 1861, when the arrival of railroads killed the market. From 1862 to 1913, the canal served as a water source to industries and towns. In 1913, much of the canal system was abandoned after important parts were severely flooded.

Today, most of the remaining portions are managed by the National Park Service or Ohio Department of Natural Resources. They are used for various recreational purposes by the public, and still provide water for some industries. Parts of the canal are preserved, including the Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District, a National Historic Landmark.

History[edit]

Ohio, which achieved statehood in 1803, remained a sparsely populated region of 50,000 persons who were scattered throughout the state and who had no means of economically transporting goods. With no easy access to distant markets, agriculture served only local needs and large-scale manufacturing was nearly non-existent.[4]

Agitation for a canal system (1787–1822)[edit]

As early as 1787, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson had discussed the desirability of a canal linking Lake Erie to the Ohio River as part of a national system of canals.[5] It wasn't until 1807 that Ohio's first Senator, Thomas Worthington offered a resolution in Congress asking Treasury Secretary Albert Gallatin to report to the Senate. In 1810, DeWitt Clinton was appointed to head the Erie Canal Commission. He was unsuccessful in his attempt to get national aid for the construction of a canal connecting Lake Erie to the Hudson River, so he enlisted the aid of state legislators and Ohio's congressional delegation. On January 15, 1812 the Ohio General Assembly passed a resolution expressing its view that the connection of the Great Lakes with the Hudson River was a project of "national concern". President Madison was against the proposal, however, and the War of 1812 ended all discussion.

On December 11, 1816, Clinton, by then the Governor of New York, sent a letter to the Ohio Legislature indicating his state's willingness to construct the Erie Canal without national help, and asking the State of Ohio to join in the endeavor. On January 9, 1817, the Ohio Legislature directed Ohio's Governor (and former Senator) Thomas Worthington to negotiate a deal with Clinton. Due to the cost, however, the Ohio Legislature dallied, and nothing happened for the next 3 years. Finally, in January 1822, in a fit of progressivism, the Ohio Legislature passed acts to fund the canal system and the state's public education obligations.

Survey and design (1822)[edit]

On January 31, 1822 the Ohio Legislature passed a resolution to employ an engineer and appoint commissioners to survey and design the canal system as soon as possible. A sum not to exceed $6000 was set aside for this purpose.

James Geddes, an engineer whose past work included experience on the New York canals, was employed. Since most of Ohio's population lived along a line from Cleveland to Cincinnati, it was necessary that these areas be served by the main trunk of the canal. Since canals must generally follow river valleys, it was difficult to design a suitable system. Specifically, the bridging of the Scioto and Miami river valleys required raising the canal to such an elevation that water from neither river could be used as a source. As a result, the canal was divided into two sections, the Ohio and Erie Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth which crossed the Licking Divide and followed the Scioto River Valley, and the Miami and Erie Canal which connected Cincinnati to Dayton. In later years this second canal would be extended all the way to the Maumee River at Toledo.

Copies of the original survey plat maps for the construction of both Ohio canals are available on-line[6] from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.

Construction (1825–32)[edit]

On February 4, 1825, the Ohio Legislature passed "An Act to provide for the Internal Improvement of the State of Ohio by Navigable Canals". The Canal Commission was authorized to borrow $400,000 in 1825, and not more than $600,000 per year thereafter. The notes issued were to be redeemable between 1850 and 1875.

On July 4, 1825, ground was broken on the canal at Licking Summit near Newark, Ohio.

The canals were specified to have a minimum width of 40 feet (12 m) at the top, 26 feet (8 m) at the bottom, and a depth of 4 feet (1.2 m) feet minimum. These limits were often exceeded, and indeed it was cheaper to do so in most cases. For example, it might be cheaper to build one embankment and then let the water fill all the way to the adjacent foothills, perhaps hundreds of feet away, rather than build two embankments. By damming the rivers, long stretches of slackwater could be created which, with the addition of towpaths, could serve as portions of the canal. Where it made economic sense to do so, such as lock widths or portions of the canal through narrow rock or across aqueducts, the minimum widths were adhered to.[citation needed]

Contracts were let for the following tasks:

  • Grubbing and clearing
  • Mucking and ditching
  • Embankment and excavation
  • Locks and culverts
  • Puddling
  • Protection

Initially, contractors in general proved to be inexperienced and unreliable. It was common for one job to receive 50 bids, many of them local to where the work was being performed. The chosen contractor, having underbid the contract, often would vanish in the night leaving his labor force unpaid and his contract unfulfilled. This problem was so bad that laborers refused to perform canal work for fear of not being paid. As the bidding process was improved, and more reliable contractors engaged, the situation improved.[citation needed]

Workers were initially paid $0.30 per day and offered a jigger of whiskey. As work progressed, and where labor was in shortage, workers could make as much as $15 per month. At that time, cash money was hard to come by in Ohio forcing much bartering. Working on the canal was appealing and attracted many farmers from their land.[citation needed]

On July 3, 1827 the first canal boat on the Ohio and Erie Canal left Akron, traveled through 41 locks and over 3 aqueducts along 37 miles (60 km) of canal, to arrive at Cleveland on July 4. While the average speed of 3 mph (4.8 km/h) may seem slow, canal boats could carry 10 tons of goods and were much more efficient than wagons over rutted trails.

Graph showing the annual expenditures and revenues accrued to the State of Ohio by the Ohio and Erie Canal from 1827 to 1903.

Over the next five years, more and more portions of the canal opened, with it finally being completed in 1832:

In 1832, the Ohio and Erie Canal was completed. The entire canal system was 308 miles (496 km) long with 146 lift locks and a rise of 1,206 feet (368 m). In addition, there were five feeder canals that added 24.8 miles (39.9 km) and 6 additional locks to the system consisting of:

  • Tuscarawas Feeder (3.2 miles)
  • Walhonding Feeder (1.3 miles)
  • Granville Feeder (6.1 miles)
  • Muskinghum Side Cut (2.6 miles)
  • Columbus Feeder (11.6 miles)

The canal's lock numbering system was oriented from the Lower Basin, near the southwest corner of the current Exchange and Main streets in Akron. North of the basin is Lock 1 North, and south of the basin is Lock 1 South. At this basin was the joining of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal.[7][8]

Operation (1833–1913)[edit]

The Akron Beacon Journal front page on March 25, 1913; two days after the flood

The canals enjoyed a golden period of prosperity from the 1830s to the early 1860s, with a peak in revenue between 1852 and 1855. During the 1840s, Ohio was the third most prosperous state, owing much of that growth to the canal.[9] Immediately following the Civil War, it became apparent that railroads would take the canal's business. From 1861 until 1879, after the canal had been badly flooded,[9] Ohio leased its canals to private owners who earned revenue from dwindling boat operation and the sale of water to factories and towns. When the state took the canals back in 1879, it discovered that they had not been maintained, and that state lands surrounding the canals had been illegally sold to private owners. In many cases, canals were filled in for "health reasons", only to find a newly laid railroad track on their right of way. Much State land was given away for free to politically savvy private owners. Nevertheless, some revenue was accrued into the early twentieth century from the sale of water rights as well as recovery and sale of land surrounding the canals.

Abandonment[edit]

After the peak of the 1850s and a bottoming out of revenue due to the Civil War in the early 1860s the canal's expenditures started to outgrow its revenues due to rising maintenance costs. By 1911, most of the southern portion of the canal had been abandoned.[9] On March 23, 1913, after a winter of record snowfall, storms dumped an abnormally heavy amount of rain on the state, causing extensive flooding. This caused the reservoirs to spill over into the canals, destroying aqueducts, washing out banks, and devastating most of the locks. In Akron, Lock 1 was dynamited to allow backed up floodwater to flow.[10]

Notable persons associated with the Canal[edit]

  • As a teenager in 1847, James Garfield worked as a Hoggee, driving mules to pull barges along the canal.[11] After repeatedly falling into the canal on the job, Garfield became ill, and decided to go to college instead.[12]

The Canal today[edit]

Restored canal boat

The Ohio and Erie Canal Historic District, a 24.5-acre (99,000 m2) historic district including part of the canal, was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1966.[1][3] It is a four mile (6 km) section within the village of Valley View comprising three locks, the Tinkers Creek Aqueduct, and two other structures.[1]

A remaining watered section of the Ohio & Erie Canal is located in Summit County, Ohio. The Ohio & Erie Canal is maintained, to this day, as a water supply for local industries. After the flood, a few sections of the canal continued in use hauling cargo to local industries. Another watered section extends from the Station Road Bridge in Brecksville northwards into Valley View and Independence, all Cleveland suburbs.

The section of the Ohio & Erie Canal from the Brecksville Dam to Rockside Road in Cuyahoga County was transferred to the National Park Service in 1989 as part of the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreational Area (now known as the Cuyahoga Valley National Park).

A lease on the canal lands from the Cuyahoga Valley National Park to the terminus of the canal has been executed with the Cleveland Metroparks. The Metroparks manage the adjacent real estate and the surrounding Ohio & Erie Canal Reservation.

The section of the Ohio & Erie Canal still owned and maintained by the Division of Water in southern Summit is referred to as the watered section. This section runs from the north end of Summit Lake south to Barberton, a distance of about 12 miles (19 km). Included in this section is the feeder canal from the Tuscarawas River and the hydraulics at the Portage Lakes.

The Ohio & Erie Canal is maintained from Akron by a staff of six Division of Water employees. Like its sister canal, the Ohio & Erie Canal carries a large amount of stormwater. The canals were not designed to accommodate this great influx of stormwater. Most of the siltation and erosion problems experienced today are the result of stormwater inappropriately piped into the canals over the years.

In late 1996, the canal from Zoar to Cleveland was designated a National Heritage Corridor. This designation was brought about through the efforts of many communities, civic organizations, businesses and individuals working in partnership. The Department is working with numerous local communities and organizations to assure the continued development of the Ohio & Erie Canal.

A map showing the disposition of the canal lands[13] is available on-line from the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.

Points of interest[edit]

Towpath through Akron
  • Alexander's (a.k.a. Wilson's) Mill
  • Richard Howe House (future site)
  • Boston Store
  • Canal Visitor Center
  • Frazee House
  • St. Helena III Historic Boat Ride in Canal Fulton
  • Mustill Store
  • Peninsula Depot
  • Station Road Bridge
  • Tinkers Creek Aqueduct

Connecting canals[edit]

The Ohio and Erie Canal initially provided a connection between Akron and Lake Erie at Cleveland, then extending all the way to the Ohio River within a few years. Later, connecting canal systems were built connecting it with the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal and other parts of Eastern Ohio.[14]

Ohio and Erie Canal - Connecting Canals
Coordinates
Elevation
Name
Description
Columbus Feeder Lockbourne, Columbus, Franklin County
Granville Feeder Granville, Licking County
Hocking Valley Carroll, Lancaster, Fairfield County;
Logan, Hocking County;
Nelsonville, Athens, Athens County
Muskingum Side Cut Dresden, Zanesville, Muskingum County;
McConnelsville, Morgan County;
Marietta, Washington County
Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal Akron, Summit County;
Kent, Ravenna, Portage County;
Warren, Trumbull County;
Youngstown, Mahoning County; Ohio;;
Lawrence; Beaver, Beaver County; Allegheny, Pennsylvania[15]
40°44′27″N 80°53′37″W / 40.74083°N 80.89361°W / 40.74083; -80.89361 (Sandy Beaver Canal)[16][17] 1,112 feet (339 m)[16][17] Sandy and Beaver Canal
a.k.a. Tuscarawas Feeder
Bolivar, Tuscarawas County;
Hanoverton, Lisbon, East Liverpool, Columbiana County;
Glasgow, Beaver County, Pennsylvania
40°19′19″N 81°56′49″W / 40.32194°N 81.94694°W / 40.32194; -81.94694 (Walhonding Canal)[18] 774 feet (236 m)[18] Walhonding Canal Roscoe Village, Coshocton County;
Brinkhaven, Knox County

Towpath Trail landmarks[edit]

An all-purpose bicycle/pedestrian trail was constructed by Cuyahoga Valley National Park in Southern Cuyahoga County and Northern Summit County, Cleveland Metroparks in Northern Cuyahoga County, and Akron/Summit County Metroparks in Southern Summit County to roughly follow the original Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath route.[19] (The northernmost section in Cuyahoga County is still undergoing construction.) There are many connecting trails going to other points of interest throughout their park systems.


Please help by expanding this section with any notable landmarks along the Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail.

Restored canal Twelve Mile Lock 38, Cuyahoga Valley National Park
Peninsula Lock 29,
Peninsula Aqueduct steel trusses
over Cuyahoga River in background.
Deep Lock 28 as it existed in 1985
Ohio and Erie Canal is located in Ohio
44_North
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Massillon
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Walhonding
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Carroll
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Ohio Canal system


Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail Landmarks
Mile
Post
B[›]
ID
#
Coordinates
Elevation
Name
Type
Municipality
County
Description
0 44 North 41°29′39.76″N 81°42′10.4″W / 41.4943778°N 81.702889°W / 41.4943778; -81.702889 ("Lock 44")[20] 0 feet (0 m) Cuyahoga River Sloop Lock Cleveland Cuyahoga Merwin Street between James street and West street
43 North 0 feet (0 m) Lock Cleveland Cuyahoga Sherwin Williams, James and West, Merrwin and Vineyard
0 feet (0 m) Weigh Lock Cleveland Cuyahoga Seneca a.k.a. West 3rd. street
3 42 North 0 feet (0 m) Lock Cleveland Cuyahoga relocated to 42A,
3 42A North 0 feet (0 m) Weigh and Guard Lock Cleveland Cuyahoga near Grasselli chemical company, Dille street and Independence road
5 41 North 41°26′49.38″N 81°40′56.88″W / 41.4470500°N 81.6824667°W / 41.4470500; -81.6824667 ("Five Mile Lock 41")[21] 0 feet (0 m) RathBuns Lock Cuyahoga near Austin Powder Works, Harvard Road, near Jennings Road
8 40 North 41°25′8.82″N 81°38′38.58″W / 41.4191167°N 81.6440500°W / 41.4191167; -81.6440500 ("Eight Mile Lock 40")[22] 0 feet (0 m) Willow Lock Cuyahoga Heights Cuyahoga off Canal Road, near I-77
41°25′2.53″N 81°38′18.88″W / 41.4173694°N 81.6385778°W / 41.4173694; -81.6385778 ("Mill Creek Aqueduct")[23] 0 feet (0 m) Mill Creek Aqueduct Cuyahoga Heights Cuyahoga carries canal over Mill Creek (Cuyahoga River) off Canal Road
41°24′57″N 81°38′2″W / 41.41583°N 81.63389°W / 41.41583; -81.63389 ("GNIS-OEC-17 Cleveland South topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 17 Cleveland South topographic map
Bridge Cuyahoga Rockside Road
TrailHead Cuyahoga CVSR
11 MilePost Marker Cuyahoga
11 39 North 41°23′24.22″N 81°37′28.95″W / 41.3900611°N 81.6247083°W / 41.3900611; -81.6247083 ("Eleven Mile Lock 39")[25] 590 feet (180 m)[26] Lock Independence Cuyahoga
41°23′4″N 81°37′7″W / 41.38444°N 81.61861°W / 41.38444; -81.61861 ("GNIS-OEC-16 Shaker Heights topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 16 Shaker Heights topographic map
12 MilePost Marker Cuyahoga
Bridge Cuyahoga Hillside Road
TrailHead Cuyahoga CVSR-Canal Visitor Center, 7104 Canal Road and Hillside Road
12 38 North 41°22′20.78″N 81°36′46.23″W / 41.3724389°N 81.6128417°W / 41.3724389; -81.6128417 ("Twelve Mile Lock 38")[27] 600 feet (180 m)[28] Lock Valley View Cuyahoga Canal Visitor Center
Cuyahoga County Tinkers Creek Road
13 MilePost Marker Cuyahoga
41°21′53″N 81°36′32″W / 41.36472°N 81.60889°W / 41.36472; -81.60889 ("Tinkers Creek Aqueduct")[29] 610 feet (190 m)[29] Tinkers Creek Aqueduct Cuyahoga carries canal over Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River)A[›]
Bridge Cuyahoga Alexander Road-Pleasant Valley Road
14 37 North 41°21′24.06″N 81°35′49.02″W / 41.3566833°N 81.5969500°W / 41.3566833; -81.5969500 ("Fourteen Mile Lock 37")[30] 620 feet (190 m)[31] Lock Cuyahoga Alexander's Mill
Mill Cuyahoga Alexanders (a.k.a. Wilsons)
14 MilePost Marker Cuyahoga
Trailhead Cuyahoga Sagamore Road
15 MilePost Marker Cuyahoga
16 MilePost Marker Cuyahoga
41°21′20″N 81°35′46″W / 41.35556°N 81.59611°W / 41.35556; -81.59611 ("GNIS-OEC-15 Northfield topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 15 Northfield topographic map
17 36 North 41°19′23.06″N 81°35′11.9″W / 41.3230722°N 81.586639°W / 41.3230722; -81.586639 ("Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock 36")[32] 0 feet (0 m)[33] Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock Summit
Bridge Summit SR-82
17 MilePost Marker Summit
TrailHead Summit Station Road bridge to CVSR-Brecksville
19 35 North 41°18′45.43″N 81°34′59.89″W / 41.3126194°N 81.5833028°W / 41.3126194; -81.5833028 ("Kettlewell Whiskey Lock 35")[34] 0 feet (0 m)[35] Kettlewell Whiskey Lock Summit
18 MilePost Marker Summit
Trail Summit Old Carriage
Trail Summit Old Carriage Connector
19 MilePost Marker Summit
20 34 North 41°17′21.08″N 81°33′51.99″W / 41.2891889°N 81.5644417°W / 41.2891889; -81.5644417 ("Red Lock 34")[36] 0 feet (0 m)[37] Red Lock Summit Jaite in southwestern Northfield Township[38]
TrailHead Red Lock
Bridge Summit Highland Road
20 MilePost Marker Summit
20.5 33 North 41°16′33.52″N 81°33′38.14″W / 41.2759778°N 81.5605944°W / 41.2759778; -81.5605944 ("Wallace Lock 33")[39] 0 feet (0 m)[40] Wallace Lock Summit in Boston Township[41]
21 MilePost Marker Summit
21 32 North 41°15′56″N 81°33′31″W / 41.26556°N 81.55861°W / 41.26556; -81.55861 ("Boston Lock 32")[42] 659 feet (201 m)[42] Boston Lock Summit Boston Township
Summit Boston Mills Road
TrailHead Summit CVSR-Boston Store
Bridge Summit I-271 Southbound
Bridge Summit I-271 Northbound
Bridge Summit I-80 Westbound
Bridge Summit I-80 Eastbound
22 MilePost Marker Summit
Summit Stumpy Basin
22 31 North 41°15′5.93″N 81°32′45.36″W / 41.2516472°N 81.5459333°W / 41.2516472; -81.5459333 ("Lonesome Lock 31")[43] 670 feet (200 m)[44] Lonesome Lock Summit was in Boston Township[45]
23 MilePost Marker Summit
23 30 North 41°14′44.04″N 81°33′14.87″W / 41.2455667°N 81.5541306°W / 41.2455667; -81.5541306 ("Peninsula Feeder Lock 30")[46] 680 feet (210 m)[47] Peninsula Feeder Lock Peninsula Summit
Peninsula TrailHead Peninsula Summit CVSR
23 29 North 41°14′33.54″N 81°33′1.29″W / 41.2426500°N 81.5503583°W / 41.2426500; -81.5503583 ("Peninsula Lock 29")[48] 690 feet (210 m)[49] Peninsula Lock Peninsula Summit
41°14′33.01″N 81°33′0.86″W / 41.2425028°N 81.5502389°W / 41.2425028; -81.5502389 ("Peninsula Aqueduct")[50] 700 feet (210 m)[51] Peninsula Aqueduct Peninsula Summit carried canal over Cuyahoga River
Bridge Summit SR-303
24 MilePost Marker Summit
25 28 North 41°13′57.38″N 81°33′6.77″W / 41.2326056°N 81.5518806°W / 41.2326056; -81.5518806 ("Deep Lock 28")[52] 700 feet (210 m)[52][53] Deep Lock Peninsula Summit at 17 feet (5.2 m) the deepest lock along the canal
TrailHead Summit Deep Lock Quarry
25 MilePost Marker Summit
26 MilePost Marker Summit
27 27 North 41°12′16.25″N 81°34′15.43″W / 41.2045139°N 81.5709528°W / 41.2045139; -81.5709528 ("Johnny Cake Lock 27")[54] 710 feet (220 m)[55] Johnny Cake Lock Summit
41°12′7″N 81°34′21″W / 41.20194°N 81.57250°W / 41.20194; -81.57250 ("Furnace Run Aqueduct")[56] 718 feet (219 m)[56] Furnace Run Aqueduct Summit carried canal over Furnace Run (Cuyahoga River)
27 MilePost Marker Summit
Bridge Summit Bolanz Road
28 MilePost Marker Summit
Summit Beaver Marsh
28 26 North 41°11′7.74″N 81°34′52.05″W / 41.1854833°N 81.5811250°W / 41.1854833; -81.5811250 ("Pancake Lock 26")[57][58] 718 feet (219 m)[57] Pancake Lock Summit
Ira TrailHead Summit CVSR
29 MilePost Marker Summit
28 25 North 41°10′32.27″N 81°34′46.82″W / 41.1756306°N 81.5796722°W / 41.1756306; -81.5796722 ("Mudcatcher Lock 25")[59] 0 feet (0 m)[60] Mudcatcher Lock Summit
30 24 North 41°10′20.5″N 81°34′40.93″W / 41.172361°N 81.5780361°W / 41.172361; -81.5780361 ("Niles Lock 24")[61] 0 feet (0 m)[62] Niles Lock Summit
Bridge Summit Yellow Creek (Cuyahoga River)
30 MilePost Marker Summit
Bridge Summit Bath Road
Indian Mound TrailHead Summit CVSR
41°3′57″N 81°32′12″W / 41.06583°N 81.53667°W / 41.06583; -81.53667 ("GNIS-OEC-14 Akron West topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 14 Akron West topographic map
32 23 North 0 feet (0 m) Booth port Lock Summit sewer pipe
32 22 North Booth port Lock Summit Merriman sewer pipe
33 21 North Lock Summit sewer over-flow
20 North Lock Summit train abutments
19 North Black Dog Crossing Lock Summit near Hickory and Memorial
35 18 North Lock Summit
36 17 North Lock Summit
36 16 North Lock Summit
36 15 North Akron Mustill Store Lock Akron Summit
36 14 North Lock Akron Summit North Street
36 13 North Lock Akron Summit
36 12 North Lock Akron Summit
36 11 North Lock Akron Summit
36 10 North Lock Akron Summit
9 North Lock Akron Summit north of Market street
8 North Lock Akron Summit tunnel
37 7 North Lock Akron Summit middle tunnel
37 6 North Lock Akron Summit tunnel below parking deck North of Mill street
37 5 North Lock Akron Summit tunnel
37 4 North Lock Akron Summit tunnel
37 3 North Lock Akron Summit South Main street
38 2 North Lock Akron Summit Water street
38 1 North Lock Akron Summit West Exchange street
0 Portage landing Lock Akron Summit Portage lakes, Manchester Road
1 South Wolf creek Lock Barberton Summit Snyder avenue
Wolf creek Aqueduct Barberton Summit Snyder avenue
40°54′37″N 81°37′51″W / 40.91028°N 81.63083°W / 40.91028; -81.63083 ("GNIS-OEC-13 Doylestown topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 13 Doylestown topographic map
2 South Lock New Franklin Stark Center Road
3 South Lock New Franklin Stark Center Road
40°53′2″N 81°35′37″W / 40.88389°N 81.59361°W / 40.88389; -81.59361 ("GNIS-OEC-12 Canal Fulton topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 12 Canal Fulton topographic map
4 South Lock Canal Fulton Stark
40°47′43″N 81°31′22″W / 40.79528°N 81.52278°W / 40.79528; -81.52278 ("GNIS-OEC-11 Massillon topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 11 Massillon topographic map
Trailhead Massillon Stark
40°39′32″N 81°27′22″W / 40.65889°N 81.45611°W / 40.65889; -81.45611 ("GNIS-OEC-10 Bolivar topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 10 Bolivar topographic map
39°58′17″N 82°29′15″W / 39.97139°N 82.48750°W / 39.97139; -82.48750 ("GNIS-OEC-9 Thornville topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 9 Thornville topographic map
39°53′22″N 82°32′21″W / 39.88944°N 82.53917°W / 39.88944; -82.53917 ("GNIS-OEC-8 Millersport topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 8 Millersport topographic map
5 South Lock
5A South Lock
Lock
Lock
31 South Lock
32 South Lock
33 South Lock
North 20 Lock
North 19 Lock
North 18 Lock
Lock
Lock
North 1 Lock
North 0 Minthorn Lock Newark Licking
South 0 Pugh Lock
South 1 195 King Watson Lock Canal Road
39°51′41″N 82°33′38″W / 39.86139°N 82.56056°W / 39.86139; -82.56056 ("GNIS-OEC-7 Baltimore topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 7 Baltimore topographic map
196 South 2 David Miller's White Mill Lock Baltimore Fairfield
197.4 South 3 Norris Mill Lock Baltimore Fairfield
South 4 Short Level Lock Baltimore Fairfield
198 South 5 Dry Dock Lock Baltimore Fairfield
198.3 South 6 Mulnix Mill Lock Baltimore Fairfield
198.8 South 7 Wells Mill Lock Basil, Ohio
200 South 8 Bibler Lock Basil, Ohio
208 South 9 Lock Carroll Fairfield
South 10 Lock Carroll, Ohio Fairfield
206 South 11 Lock Violet Township Fairfield County, Ohio Upper Lockville
South 12 Tennis/Tennat Lock Lockville
South 13 Rowe Lock Lockville
South 14 Smallwood Lock
South 15 Fickle Mill Short Level Lock Lockville
South 16 Rover Short Level Lock Lockville
South 17 Swimmer's Lock Lockville
South 18 Creek Lock Lockvile
208 Walnet Creek Guard Lock
39°51′16″N 82°52′19″W / 39.85444°N 82.87194°W / 39.85444; -82.87194 ("GNIS-OEC-6 Canal Winchester topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 6 Canal Winchester topographic map
210 South 19 Chaney's Mill Lock Canal Winchester
210 South 20 Woolen Lock Canal Winchester Gender Road
South 21 Lock Canal Winchester near Glenarda Farms, Groveport Road
George's Culvert Canal Winchester
South 22 Groveport Lock
39°51′14″N 82°52′34″W / 39.85389°N 82.87611°W / 39.85389; -82.87611 ("GNIS-OEC-5 Lockbourne topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 5 Lockbourne topographic map
217 South 23 Lock Lockbourne Franklin Canal Road
217 South 24 Lock Lockbourne Franklin Canal Road
217 South 25 Lock Lockbourne Franklin Canal Road
217.5 South 26 Lock Lockbourne Franklin
218 South 27 Lock Lockbourne Franklin Canal Road
218 South 28 Lock Lockbourne Franklin under railroad track bed
South 29 Lock
South 30 Lock Lockbourne Franklin Lockmeadows Park
39°48′45″N 82°43′37″W / 39.81250°N 82.72694°W / 39.81250; -82.72694 ("GNIS-OEC-4 Carroll topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 4 Carroll topographic map
39°45′0″N 82°39′49″W / 39.75000°N 82.66361°W / 39.75000; -82.66361 ("GNIS-OEC-3 Amanda topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 3 Amanda topographic map
39°39′55″N 82°58′8″W / 39.66528°N 82.96889°W / 39.66528; -82.96889 ("GNIS-OEC-2 Ashville topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 2 Ashville topographic map
40°25′20″N 81°24′17″W / 40.42222°N 81.40472°W / 40.42222; -81.40472 ("GNIS-OEC-1 New Philadelphia topo")[24] 0 feet (0 m) GNIS GNIS 1 New Philadelphia topographic map
Columbus Feeder East Guard Lock
Columbus Feeder West Guard Lock
226 South 31 Ashville Campbells Mill Lock
237 South 32 Aqueduct Lock Scioto River, West of Circleville
237 Circleville Feeder Lock Spunkytown
238 South 33 Lock Wayne Township
238 South 34 Lock Wayne Township
South 35 Lock Chillicothe, Ohio
256 South 36 Lock Chillicothe, Ohio
258 South 37 Lock Chillicothe, Ohio parking lot
South 38 Fifth Street Lock Chillicothe, Ohio
261 South 39 Upper Lunbeck Lock
261 South 40 Lower Lunbeck Lock Scioto Township Pickaway near Renick Lane 601
South 41 Tomlinsons Lock 3 Locks Road, South of Chillicothe
South 42 Tomlinsons Lock
South 43 Tomlinsons Lock
Tomlinsons Dam and Feeder Guard Lock
South 44 Waverly Lock
280 South 45 U Pee Pee Lock
280 South 46 L Pee Pee Lock
291 South 47 Howards Lock near Robers 18 mi (29 km) Lock Farm
South 48 Herod's Lock
South 49 Rushs Brush Creek Lock
South 50 Union Mills Lock
South 51 Union Mills Moss Lock near Ohio State Route 239
South 52 Union Mills Lock
305 South 53 Elbow Lock
South 54 Lock Portsmouth Scioto County
308 South 55 Lock Scioto County near Old River Road, Portsmouth/Alexandria

Travels through Cuyahoga, Summit, Stark, Licking, Franklin, Fairfield, Pickaway, and Scioto counties.[24]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

^ A: In 2007-2008-? Tinkers Creek Aqueduct is undergoing renovation following flood damage from Tinkers Creek (Cuyahoga River) and Cuyahoga River
^ B: Ohio and Erie Canal Towpath Trail miles are measured from its original connection with Lake Erie at Lock 44 on the Cuyahoga River, and marked with a 3.3 feet (1.0 m)-tall sandstone obelisk at each mile mark.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mendinghall, Joseph S. (February 28, 1975). National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Ohio and Erie Canal. National Park Service. 
  2. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. 
  3. ^ a b "Ohio and Erie Canal". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  4. ^ "History Ohio's Canals.". Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 
  5. ^ Hagerty, J.E., McClelland C.P. and Huntington, C.C., History of the Ohio Canals, Their construction, cost, use and partial abandonment, Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, Columbus, OH 1905
  6. ^ Ohio & Erie, Miami & Erie Canal Plat Maps Main Page
  7. ^ Ehmann P&O
  8. ^ http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/heartland/prairie/6687/pennohio.htm&date=2009-10-25+23:48:48
  9. ^ a b c "Captain Pearl R. Nye: Life on the Ohio and Erie Canal". Retrieved 2007-04-21. 
  10. ^ by Jack Gieck; with an introduction by George W. Knepper (1988). A photo album of Ohio's canal era, 1825-1913. [Kent, Ohio]: Kent State University Press. ISBN 0-87338-353-2. 
  11. ^ "Biography of James Garfield". The White House. Retrieved 2006-03-14. 
  12. ^ "James A. Garfield". American Presidents: Life Portraits. Retrieved 2006-03-14. 
  13. ^ Historic Canal System Current Status - Year 2000 Map
  14. ^ "Canals of Ohio 1825-1913 map" (JPEG). The Ohio Historical Society, Columbus, Ohio; National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. 
  15. ^ "Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  16. ^ a b "Sandy Beaver Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  17. ^ a b "Sandy Beaver Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  18. ^ a b "Walhonding Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  19. ^ "Ohio and Erie Canal". Cleveland Memory, Cleveland State University Libraries. 
  20. ^ Lock 44 manually plotted in Google Earth
  21. ^ "Ohio and Erie Canal and Towpath Trail, Part 2". NorthEastOhio-RoadRunner. 
  22. ^ "Ohio and Erie Canal and Towpath Trail, Part 3". NorthEastOhio-RoadRunner. 
  23. ^ Mill Creek Aqueduct manually plotted in Google Earth
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Ohio Canal". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  25. ^ Eleven Mile Lock 39 manually plotted in Google Earth
  26. ^ "Eleven Mile Lock 39 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  27. ^ Twelve Mile Lock 38 manually plotted in Google Earth
  28. ^ "Twelve Mile Lock 38 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  29. ^ a b "Tinkers Creek Aqueduct". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  30. ^ Fourteen Mile Lock 37 manually plotted in Google Earth
  31. ^ "Fourteen Mile Lock 37 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  32. ^ Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock 36 manually plotted in Google Earth
  33. ^ Pinery Dam and Feeder Lock 36 topographic map
  34. ^ Kettlewell Whiskey Lock 35 manually plotted in Google Earth
  35. ^ Whiskey Lock 35 topographic map
  36. ^ Red Lock 34 manually plotted in Google Earth
  37. ^ Red Lock 34 topographic map
  38. ^ "Red Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  39. ^ Wallace Lock 33 manually plotted in Google Earth
  40. ^ Wallace Lock 33 topographic map
  41. ^ "Wallace Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  42. ^ a b "Boston Lock". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  43. ^ Lonesome Lock 31 manually plotted in Google Earth
  44. ^ "Lonesome Lock 31 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  45. ^ "Lonesome Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  46. ^ Peninsula Feeder Lock 30 manually plotted in Google Earth
  47. ^ "Peninsula Feeder Lock 30 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  48. ^ Peninsula Lock 29 manually plotted in Google Earth
  49. ^ "Peninsula Lock 29 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  50. ^ Peninsula Aqueduct manually plotted in Google Earth
  51. ^ "Peninsula Aqueduct topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  52. ^ a b "Deep Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03.  Deep Lock manually plotted in Google Earth
  53. ^ "Deep Lock 28 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  54. ^ Johnny Cake Lock 27 manually plotted in Google Earth
  55. ^ "Johnny Cake Lock 27 topographic map". USGS via Microsoft Research Maps. 
  56. ^ a b "Furnace Run Aqueduct". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  57. ^ a b "Pancake Lock (historical)". Geographic Names Information System, U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-05-03. 
  58. ^ Pancake Lock 26 manually plotted in Google Earth
  59. ^ Mudcatcher Lock 25 manually plotted in Google Earth
  60. ^ Mudcatcher Lock 25 topographic map
  61. ^ Niles Lock 24 manually plotted in Google Earth
  62. ^ Niles Lock 24 topographic map

General References[edit]

External links[edit]