Oil Campaign chronology of World War II

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The Oil Campaign chronology of World War II lists bombing missions and related events regarding the petroleum/oil/lubrication (POL) facilities that supplied Nazi Germany.

Legend[edit]

Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg — events regarding Nazi Germany petroleum, lubrication, and/or oil supplies
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg and/or US flag 48 stars.svg — events regarding Allied planning
RAF roundel.svg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png — RAF, Eighth Air Force, and other roundels indicate units (most listings are from the RAF chronology[1] and the USAAF chronology)[2] "100 BG" — listings that include the unit abbreviation (BG is Bombardment Group) are from the corresponding mission history for the unit.[3]

Chronology
Date Target/Topic Event
May 15/16, 1940 Oil and other installations in Ruhr RAF roundel.svg In response to the bombing of Rotterdam, Western Air Plan 5[4]:4 was activated. This was the first large-scale strategic bombing during World War II[5]:53 and the first attack on the German interior - it inflicted little damage.[6]:9,171 Just 24 of 96 bombers dispatched to Ruhr Area power stations and refineries found the target area,[7] setting several oil plants on fire.[8]
May 16/17, 1940 Oil installations in Ruhr RAF roundel.svg 6 Handley Page Hampden and 6 Vickers Wellington bombers attacked Ruhr oil targets.
May 17/18, 1940 Hamburg-Harburg[6]:149 RAF roundel.svg 48 Hampdens attacked Hamburg oil installations.
May 17/18, 1940 Bremen RAF roundel.svg 24 Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bombers attacked Bremen oil installations.[note 1]
May 18/19, 1940 "Oil refineries" RAF roundel.svg 24 Wellington, 24 Whitleys, and 12 Hampdens attacked oil refineries and railways in Germany and troops in Belgium.[9]
May 22/23, 1940 Leipzig/Leuna[10]:198 RAF roundel.svg 35 Hampdens were recalled due to bad weather, but one failed to receive the recall and bombed the Leuna oil refinery, 30 miles west of Leipzig.[11][verification needed]
May 27/28, 1940 Bremen RAF roundel.svg Hampdens bombed oil refineries near Bremen. In the course of the raid, a tail gunner on a No. 10 Squadron RAF Whitley shot down the first German fighter by the RAF in World War II.
May 27/28, 1940 Hamburg-Harburg refineries RAF roundel.svg Hampdens attacked oil refineries near Hamburg.
May 30/31, 1940 Bremen RAF roundel.svg The Bremen oil refinery was bombed.
May 30/31, 1940 Hamburg-Harburg refineries RAF roundel.svg Hamburg oil refineries were bombed.
June 2/3, 1940 oil targets RAF roundel.svg 24 Whitleys and 6 Hampdens bombed "oil and communication targets in Germany".[9]
June 4, 1940 Frankfurt oil depot RAF roundel.svg The Frankfurt oil depot was attacked with 400 bombs.[12]:150 [note 2]
June 17/18, 1940 Leipzig/Leuna RAF roundel.svg Leuna bombed.[13]:98
September 4, 1940 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Chiefs of Staff The Future Strategy report predicted "Germany's oil stocks might be exhausted--and Germany's situation disastrous--by June 1941."[4]:4
September 14/15, 1940 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Antwerp RAF roundel.svg 43 Wellingtons bombed an oil depot near Antwerp. A Redeventza refinery was at Antwerp.[14]
January 9/10, 1941 Gelsenkirchen RAF roundel.svg Less than half of 135 aircraft dispatched bombed the Gelsenkirchen synthetic oil plants.
February 10/11, 1941 Hanover RAF roundel.svg 222 aircraft (the highest number to one target) conducted the first "oil plant directive" mission on 17 oil production targets.
February 14/15, 1941 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg 9 Wellingtons bombed
February 28, 1941 Flag of Romania.svg RAF roundel.svg To enable bombing of "Roumanian oil installations", a British Expeditionary Force established a 'Balkan front'.[13]:160
June 22, 1941 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg The German invasion of the USSR included the goal to capture the Baku oilfields. At the time, total German oil imports from the USSR were 912,000 tons,[clarification needed] with German stockpiles[citation needed] at 1,350,000 tons. By October 1941, Nazi Germany oil product stocks were down to 905,000 tons.
June 1941 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti The RAF bombed Ploieşti.[2]:11
July 14, 1941 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti 6 RAF aircraft bombed Ploieşti.[3]:11
1942 Flag of France.svg Harnes The Kuhlman Fischer-Tropsch plant at Harnes was shut down briefly due to bomb damage.[4][15]
April 1942 US flag 48 stars.svg After A-2 and the War Plans Division reported it as a target, Colonel Bonner Fellers identified Romanian oil was "by far the most decisive objective [and] the strategic target of the war".[5]:4
May 30, 1942 Cologne The Kolnische Gummifaden Fabrik tire and tube factory at Deutz on the east bank of the Rhine was entirely destroyed.[16]:215
1942 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Ministry of Economic Warfare The "Bombers' Baedeker" identified oil, communications, and ball bearings were "bottleneck" German industries.[17]
June 12, 1942 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Astra Română) The Halverson project raid from Egypt was the first US mission against a European target — 10 aircraft bombed the Astra Română oil refinery.
June 25/26, 1942 Bremen RAF roundel.svg 1,067 aircraft attacking Bremen targets used Gee with limited success, damaging the oil refinery, Focke-Wulf buildings, the Atlas Werke, the Bremer Vulkan shipyard, the Norddeutsche Hütte AG steel mill, and 2 large dockside warehouses.
July 20, 1942 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Hitler authorized Operation Edelweiss to capture the Soviet oil fields of Baku. On July 10, Hermann Göring had met with experts on how to repair the Russian Maykop oil facilities (Germany reassembled an oil facility at Kherson in the Ukraine, also).<[citation needed] The Soviets set the Maikop oilfields on fire on August 9, the town was evacuated on the 16th,[12]:737 and Nazi Germany began occupation in August.[18]
September 1942 Flag of Romania.svg Bucharest Red star.svg The Soviet Union's VVS bombed the oil installations.
September 1942 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Red star.svg The Soviet Union's VVS bombed the oil installations.
October 1942 US flag 48 stars.svg The US "Enemy Oil Committee" was established as a counterpart to the British "Technical Sub-Committee on Axis Oil" (Hartley Committee).[6]
November 1942 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Hartley Committee The Axis Oil Position in Europe, November 1942 estimated that Romanian oil fields contribute 33% of Axis supplies.[19]:41
December 3, 1942 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg Joint Intelligence Subcommittee The German Strategy in 1943 predicted Nazi Germany will have increased domestic oil supplies in mid-1943.[19]:42
December 21, 1942 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg A German armoured column within 30 miles of the Soviet Sixth Army near Stalingrad had to retreat due to having fuel for only 15 miles. At his HQ company Christmas party, Erwin Rommel received a miniature oil drum as a gift (containing captured British coffee).[13]:388
January 16, 1943 US flag 48 stars.svg C/AS Management Control[7]:5 After Hap Arnold created the United States Army Air Forces Committee for Operations Analysis (COA) on December 9, 1942,[8] to develop a plan for strategic bombing, the COA's initial Western Axis Oil Industry report listed the following order of strategic importance: hydrogenation facilities (15 plants), refineries (29 plants), lubrication plants, coker units, Fischer-Tropsch facilities, tetraethyllead facilities, and oilfields/pipelines.[4]:6
January 19, 1943 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg The Axis Oil Position (C.C.S. 158) at the Allied Casablanca Conference identified it would be "remote" for Nazi Germany to retain the Maikop oil fields. However, "even if the whole of the Romanian production were knocked out early in the year, [Germany] would still have enough for operations in 1944 [but the destruction of] two tetraethyllead factories… would hamstring the production of German aviation fuel" (Brehon Somervell).[19]:41,256 Nazi Germany destroyed the Maikop facilities prior to withdrawing.[20]
January 21, 1943 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg CCS C.C.S. 166/1/D identified oil facilities as the 4th bombing priority.[19]
March 8, 1943 US flag 48 stars.svg C/AS Management Control The COA's comprehensive plan identified the strategic bombing objective was to "bring about a high degree of destruction in a few really essential industries than to dissipate bombing efforts over a large number of targets [in] many industries." 19 vital industries were identified: Petroleum was 3rd (39 targets), "Synthetic rubber and rubber tires" were 6th (12 targets) and "Coking plants" were 10th (89 targets). In particular, destruction of 13 hydrogenation plants and 12 Ploesti refineries would reduce "German petroleum resources" by 90%.[9]:6
April 10, 1943 US flag 48 stars.svg We must, therefore, apply [bombardment] to those specially selected and vital targets which will give the greatest return." (Arnold to Carl Spaatz)[21][10]:vii
April 20/21, 1943 Pölitz 339 bombers attacked the Stettin railyards, the Pölitz oil refinery, and Swinemünde.[11] The Pölitz synthetic oil plant had been added to the Area Bombing Directive on February 14, 1942 (one day before it was issued), and a subcamp of Sachsenhausen near Pölitz provided forced labor.
May 19, 1943 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg CCS The CBO "Eaker" plan was approved and confirmed oil targets as the 4th primary objective ("contingent upon attacks against Ploesti").[12]:17
May 13/14; June 12/13, 1943 Bochum benzene plant RAF roundel Battle of the Ruhr bombings of the Bochum coal-producing center northwest of Essen damaged its "extensive coke, gas, benzol, and iron, and steel plants."[13]:4,74–5,81 In 1943, the 466th bombed Bochum targets on March 29, May 13, October 9, and November 4.[22] After a 92 BG mission to Bochum on August 12, 1943, 342 RAF aircraft also accurately bombed Bochum on September 29/30, 1943 when the German radar controller mistakenly directed fighters to Bremen, 150 miles away.[23]
May 16, 1943 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti The Advisory Council submitted the Air Attack on Ploesti ("SOAPSUDS") bombardment plan, which the Trident Conference subsequently considered. On June 6 the plan was deemed "an important and desirable operation", and the "Planning committee" first met on June 25 (Uzal Girard Ent predicted losses of 75 aircraft). Training began on July 20/22 and ended July 29.<[14]:24,26,31,36,67–8
June 22, 1943 Hüls Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png In the first large-scale daylight raid on the Ruhr, 170 of 235 B-17s bombed the Hüls oil refinery[clarification needed] and synthetic rubber plant[15]:75/aircraft tire factories:[24] "those swine have destroyed Hüls!" (Göring).[citation needed] A Hüls target was also bombed on December 28/29, 1941.
June 23/24, 1943 Flag of Italy.svg La Spezia RAF roundel.svg In the 2nd raid of Operation Bellicose, 52 bombers damaged an "oil depot" and an "armaments store". By March 1, 1944, the La Spezia crude oil refinery was "Unused".[25]
June 25/26, 1943 Flag of Italy.svg Bari Wellingtons of the Northwest African Strategic Air Force bombed the "Bari, Italy oil refinery".
June 25/26, 1943 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg At the end of the first phase of the Combined Bomber Offensive,[16]:15,80 during the Battle of the Ruhr 473 aircraft unsuccessfully bombed Gelsenkirchen due to cloud and failure of Oboe equipment.[26]
July 9/10, 1943 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg In one of the last large raids of the Battle of the Ruhr, 418 aircraft unsuccessfully - due to misplaced marking - attacked Gelsenkirchen.[27]
August 1, 1943 Flag of Romania.svg Brazi Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Operation Tidal Wave bombed the Creditul Minier refinery in Brazi.[28]:II-161
August 1, 1943 Flag of Romania.svg Câmpina Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).pngPatch9thusaaf.png Operation Tidal Wave bombed the Steaua Română refinery in Câmpina.
August 1, 1943 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Operation Tidal Wave bombed the Astra Română, Columbia Aquila, and Unirea Orion refineries at Ploieşti (four Medals of Honor were awarded for the US Bomber pilots and four Order of Bravery to the Bulgarian fighter pilots to shoot them down)
August 1, 1943 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch9thusaaf.png Operation Tidal Wave bombed the Astra Română and Concordia Vega refineries at Ploieşti (one Medal of Honor was awarded). The Enemy Oil Committee subsequently appraised that Operation Tidal Wave bomb damage at Ploieşti caused "no curtailment of overall product output".[17]
August 12, 1943 Bochum Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Diverting from the Gelsenkirchen target, B-17 "Ain't It Gruesome" bombed Bochum. An unexploded 20 mm shell struck the boot of Captain Clark Gable, a gunnery observer on his third operational flight[29] Gable's footage is in the FMPU's propaganda film Combat America.
August 12, 1943 Recklinghausen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 183 B-17's are dispatched to synthetic oil installations at Bochum, Gelsenkirchen and Recklinghausen
August 12, 1943 Gelsenkirchen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Gelsenkirchen "oil refinery".
September 12, 1943 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Just over a week following the secret signing of the Italian armistice, Göring identified that Mussolini had hoarded 65,000 tons of aviation fuel, including 38,000 barrels in the La Spezia tunnels.[citation needed] The Cisa Pass tunnel connected La Spezia with Parma, and US soldiers were executed for planned sabotage of the Cinque Terre tunnel between La Spezia and Genoa.
November 5, 1943 Gelsenkirchen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 121: 229 of 323 B-17s bombed 495 tons[18]:164 on the marshalling yard and oil plants.
November 1943 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) 96 of 328 B-17s bombed 238 tons on the "Hydrier Werke Scholven A.G." (damaged) and the Gelsenkirchener Bergwerke (missed). Gelsenkirchener Bergwerke plants were also at Duisburg-Hamborn (BRUCKHAUSEN Benzol Plant) and Dortmund.[19] A Gelsenkirchen target was also attacked on November 19,[20]:163 and Gelsenkirchen Mission 134 on November 19 was rerouted to bomb the German-Dutch border due to malfunctioning blind-bombing PFF equipment in bad weather.
November 26, 1943 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Hartley Committee "losses of oil stocks … caused by Allied attacks during the first eight months of 1943 [were] 400,000 tons. … Approximately 75 per cent of Roumanian crude is a waxy, viscous oil which becomes solid at temperatures below 69" degrees (J.I.C (43) 480).[21]
December 30, 1943 LudwigshafenOppau The 351 BG bombed the explosives factory [30] at Oppau[citation needed]. Prior to May 1944, explosives production was 99,000 metric tons/month, but in December 1944, the amount had dropped to 20,500; and after October 1944, German explosives were 20% rock salt. The Mannheim-Ludwigshafen area was bombed in late 1943 to prevent recovery from previous bomb damage.[22]:169 The Mannheim aircraft plant was bombed on October 19, 1944,[23] and Mannheim had a Daimler Benz truck plant.
January 7, 1944 Ludwigshafen 1,000 tons of bombs dropped on Ludwigshafen,[31]:337 and the 447 BG bombed the Ludwigshafen oil refinery. In addition to the nearby Oppau plants, Ludwigshafen targets included a small synthetic oil plant and an oil refinery that used the dehydrogenation process to improve "gasoline quality". Dr. Wurster of the Ludwigshafen Military Government was the "managing director of Oppau and Ludwigshafen."[24] Ludwigshafen targets were subsequently bombed by the 8AF on March 2, March 31, and May 27.
January 12, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg Fiume The 317 BS bombed the oil refinery.[32] Circa January 1944, the Enemy Oil Committee identified that Italian refining had ceased in August 1943.[25] Italian refineries were at Fiume (Ramsa plant), La Spezia, Leghorn, Trieste (Aquila & SIAF plants), and Venice.[14]
February 3, 1944 US flag 48 stars.svg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Budapest, Sofia, Bucharest, and Vienna were identified as second priority objectives for 15AF "area attack".[26]
March 5, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg "To reduce output … to virtually zero in the six months following 1 March requires the destruction of 23 synthetic plants (about 3.3 million tons) and 31 refineries (about 3.7 million tons) [which] currently account for over 90 per cent of total Axis refinery and synthetic oil output" (Plan for Completion of Combined Bomber Offensive). The "German oil situation is extremely vulnerable to the scale of attack contemplated, and that the results of any appreciable damage to production would be disastrous." (US Petroleum Attache, March 6).[25]
March 25, 1944[verification needed] Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg SHAEF Although Spaatz's claimed "We believe attacks on transportation will not force the German fighters into action. We believe they will defend oil to their last fighter plane'',[33][27] Dwight D. Eisenhower decided that "apart from the attack on the GAF,[German air force] the transportation plan was the only one which offered a reasonable chance of the air forces making an important contribution to the land battle during the first vital weeks of OVERLORD".^27.60 Control of all air operations was transferred to Eisenhower on April 14 at noon.[28]:5
April 5, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png 230 bombers bombed Ploieşti for the 1st time in 8 months,[34]:118 beginning the "1944 Ploesti Campaign" (April 5-August 19: 5,674 sorties, 13,559 bomb tons, 254 aircraft lost).[35]:239 The 32 BS bombed the Ploieşti marshalling yards, and the 451 BG bombed the Ploieşti oil refineries and marshalling yard [29] (marshalling yards were next to an oil plant.)[specify] The Ploieşti marshalling yards were bombed on April 15 by the 317 BS and on April 24, by the 32nd BS, when the first use of the "Mickey" (H2X radar) was against Ploieşti.[5]:118
April 19, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Bad winter weather had reduced Wehrmacht fuel consumption, and Luftwaffe fuel supplies were 574,000 tonnes.[6]:144 "…the enemy isn't attacking [the synthetic oil plants] because he wants them for his own use. He thinks it's enough to pulverize our airplanes" (Göring).[citation needed] "Whereas in 1939 our hydrogenation plants were producing 2 million metric tons equivalent of petroleum (including automobile fuel), the construction of new facilities up to 1943 provided an increase to 5.7 million metric tons, and the facilities scheduled for this year will raise the yearly output to 7.1 millon metric tons." (Albert Speer to Adolf Hitler).[36]:655
April 24, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png 34 B-24s of the 450 BG targeted the marshalling yards and bombed the "Vega Oil Refinery".
April 1944 Salzbergen synthetic oil plant Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The "Hydrierwerke Salzbergen" was attacked.[30]:2
May 1, 1944 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg By May 1944, only 1.1% of Allied bombs had been used on oil targets.[4]:4
May 5, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png The marshalling yards and oil refineries were bombed.[6]:153 B-24s also bombed the Braşov450 BG & Ploieşti marshalling yards on May 6.[37]
May 9, 1944 Bruges, Belgium RAF roundel.svg 12 Bostons achieved near misses at an oil depot at Bruges.
May 12, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 353 was the 1st trial raid on oil targets[38] to test the claim that the Luftwaffe would defend oil targets in Germany more than they had defended transportation targets.[39] RLV fighters put up their largest force ever, but five synthetic oil plants were successfully attacked[10]:198 with 1,718 tons of bombs. A diversionary raid made on the Zwickau aircraft depot faced 200 Luftwaffe fighters[40]
May 12, 1944 Merseburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 353: The 384 BG bombed Merseburg.
May 12, 1944 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 353: 87 planes hit oil facilities at Lützkendorf near Leipzig, which had a small Wintershall[41] crude oil refinery (100,000 tons/yr), a hydrogenation unit for blending gasolines, and a Fischer-Tropsch plant to process heavier gasoline cuts from synthesized oil.[31] Plants were at "Lützkendorf" and "Lützkendorf-Mücheln" [sic].[25]
May 12, 1944 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 353
May 12, 1944 Brüx, Czechoslovakia Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 353 bombed Brüx. On December 15, 1942, Sudetenländische Treibstoffwerke AG (STW) had begun output of synthesized fuel from brown coal (German: braunkohle) at the Maltheuren plant at Brüx.[42]
May 18, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Concordia Vega) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Concordia Vega refinery.
May 19, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Daily output of aircraft fuel had dropped from 5,850 to 4,820 metric tonnes; but the reserve of 574,000 tonnes was expected to last 19 months. On "'May 12 ... the technological war was decided. ...with the attack ... upon several fuel plants ... a new era in the air war began. It meant the end of German armaments production" (Speer). "In my view the fuel, Buna rubber, and nitrogen plants represent a particularly sensitive point for the conduct of the war, since vital materials for armaments are being manufactured in a small number of plants… The enemy has struck us at one of our weakest points. If they persist at it this time, we will soon no longer have any fuel production worth mentioning" (Hitler).[36]:413 By May 28, fuel production had returned to the level prior to the May 12 raids.[36]:415 The "economic air raids [using] wise planning [by] the enemy began ... in the last half or three-quarters of a year" before December 1944. "Before that he was, at least from his standpoint, committing absurdities" (Speer, December 1, 1944)[36]:419
May 26, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Româno-Americană) RAF roundel.svg The No. 205 Group RAF bombed the Româno-Americană refinery.[35]:239
May 28, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 376 dispatched a record force of 1,282 bombers against plants and refineries, losing 50[43] including 400 in the 2nd trial attack of oil targets.[38] 63 B-24s bombed Merseburg/Leuna, and Leuna resumed partial production on June 3 and reached 75% of capacity in early July.[38]
May 28, 1944 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 486 BG again bombed Lützkendorf.
May 28, 1944 Magdeburg/Konigsbuerg[disambiguation needed] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 376: 105 B-17s bombed an oil dump at Konigsburg/Magdeburg. A Konigsberg target was also bombed on June 20 (Mission 425), and Magdeburg also had a Junkers Jumo 211 engine plant (the 487 BG bombed the Magdeburg airplane factory on August 5, 1944.)
May 28, 1944 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 376: 55 B-17s bombed oil industry at Magdeburg/Rothensee. Bohlen-Rotha, Magdeburg-Rothensee, Ruhland-Scwarzheide (a 1937 Fischer-Tropsch plant), & Zeitz-Troglitz were the 4 plants (3 were for Bergius hydrogenation) of Braunkohlen Benzin AG (Brabag), which was formed on October 26, 1934.[44] The Brabag subsidiary of Gesellschaft für Mineralölbau GmbH (established November 1936) designed the plants based on licensed information from other oil companies.[44]
May 28, 1944 RuhlandSchwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 376: 38 B-17s bombed an oil target at Ruhland/Schwarz-Heide.
May 28, 1944 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 376: 187 B-24s bombed "Zeitz-Tröglitz". KZ Tröglitz was a subcamp of Buchenwald
May 29, 1944 Pölitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 379: 224 B-24s bombed an oil terminal at Pölitz. "Poelitz/Stettin" was a synthetic plant,[25] and on May 13, clouds had forced 272 B-17s (Mission 355) dispatched to oil targets in W Poland to bomb Stettin (Polish: Szczecin) and Stralsund.
May 28/29, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png Ploieşti was bombed.[36]:415
May 31, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the oil refinery.
May 31, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg The 485 BG bombed the Redeventa [sic] Refinery. "Lumina Petromina" was an additional Romanian refinery not in Ploieşti or Bucharest.
May 31, 1944 US flag 48 stars.svg The intelligence annex to the field order for the May 31 Ploieşti mission stated "Successful attacks on [the aircraft factories at the] Wiener-Neustadter complex have raised oil to high priority. …destruction of remaining active capacity of Ploesti will create [a] critical situation for [the] entire Axis war effort and make possible further important inroads through attacks in Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia and Italy. [The] Eighth Air Force has now damaged all but 2 of the major synthetic plants in its area making it possible for Fifteenth [Air Force] to destroy sufficient refinery and synthetic capacity to [reduce total] production close to 75 percent. Destruction of vital installations in targets selected will immobilize Ploesti capacity for several months."[45][46]
May 31, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti 32 B-24s of the 450 BG attacked the "Româno-Americană Oil Refinery", but failed due to the smoke screens.[6]:153 The 450 BG also bombed the Româno-Americană refinery on June 6, 24, & July 15; and the Concordia Vega refinery on July 9, 22
June 5, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg A May 5 decoded message stated anti-aircraft artillery was being moved to Pölitz and Blechhammer, and one on June 5 indicated the Luftwaffe was short of fuel. British intelligence concluded that the bombing of oil targets would be "crippling" in 3–6 months.[40] Romanian production had been reduced from 200,000 tons in February to 40,000 in June.[47]:1477
June 6, 1944[2][verification needed] US flag 48 stars.svg Spaatz ordered that "the primary aim of the Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces would be to deny oil to the enemy".[34]:118
June 6, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Dacia Română-485 BG, Româno-Americană-450 BG) Patch 15th USAAF.png In the 1st large-scale American attempt to use a dispersed bomber force to spread out fighter defenses in Romania, Ploieşti was bombed[34]:118 (the 485 BG bombed the Dacia Română oil refinery). Additional B-17s, including some Soviet-based for Operation Frantic, attacked the Galaţi Airdrome: "most oil from Ploesti must be shipped west over [the] Danube for refining." (annex of intelligence report)[35]:145
June 9 & 10, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg Porto Marghera Patch 15th USAAF.png Porto Marghera oil storage bombed.
June 10, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg Trieste Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed an oil refinery at Trieste.
June 10, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti 36 P-38s dive-bombed 3 Ploieşti oil refineries by flying under the smoke screens.[6]:153
June 11, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Constanţa Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed an oil installation at Constanţa.
June 11, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Giurgiu Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG bombed the Giurgiu oil storage. 80 miles southeast of Ploieşti, Giurgiu was "the most important transshipment point in Europe".[32]:8
June 11, 1944 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Smederevo Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the "Smedervo" [sic] oil refinery.
June 12/13, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg The 1st RAF oil target bombing following the June 3 British Air Staff request for RAF Bomber Command to attack Ruhr oil plants[6]:146 halted Nordstern production (1,000 tons/day of aviation fuel) for several weeks. THe main attack of the night was directed against lines of communication targets in France.[48]
June 13, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg Porto Marghera Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG targeted the Porto Marghera oil storage and hit the aluminum plant.
June 14, 1944 Emmerich am Rhein Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 412: 61 B-24s hit the Emmerich, Germany oil refinery. Deutsche Gasolin plants were at Emmerich, Dollbergen, and Korneuburg.[33]
June 14, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Pétfürdő Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Pétfürdő oil cracking plant. The 32 BS bombed a Budapest oil refinery.
June 14, 1944 [Expand] Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bomb oil targets Komárom (Hungary), and Osijek (Ipoil).
June 14, 1944 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Caprag Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed oil target[s] at Sisak-Caprag.[34]:IV Caprag refining capacity was 120,000 tons/yr.
June 14, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed an oil target at Pardubice.
June 14, 1944 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Osijek Patch 15th USAAF.png 39 B-24s of the 450 BG targeted the oil refinery.
June 14/15, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg 3 bombs from 35 Mosquitoes fell into the plant area, and 3 civilians were killed outside the factory—a farmer, a lorry-driver, and a housewife.
June 15, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 414: 172 B-17s hit the Hanover/Misburg oil refinery, to which the Hanover-Misburg subcamp[49] of Neuengamme provided forced labor. The Misburg refinery (1,060 workers) was 5 miles East of Hanover, and a decoy plant was about 2 miles from the refinery.[35] Hanover also had three tire plants: Vahrenwalderstrasse, Nordhafen, and Marienwerder (a rubber factory in Hanover was bombed on July 26, 1943, during Blitz Week).[50]:241
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna/Floridsdorf Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bombed the Florisdorf [sic] oil refinery[verification needed] On this date the 464 BG bombed an oil blending plant at Vienna. Vienna was first bombed on March 17, 1944.[47]:1477
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Kagran Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bombed the Kragan [sic] oil refinery[verification needed]
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the Lobau oil refinery west of Vienna.[51]
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Schwechat Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the oil refinery at Schwechat in Vienna. Schwechat also had an aircraft factory that was bombed on June 26, 1944; and became a separate city in 1954.
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Winterhafen) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the Winterhafen oil depot. An underground storage installation was just west of Mainz,[36] Mainz targets were also bombed by 22 B-17s on September 13, 171 B-17s on September 27, and the 466th on February 1 & 27, 1945. Mainz was captured on March 21.[47]:2065
June 16, 1944 Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Bratislava (Apollo) Patch 15th USAAF.png 38 B-24s of the 450 BG targeted the Apollo oil refinery.
June 16, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Szöny Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG bombed the "oil storage installations" and earned a commendation from the 49th Bomb Wing commander (Lee).
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery and the Heinkel-Süd aircraft factory were bombed.
June 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Winterhafen) Patch 15th USAAF.png Winterhafen oil refinery bombed.
June 17, 1944 Flag of France.svg[specify] Patch9thusaaf.png B-26s attacked French fuel dumps.
June 17/18, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg With most of the effort on railways, four Mosquitoes targeted the Scholven/Buer oil plant
June 18, 1944 Bremen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The Bremen-Oslebshausen refinery was 1 of 11[specify] bombed on this date.[6]:149 Bremen Oslebshausen refining capacity was 100,000 tons/yr.
June 18, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 421: B-17s bombed Hamburg-Ebano (18), Hamburg-Eurotank (54), Hamburg-Ossag (38), and Hamburg-Schindler (36). The Ostermoor refinery was also at Hamburg.
June 18, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 421: 88 B-17s bombed the Hanover-Misburg oil refinery.
June 18 & 23, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Giurgiu Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the oil installations at Giurgiu.
June 19, 1944 Flag of France.svg Sète Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the oil refinery. The Frontignan refinery was at Sète, and other small French refineries were at Gonfreville, Port Jerome, Martiques, Petit-Couronne, Etang de Berre, Dunkirk, L'Avere, Bec d'Ambes, Courchalettes, Gravenchon, 2 plants at Donges, and a shale oil refinery was at Autun.
June 20 & 25, 1944 Flag of France.svg Balaruc-le-Vieux Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed oil refineries at "Balaruc". A Balaruc-le-Vieux target was bombed on the 25th.[37]
June 20, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 425: 169 B-24s bombed the Deurag-Nerag crude oil refinery.[16]:217
June 20, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 425: B-17s bombed oil refineries at Hamburg/Deut.Petr.AG (53), Harburg/Ebano (60),Hamburg/Eurotank (107), Hamburg/Rhenania-Ossag (50), Harburg/Rhenania (53), Hamburg/Schliemanns (54), and Hamburg/Schindler (26).
June 20, 1944 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 425: 95 B-17s bombed Magdeburg/Rothensee.
June 20, 1944 Pölitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 245 B-24s bombed.
June 21, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg The minimum number of flak guns were ordered to be placed at Pölitz (200), Auschwitz (200), Hamburg (200), Brüx (170, Gelsenkirchen (140), Scholven (140), Wesseling (150), Heydebreck (130), Leuna (120), Blechhammer (100), Moosbierbaum (100), and Böhlen (70).[52] The Ruhland Fischer-Tropsch plant and other synthetic oil plants were fortified to be "hydrogenation fortresses" (e.g., the plants in the Leipzig area were protected by over 1,000 guns.) In additional to increased active defenses, the facilities (German: hydrierfestungen) incorporated blast walls and concrete "dog houses" around vital machinery. 7,000 engineers were released from the German Army to provide technical support for oil facilities.[6]:149 Aviation fuel production (thousands of tons) was reduced the most in June 1944 (Wolfgang Birkenfeld, 1964):[47]:1479
June 21, 1944 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 428: 123 B-17s bombed the Ruhland synthetic-oil plant south of Berlin en route to the Ukraine. That night, Luftwaffe bombers diverted to the Ukrainian base from a route to a nearby railroad target[53]:287 and dropped 110 tons of bombs, destroying or damaging 69 of 114 B-17s at Poltava,[5]:323 along with 200,000 gallons of aviation fuel plus 253 gallons of aviation oil.[54]
June 21/22, 1944 Wesseling RAF roundel.svg 128 Lancasters, 6 Mosquitoes, and 5 Lancasters attacked the Wesseling synthetic-oil plant in 10/10ths low cloud using H2S radar (production loss was 40%). Chemische Fabrik Wesseling AG operated a Wesseling facility, and to replace Wesseling, in April 1944 a "large underground plant for synthetic oil manufactured from brown coal was started outside Bergheim".[38] Wesseling also had a Deutsche Norton grinding wheel plant.
June 21/22, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg 123 Lancasters and 9 Mosquitoes attacked the synthetic-oil plant through cloud using Oboe skymarking and caused a loss of 20% production.
June 22, 1944 Flag of France.svg (Gennevilliers Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The Standard Oil Gennevilliers plant, capable of producing 2,200 metric tonnes per month, was bombed.[16]:172
June 22, 1944 Flag of France.svg Paris Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 432: 101 B-24s hit an oil dump at Paris.
June 22, 1944 Flag of France.svg (Rouen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 432: 33 B-17s hit the Rouen oil depot.
June 22, 1944 [specify] Patch9thusaaf.png B-26s attacked fuel dumps.
June 22, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Erhard Milch briefed Göring that the Ruhr Area had half the entire synthetic oil capacity and all June fighter production should be used for its defense.[citation needed] In July, Hitler promised to have "hydrogenation plants protected by fighter planes",<!-Speer p482 of hardcopy--> and in August, a limited program was assigned the "highest priority". "By sending the production of fighter aircraft soaring we can meet the greatest danger we face: the crushing of our armaments manufacture on the home front" (Speer, August 13).<!-Speer p485 of hardcopy-->
June 23, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg (Giurgiu) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed Giurgiu oil storage.
June 23, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed a Ploieşti oil refinery.
June 24, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti B-24s bombed an oil refinery.[37]
June 24, 1944 Bremen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 438: 213 B-17s bombed Bremen oil industry. The 92 BG bombed the Bremen "oil storage complex".
June 25, 1944 Flag of France.svg Montbartier Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 441: 64 B-17s hit the Montbartier oil depot.
June 25, 1944 Flag of France.svg Sète Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed Sète oil storage.
June 25, 1944 Patch9thusaaf.png 400+ B-26s and A-20s hit French fuel dumps at Foret d'Andaine, Foret d'Ecouves, and Senonches.
June 25/26, 1944 Homberg RAF roundel.svg 42 Mosquitoes bombed the Treibstoffwerke Rheinpreußen synthetic-oil plant[39] at Homberg/Meerbeck in the Ruhr.
June 26, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Schwechat aircraft factory (Heinkel-Sud) and oil refinery were bombed.
June 26, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Drohobycz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 442: After being delayed one day due to weather, 72 B-17s left Poltava and Mirgorod, USSR, joined with 55 P-51s from Piryatin to bomb the marshalling yard and oil refinery at Drohobycz . Fifteenth Air Force P-51s met the formation 1 hour after the attack and escorted the B-17s to Foggia Italy; the B-17s were planned to transfer to UK bases on June 27 but bad weather delayed the move until July 5.
June 26, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Floridsdorf oil refinery and marshalling yard were bombed.
June 26, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Korneuburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG bombed "a refinery in the open country near the small town of Korneuburg".
June 26, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) The 455th BG received a 2nd Distinguished Unit Citation for bombing the Vienna (Moosbierbaum) oil refinery.
June 26, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Lobau oil refinery was bombed.
June 1944 Heydebreck The Heydebreck oil/chemical facilities near Cosel and Blechhammer were first bombed in June 1944.
June 27, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Blechhammer South synthetic oil plant.
June 27, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Drohobycz Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed oil industry. The Drohobycz (Nafta) refinery produced 35,000 tons/year.
June 28, 1944 Flag of France.svg Paris/Dugny Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 445: 18 B-17s hit the Dugny oil depot.
June 28, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Bucharest Patch 15th USAAF.png In Bucharest,[25] where much of Ploieşti's refined product was stored and distributed,[35]:190 the 464 BG bombed the "Prohava [sic] Petrolul" refinery and the 485 BG bombed the "Titan Oil Refinery".
June 28/29, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg 33 Mosquitoes bombed Saarbrücken (which had an airfield and marshalling yards)[55] and 10 bombed the Scholven/Buer oil plant.
June 29, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 447: 81 B-17s bombed the Böhlen synthetic oil plant.
June 30, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG & 464 BG bombed the South plant, and the 32 BS bombed the North plant.
June 30, 1944[36]:417 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg "Our aviation gasoline production was badly hit in May and June. The enemy has succeeded in increasing our losses of aviation gasoline up to 90 percent by June 22. Only through speedy recovery of damaged plants has it been possible to regain partly … however, aviation gasoline production is completely insufficient [56] … If we cannot manage to protect our hydrogenation factories and our refineries by all possible means, it will be impossible to get them back into working order from the state they are in now. If that happens, then by September we shall no longer be capable of covering the Wehrmacht's most urgent needs. In other words, from then on there will be a gap which will be impossible to fill and which will bring in its train inevitable tragic consequences." (Speer to Hitler)[47]:1479
June 30/July 1, 1944 Homberg RAF roundel.svg 40 Mosquitoes to Homberg oil plant.
July 2, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Budapest (Shell) The 456 BG bombed the "previously-untouched" Shell Oil refinery at Budapest and earned its 2nd Distinguished Unit Citation. 31 aircraft bombed at mid-morning and were attacked three minutes after bomb release by 50 Bf 109s and 10 FW-190s of Jagdgeschwader 300 and the Hungarian 101 Puma Group. The 744 BS lost 6 of 9 bombers in the target area and a seventh damaged beyond repair (36 KIA/MIA, 24 captured — the largest single-day loss for the group.) Budapest's three refineries were operated by Shell, Magyar Petrol, and Asvanyol-Fanto,[40]:IV and oil storage was at Budapest-Csepel.[41]:40 Budapest also was the site of the Duna Repülőgépgyár Szigentmiklos assembly plant for Messerschmitt Me 210s and 410s.
July 3, 1944 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Belgrade Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Shell oil depot at Belgrade.
July 3, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Braşov Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the Photogen oil refinery (formerly the Petroleum Refinery Transylvania).[57]
June 11 & July 13, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg (Porto Marghera) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the "Marghera Oil Storage" near Mestre.
July 6, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg (Porto Marghera) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the oil storage at Porto Marghera.
July 6, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti The 461st BG bombed Ploieşti oil targets.
July 7, 1944 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg The Joint Oil Targets Committee was set up.[6]:149
July 7, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png 365 bombers attacked the North and South plants.[42]
July 7, 1944 Leipzig Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Of 453 B-17s, 114 bombed Leipzig/Taucha, 35 hit Leipzig/Heiterblick, 79 & 15 bombed the Erla fighter aircraft plants at Leipzig/Mockau & Leipzig/Abtnaundorf, 46 hit Leipzig Deutsche Kugellager Fabrik (D.K.F.) ball bearing works.[43]:18 (The Leipzig DKF plant was also bombed on December 3/4, 1943.) 35 hit Kolleda Airfield, 19 hit Leipzig Station and 7 hit Nordhausen.[verification needed] Leipzig/Taucha had an oil refinery and a Mittledeutsche Jumo 211 engine plant. In March 1944, the Leipzig A.T.G. plant could complete final assembly of Ju 88 bombers at 10/month.[25]
July 7, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 64 B-17s, out of a 303-bomber force of Flying Fortresses hit the Böhlen oil plant.[58]
July 7, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed Merseburg, and Leuna was shut down for 2 days. By July 19 production had risen to 53% of capacity.[38]
July 7, 1944 Leipzig/Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 102 B-24s, out of a 373-bomber force of Liberators hit the Lützkendorf oil plant.[58]
July 8, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG [55] and 465 BG earned Distinguished Unit Citations,[59] as the Heinkel-Süd plant in Floridsdorf was hit, destroying the third prototype of the He 177B four engined bomber, and possibly damaging the incomplete fourth prototype He 177B airframe.[60]
July 9, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti B-24s bombed an oil refinery.[37]
July 11, 1944 Flag of Italy.svg (Porto Marghera) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the oil storage at Porto Marghera.
July 14, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Budapest Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed a Budapest oil refinery
July 14, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Budapest Patch 15th USAAF.png 26 B-24s of the 450 BG targeted the Ferencvaros marshalling yard and hit buildings, a factory, and a refinery.
July 15, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Unirea Speranţa) Patch 15th USAAF.png 600+ B-17s and B-24s bombed 4 oil refineries in the Ploieşti area and the "Teleajenul pumping station".[44] The 485 BG bombed the Sperantza [sic] Oil Refinery.
July 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed a Vienna oil refinery.
July 17, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Aviation fuel production was 2,307 daily tonnes (40% of original production).[36]:416
July 18, 1944 Kiel Patch 15th USAAF.png The 447 BG bombed Kiel oil targets.[45] During the September 12 major assault on the German oil industry (Mission 626), 58 B-24s also bombed a Kiel target.
July 18, 1944 Friedrichshafen Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the synthetic fuel plant at Oberaderach.
July 18/19, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg 157 bombers attacked. The raid "achieved complete surprise through radio silence"[23]:466 and caused production to come to "a complete standstill for a long period".[61]
July 18/19, 1944 Wesseling RAF roundel.svg 188 heavy bombers. The bombing destroyed 20% of the installations.[61]
July 20, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Patch 15th USAAF.png The 447 BG bombed the Merseburg "synthetic oil refinery".
July 20/21, 1944 Bottrop-Welheim RAF roundel.svg 166 bombers attacked the Ruhröl AG synthetic oil plant.[62]
July 20/21, 1944 Homberg RAF roundel.svg 147 Lancasters attacked and caused severe damage
July 21, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed.
July 22 & 28, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Româno-Americană) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Româno-Americană refinery.
July 23, 1944 Flag of Albania.svg Berat Patch 15th USAAF.png 14 B-24s of the 450 BG targeted the "Kucove Oil Refinery" and previous bombing obscured the aiming point (there were "near misses" on the "old refinery").
July 23, 1944 Donges, France RAF roundel.svg 119 aircraft attacked an oil refinery and storage depot at the start of a new campaign "against oil targets in the occupied Countries."
July 25/26, 1944 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 135 bombers attacked the Krupp GmbH synthetic oil plant.[62]
July 28, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Over Merseburg, the 92 BG bombed the synthetic oil refinery/storage, and the Me 163B Komet rocket fighters of I.Gruppe/JG 400 conducted its first point-defense attacks from its nearby field at Brandis,[63] engaging B-17s with escorts, including 8 P-51s of the 359th Fighter Group.[64] Merseburg-Leuna was bombed 6 times from July 20-September 28.[6]:153 Leuna attacks on July 28 & 29; August 24; September 11, 13, & 28; and October 7 kept Leuna closed until October 14.[38]
July 28, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Româno-Americană, Standard Petrol Block) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Româno-Americană refinery and the 485 BG bombed the "Standard Oil Refinery" (B-24 44-40497 was abandoned after flying into the fireball of 41-29275).[51]
July 29, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna The 384 BG bombed Merseburg.
July 31, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Luftwaffe fuel supplies were 35,000 tonnes in July.[citation needed] By July 21, Production was reduced to 120 daily tonnes, but was restored to 690 by the end of July. However, repairs were not as durable and shocks from near misses caused leaks (from August to October, monthly production was 10% or less of original rates, then reached 28% in November.)[36]:417
July 31, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Bucharest Patch 15th USAAF.png Two oil refineries at Bucharest, one at Doiceşti, and oil storage at Targoviste were bombed.[46] The Red Army entered Bucharest on August 30.[65]
July 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti The 461st BG received a 2nd Distinguished Unit Citation for a July 1944 Ploieşti bombing.
July 31, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Xenia) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG bombed the Ploieşti Xenia oil refinery.
August 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg ULTRA intercepts indicated Luftwaffe ground crews were prohibited from leaving fuel in parked aircraft "to avoid losses" during bombing.[citation needed]
August 2, 1944 [Expand] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 510: Paris/Gennevilliers (51 B-17s), Paris/Dugny (38 B-17s), and Sens (26 B-24s) bombed. Fifteenth Air Force B-17s hit Le Pouzin (461st BG) and Le Pontet oil storage facilities. The 447 BG bombed the St Dennis "oil and supply dump".
August 3, 1944 Friedrichshafen Patch 15th USAAF.png The 461 BG's primary target was the "Raderach Chemical Works", and the ZF Friedrichshafen "Zahnradfabrik" (English: gearwheel factory) secondary target was also bombed. The chief tank factories were at Maybach, Nordbau (Frankfurt), and Zahnradfabrik,[47]:21 and nearly all tank engines were produced at either the Maybach Motorenbau at Freidrichshafen and Norddeutsche Motorenbau at Berlin.
August 3, 1944 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 513: 62 B-24s bombed Brussels/Vilvoorde oil installations/dumps. The Ghent, Langerbrugge (Shell) plant was in Belgium.
August 3, 1944 Flag of France.svg Merkwiller-Pechelbronn Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 512: 106 B-17s hit the Merkwille [sic] Oil Refinery. "Merkwiller, Pechelbronn, France" refining capacity was 130,000 tons/yr.
August 3, 1944 Flag of France.svg Terneuzen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 513: 10 B-24s bombed Ghent/Terneuzen oil installations/dumps in France.
August 4, 1944 Bremen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 50 B-17s bombed the Bremen-Oslebshausen oil refinery.
August 4, 1944 Hemmingstedt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 514: The Hemmingstedt/Heide oil refinery was bombed.
August 4, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 181 B-17s bombed Hamburg refineries. The 487 BG bombed the Nordholz refinery, and the 486 BG was attacked by Me 163 Komets.
August 4, 1944 Flag of France.svg Bec-d'Ambes RAF roundel.svg The Bec-d'Ambes refinery that had opened at the Garonne/Dordogne river junction in 1931 was bombed.[48]
August 4, 1944 Flag of France.svg Pauillac RAF roundel.svg The Pauillac oil store was bombed in clear conditions without encountering German fighters.
August 6, 1944 Hemmingstedt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 524: 23 B-17s bombed Hemmingstedt.
August 6, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 524: Hamburg oil refineries bombed at Hamburg/Deutsche (54), Hamburg/Eband [sic] (33), Hamburg/Rhenania (61), Hamburg/Rhenania-Ossag (62), Hamburg/Schlieman (32), and Hamburg/Schulau (72 B-17s). Rhenania-Ossag was a subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell.[citation needed]
August 6, 1944 Genshagen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 524: 74 B-17s bombed Genshagen, 45 hit Berlin diesel factories.
August 6, 1944 Flag of France.svg Le Pontet[disambiguation needed] Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed a refinery at Le Pontet.
August 6, 1944 Flag of France.svg Le Pouzin Patch 15th USAAF.png Le Pouzin oil storage bombed in SE France.[49]
August 6, 1944 Flag of France.svg Lyon Patch 15th USAAF.png Lyon oil storage bombed in SE France.[50]
August 7, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Blechhammer North synthetic oil plant, and the 461 BG bombed the South plant.
August 7, 1944 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Novi Sad Patch 15th USAAF.png 76 B-24s bombed Alibunar Airfield and Novi Sad oil facilities in Yugoslavia.
August 7, 1944 Flag of France.svg Dungy Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Dungy oil depot.
August 7, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png 353 bombers attacked the synthetic oil refineries at Blechhammer South (B-17s) and North (B-24s).
August 7, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Trzebina Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 528: 55 B-17s and 29 P-51s attacked an "oil refinery at Trzebina, Poland" and returned to Operation Frantic bases in the USSR.
August 8, 1944 Hanover/Dollberg The 398th BG bombed the Dollberg oil plant. Also known as Dollbergen, the village near Hanover had an oil refinery.[51]
August 9, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti RAF roundel.svg The No. 205 Group RAF bombed the Româno-Americană refinery. The 205 Group also bombed Ploieşti on August 17.[35]:239
August 9, 1944 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Brod Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bomb an oil refinery at Brod, Yugoslavia.
August 9, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Almásfüzitő Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bomb an oil refinery at Budapest, Hungary. The 461 BG bombed the Almásfüzitő Oil Refinery.
August 10, 1944 Flag of France.svg Bec-d'Ambes RAF roundel.svg 215 RAF aircraft dropped over 500 bombs and largely destroyed [52] the Bec d'Ambes refinery 15 miles from Bordeaux. Bordeaux was also bombed on December 31, 1944 and the Focke-Wulf plant at Bordeaux was bombed on August 24, 1943.[31]:335–6
August 10, 1944 Flag of France.svg La Pallice RAF roundel.svg The La Pallice refinery 30 miles from Bordeaux was destroyed.[53]
August 10, 1944 Flag of France.svg Gennevilliers Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Gennevilliers oil facility bombed [16]:172
August 10, 1944 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The BRABAG synthetic oil plant in Zeitz was bombed.[16]:172,232
August 10, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png 450+ B-17s and B-24s bombed 6 oil refineries.[54] The 464 BG bombed the Astra Română refinery, and the 461 BG bombed the Xenia oil refinery.
August 14, 1944 [specify] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 552: attacked 1 oil plant
August 15, 1944 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 556 bombed Magdeburg/Rothensee. The 487 BG had bombed the Magdeburg Focke-Wulf airplane factory on August 5, and the US Ninth Army captured Magdeburg on April 18, 1945.[12]
August 15, 1944 Leipzig/Rositz[55] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 556: 105 aircraft bombed.
August 15, 1944 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 556: 101 aircraft bombed.
August 16, 1944 Friedrichshafen Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the "Ober[raderach] chemical works".
August 16, 1944 Leipzig/Rositz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The Rositz oil refinery was bombed.
August 16, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 92 BG attacked the Böhlen oil refinery in Leipzig.
August 16, 1944 Leipzig/Rositz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed the Rositz oil refinery.
August 16, 1944 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed the Zeitz oil refinery.
August 17, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png Three oil refineries and targets of opportunity were bombed in the Ploieşti area: Româno-Americană (by the 461 BG on their last Ploieşti mission), "Astra Română Refinery" (450 BG)[specify]
August 18, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti (Româno-Americană) Patch 15th USAAF.png 370 fighter-escorted B-17s and B-24s bombed 5 oil refineries around Ploieşti. The 464 and 485 BGs bombed the "Americano" [sic] refinery.
August 18/19, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) RAF roundel.svg 234 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
August 19, 1944 Flag of Romania.svg Ploieşti Patch 15th USAAF.png 65 B-17s with 125 P-51s escorts bombed 2 Ploieşti area oil refineries. Ploieşti was captured August 30[10]:204 after a total of 350 bombers had been lost attacking the area.[28]:172 The Fifteenth Air Force had dropped 12,804 tons of explosives on Ploieşti targets, On October 17, a Fifteenth Air Force B-17 carried a photo crew to Ploieşti.
August 20, 1944 Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Dubová Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery at Dubová was bombed.
August 20, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Dwory Patch 15th USAAF.png First of 3 raids on the IG Farben synthetic rubber and oil plant near the Auschwitz III (Monowitz) forced labor camp that supplied slave labor: "It was the practice to brief bomber groups to steer clear of prisoner-of-war and concentration camps" (radar navigator-bombardier Milt Groban).[5]:321 Ultra intercepts reported impressive bombing results for oil targets: "for the first time, wehrwirtschaftlich (English: war economy) raids, which might deal a really fatal blow to Germany, had begun" (Speer).[5]:328[verification needed] The town of Auschwitz (now called Oświęcim), the IG Farben Buna-Werke (under construction in November 1943), and the three concentration camp locations Auschwitz I, Auschwitz II (Birkenau), & Auschwitz III (Monowitz) were 5 separate facilities in the same region.[specify]
August 20, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Czechowice-Dziedzice Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the oil refinery at Czechowice. The Tschechowitz I & II subcamps of Auschwitz in Czechowice-Dziedzice provided forced labor for a SOCONY-Vacuum plant.[66]
August 21, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Patch 15th USAAF.png The 484 BG received its second DUC for bombing an underground[verification needed] oil storage installation at Vienna.[56]
August 22, 1944 Odertal Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bombed the oil refinery at Odertal, Germany (German: Deschowitz, Polish: Zdzieszowice). POW camp E162 was at Odertal.[57]
August 22, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Korneuburg Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the oil refinery at Korneuburg. The 485 BG bombed the "Koreneuberg [sic] Oil Storage".
August 22, 1944 Blechhammer Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the oil refinery at Blechhammer.
August 22, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the Lobau oil refinery. The 461 BG bombed the underground oil storage at the refinery.
August 23, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Vösendorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Vösendorf oil refinery was bombed in the southern industrial area of Vienna.
August 24, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 568: 139 B-17s hit Brüx.
August 24, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the Pardubice oil refinery.
August 24, 1944 Dresden/Freital Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 568: 65 B-17s bombed Freital oil industry. This mission to Freital and Dresden was the 486 BG's longest mission. Dresden had a "Dresden Reick A.G." grinding wheel plant.
August 24, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 568: 88 B-24s bombed the Misburg oil refinery.
August 24, 1944 Leizig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 568: 185 B-17s bombed Leuna/Merseburg.
August 24, 1944 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 568: 135 B-17s hit Ruhland.
August 24, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Kolín Patch 15th USAAF.png Three oil refineries were bombed at Kolín.
August 24, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG earned a Distinguished Unit Citation[59]:48 for bombing the Fanto Werke refinery at Pardubice.
August 25, 1944 Pölitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 570: 169 B-17s bombed.
August 26, 1944 Dülmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 576: 73 B-24s bombed the Dülmen fuel dump.
August 26, 1944 Emmerich am Rhein Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 576: 36 B-24s bomb the Emmerich oil refinery.
August 26, 1944 Flag of France.svg Patch9thusaaf.png IX Bomber Command, with fighter escort, bombed French fuel dumps at Saint-Gobain, Fournival/Bois-de-Mont, Compiègne/Clairoix.
August 26, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 576: 85 B-17s bombed Gelsenkirchen/Nordstern.
August 26, 1944 Ludwigshafen-Oppau Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 576: 41 B-24s bombed the "chemical works".
August 26, 1944 Salzbergen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 576: 71 B-24s bombed the "Wintershell [sic] oil refinery" (60,000 tons/year) at Salzbergen.
August 26, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 576: 89 B-17s bombed the Gelsenkirchen/Buer oil refinery.
August 27, 1944 Homberg RAF roundel.svg The RAF re-started daylight bombing of Germany with an attack on the Homberg Fischer-Tropsch plant.[6]:149
August 27, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 and 485 BGs bombed the Blechhammer South synthetic oil plant (the 485th commander became a POW).[58]
August 28, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s hit Moosbierbaum oil refinery and adjacent chemical works.
August 28, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Szöny Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 and 485 BGs bombed the oil refinery.
August 29, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png Czechoslovakian oil refineries bombed included the MoravskáOstrava oil refineries A minor Moravská Ostrava crude oil refinery was at Prwoz.[25]
September 3, 1944 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg After a lull in V-1 flying bomb attacks, the Allied Combined Strategic Targets Committee (CSTC)[59] switched the top bombing priority from Operation Crossbow to oil targets.[67]:241 39% of US bomb tonnage from Oct-Dec was on synthetic oil plants.[60]
September 3, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 601: 325 of 345 B-17s bombed the Ludwigshafen/Opau [sic] synthetic oil plant.
September 5, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 605: 277 of 303 B-17s bombed the Ludwigshafen synthetic oil plant.
September 7, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Ministry of Armaments and War Production After Speer completed the Effects of the Air War on September 6, the President of the Rustungskommando VI (5) ordered only 3 days or less of production be stored, and emergency preparation for the transfer of POL plants was initiated (e.g., identification of vital parts for removal).[61]:a2 "On principle, plants are only to be crippled temporarily by removing various elements to safety, particularly the electrical ones." (Speer telegram, September 13). August "chemical plant" production was 10% of former capacity. At the beginning of September, 1944, the Luftwaffe minimum fuel allotment was decreased from 160,000 monthly tons to 30,000 due to shortages.[68]:210,224
September 8, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 611: 348 of 384 B-17s attacked the Ludwigshafen/Opau oil refinery.
September 8, 1944 Kassel Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 611: 166 B-17s bombed an oil depot at Kassel.
September 10, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Patch 15th USAAF.png 344 B-17s and B-24s bombed 5 ordnance depots and the SE industrial area in Vienna and 2 oil refineries in the area.
September 10, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the Schwechat oil refinery.
September 11, 1944 Castrop-Rauxel RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant was bombed.
September 11, 1944 Chemnitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: An Operation Frantic force of 75 B-17s bombed the Chemnitz oil refinery and, along with 64 P-51s, continued to the USSR. In 1945, Chemnitz was also bombed on February 14 and the 466th bombed Chemnitz on March 5.[verification needed]
September 11, 1944 Dortmund RAF roundel.svg The Dortmund synthetic oil plant was bombed.
September 11, 1944 Fulda Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: At Fulda, 66 B-17s bombed the tire plant and 40 bombed the marshalling yard. Fulda also was the location of Gebauer & Moller ball bearing plant, and on September 12 (Mission 626), 46 B-17s bombed a Fulda target.
September 11, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg
September 11, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg The Scholven/Buer synthetic oil plant was bombed. The RAF bombed a Gelsenkirchen target on September 29/30, as did the 466th on September 12 & 13, November 6 (the 466th bombed a Münster target on September 12 and March 25, 1945).
September 11, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: 87 B-24s bombed the oil refinery at Misburg and 88 bombed an engine factory at Hanover.
September 11, 1944 Kamen RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant at Kamen was bombed.
September 11, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: 75 B-17s bombed the Böhlen oil refinery. Böhlen was also bombed on August 15 (Mission 556), and the 384 BG bombed "Böhlen/Leipzig" on March 19, 1945.
September 11, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: 111 B-17s bombed Merseburg.
September 11, 1944 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: 96 B-17s bombed Lützkendorf.
September 11, 1944 Magdeburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: At Magdeburg, 33 B-24s bombed the oil refinery and 27 bombed an ordnance depot.
September 11, 1944 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: 22 B-17s bombed the Ruhland oil refinery.
September 11, 1944 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg Wanne-Eickel synthetic oil plant bombed. A Wanne-Eickel target was also attacked by the 466th on July 25 and by US Forces in November 1944.[62]
September 11, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 623: 39 B-17s bombed Brüx.
September 12, 1944 Dortmund RAF roundel.svg The Hoesch-Benzin GmbH synthetic oil plant at Dortmund was bombed.[62]
September 12, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant was bombed.[62]
September 12, 1944 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant was bombed.[62]
September 12, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626 dispatched 888 bombers and 662 fighters to 6 oil targets, including 34 B-24s that bombed Misburg oil industry. Misburg bomb damage from the September 11 & 12 attacks was repaired by October 15.[63]
September 12, 1944 Hemmingstedt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626: 66 B-24s bombed Hemmingstedt.[verification needed]
September 12, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626: 35 B-17s bombed a Böhlen oil industry target.
September 12, 1944 Magdeburg/Friedrichstadt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626: 73 B-17s bombed a Magdeburg/Friedrichstadt oil target.
September 12, 1944 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626: 144 B-17s bombed Magdeburg/Rothensee
September 12, 1944 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626: 59 B-17s bombed the Ruhland oil refinery.
September 12, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 626: 79 B-17s bombed the oil refinery at Brux.
September 13, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant was bombed.[62]
September 13, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 628: 141 B-17s bombed Merseburg.
September 13, 1944 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 628: 77 B-17s bombed Lützkendorf.
September 13, 1944 Blechhammer North Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bombed Blechhammer North.
September 13, 1944 Leipzig/Merseburg (Altenburg) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 92 BG bombed the Altenburg oil refineries at "Merseburg".[verification needed]
September 13, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 628: 74 B-17s bombed the oil refinery.
September 13, 1944 Odertal Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s bombed the oil refinery at Odertal. An Odertal target was also bombed in bad weather on October 16.
September 13, 1944 Stuttgart/Sindelfingen Patch 15th USAAF.png Mission 628: 109 B-17s bombed the oil refinery at Stuttgart/Sindelfingen. Sindelfingen also had a Daimler Benz truck plant, and an aircraft engine factory at Sindelfingen was bombed on September 10, 1944.
September 13, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Dwory Patch 15th USAAF.png The 464 BG bombed the Auschwitz synthetic oil and rubber plant.
September 14, 1944 Hemmingstedt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 629: 6 of 11 B-24s are dispatched on an Azon mission to the oil refinery at Hemmingstedt; 5 hit the secondary target, ammunition dumps at Kropp. Both Operation Aphrodite drones (B-17 30363, "Ruth L III", & B-17 39827) targeting the Hemmingstedt oil refinery missed due to weather.[51] On this date 5000 planes flew over Germany.[65]
September 17, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg "…the enemy always… after the resumption of work, …destroy[s] these [synthetic oil] installations again by air attack" (Speer).[69] On July 20, Speer met with Ambassador Clodius of the Foreign Office regarding the "safeguarding of Rumanian oil." September "chemical plant" production was 5.5% of former capacity.
September 17, 1944 Flag of Hungary.svg Budapest Patch 15th USAAF.png 440+ B-17s and B-24s, with fighter escort, attacked 2 oil refineries and 4 marshalling yards in the Budapest area. The 464 BG bombed the Shell oil refinery at Budapest and the 485 BG bombed the "Magyar Oil Refinery".
September 20, 1944 Flag of First Slovak Republic 1939-1945.svg Bratislava Patch 15th USAAF.png In Czechoslovakia, the Bratislava "oil district" was bombed. Bratislava was the site of the Apollo refinery.[70] The Bratislava "industrial area" was bombed on May 16, 1944, the "marshalling yards" were bombed on October 14, 1944, and "the town" of Bratislava was bombed on February 7, 1945.
September 21, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 644: 147 of 154 dispatched B-17s bombed the synthetic oil plant at Ludwigshafen/Opau [sic].
September 23, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Patch 15th USAAF.png 147 B-17s, escorted by 290 P-38s and P-51s, bombed the Brüx synthetic oil refinery and the marshalling yard at Wels. Wels also had an aircraft facility.[64]:40
September 25, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 647: B-17s bombed the Ludwigshafen/Opau [sic] "synthetic oil plant".
September 26, 1944 Frankfurt am Main RAF roundel.svg The chemical factory at Hochst, just west of Frankfurt, was bombed. The "cavernous I.G. Farben complex at Frankfurt became Eisenhower's permanent headquarters on June 1, 1945.[71]:814,820
September 27, 1944 Bottrop-Welheim RAF roundel.svg The Ruhröl AG synthetic oil plant in the Welheim suburb of Bottrop was bombed. The 466th also bombed Bottrop on July 20, 1944 and March 16, 1945.
September 27, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 650: 214 B-17s bombed the Ludwigshafen/Opau [sic] oil refinery. A Ludwigshafen target was also bombed on October 13 (Mission 662).
September 27, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) RAF roundel.svg
September 28, 1944 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 652: 23 B-17s bombed the Magdeburg/Rothensee oil refinery.
September 28, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 652: 301 of 342 dispatched B-17s bombed the "Merseburg/Leuna oil refinery".
September 30, 1944 Bottrop RAF roundel.svg 1 of 136 bombers attempted to hit the cloud-covered oil plant.[specify]
September 30, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) RAF roundel.svg 24 of 139 bombers attempted to hit the cloud-covered oil plant
September 30/01, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) RAF roundel.svg 5 Mosquitoes to Hamburg bombed Sterkrade.[clarification needed]
October 3, 1944 Wesseling Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 662: 87 B-17s were dispatched to bomb the Wesseling oil refinery.
October 6, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant was bombed.[62]
October 6, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) RAF roundel.svg The 466th bombed Sterkrade.
October 6, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 667: 121 of 406 dispatched B-24s bomb the Harburg/Rhenania oil refinery. Harburg also had a Phoenix tire plant.
October 7, 1944 Blechhammer South The Tuskegee Airman provided escort.[65]
October 7, 1944 Kassel/Altenbauna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 88 B-24s bombed the oil refinery at Kassel/Altenbauna and 122 bombed the armored vehicle plant at Kassel/Henschel. Kassel also had two Fieseler plants: Bettenhausen & Waldau.
October 7, 1944 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 86 B-17s bombed the oil plant.
October 7, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 129 B-17s bombed the oil plant.
October 7, 1944 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 88 B-17s bombed the oil plant.
October 7, 1944 Magdeburg/Buckau Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 62 B-24s bombed the Magdeburg/Buckau oil refinery.
October 7, 1944 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 25 B-24s bombed the Magdeburg/Rothensee oil refinery.
October 7, 1944 Pölitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 142 B-17s bombed the "oil refinery".[66]
October 7, 1944 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 669: 59 B-17s bombed the "oil refinery".
October 7, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) The 741st Bombardment Squadron flew over Vienna to hit an oil refinery, and the Lobau oil refinery was bombed.[34]:162
October 7, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Schwechat oil refinery was bombed.
October 7, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Winterhafen) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 450 BG bombed the "Winter Hafen [sic] Oil Depot" in Vienna.
October 11, 1944 Blechhammer Patch 15th USAAF.png Blechhammer bombed.
October 11, 1944 Leverhausen RAF roundel.svg At Leverhausen in the Ruhr, the "largest chemical factory in Europe" was bombed.[67]
October 11, 1944 Wesseling Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 672: 57 B-17s dispatched to bomb the Wesseling synthetic oil plant. The 384 BG bombed the Wesseling/Koblenz oil facility.
October 11 & 13, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Floridsdorf oil refinery was bombed.
October 12, 1944 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg The synthetic oil plant was bombed.[62]
October 12 & 13, 1944 Blechhammer South Blechhammer South was bombed on the 12th and by the 301 BG on the 13th.
October 14, 1944 Blechhammer North Patch 15th USAAF.png Blechhammer North was bombed in bad weather.
October 15, 1944 Düsseldorf-Reisholz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 677: 61 B-24s bombed the and Düsseldorf-Reisholz oil facility. The Düsseldorf refinery produced 25,000 tons/year and had a Deutsche Carborundum grinding wheel plant.
October 15, 1944 Monheim am Rhein Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 677: 64 B-24s bombed a Monheim/Rhenania oil facility.
October 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Linz Patch 15th USAAF.png The benzol plant and ordnance depot at Linz was bombed. Linz also had a "steelworks".
October 16, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Patch 15th USAAF.png Brüx and an armament works in Pilsen were bombed.
October 17, 1944 Leverkusen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 681: Weather prevented 430 B-24s from attacking a synthetic rubber plant at Leverkusen. Leverkusen was the location of a Bayer (Standard Oil/IG Farben) plant.[68] In 1943, targets at Leverkusen were attacked on August 22/23[69]:161 (a complete failure)[70] and by the RAF on November 19/20, and December 10/11. Up to 1941, there were 5 Nazi Germany Buna plants that produced Buna N by the Lebedev process.[71]:15
October 17, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png
October 17, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Patch 15th USAAF.png The industrial area of Vienna was bombed.
October 18, 1944 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg CSTC Allied policy was changed to bomb oil targets even if reconnaissance was not available.[6]:170 After Eisenhower notified Marshall on October 23 that the bombing of oil targets was being successful,[72] oil targets were retained in the highest priority, and the German rail system was made the second priority.^27.80[verification needed]
October 19, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png An oil refinery at "Ludwigshafen & Mannheim" was bombed.
October 20, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Patch 15th USAAF.png After having been out of operation for 4 months, the Brüx oil refinery was bombed.
October 20, 1944 Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png Oil storage at Regensburg was bombed.
October 23, 1944 Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png Regensburg oil storage depot bombed.
October 25, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 688: 455 B-17s dispatched to hit the Harburg (221) and Rhenania oil refineries (214) at Hamburg. 297 B-17s dispatched to hit the primary hit secondaries, Harburg (179) and Rhenania oil refineries (106) at Hamburg.
October 25, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 688: 27 B-24s bombed Gelsenkirchen/Nordstern.
October 25, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 688: 91 B-24s bombed Gelsenkirchen/Buer; 34 hit the secondary at Münster and 1 hits Gronau.
October 26, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 92 BG bombed the two oil storage complexes in Hamburg.
October 30, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 693: 357 B-24s are dispatched to hit the Harburg oil refinery (72) and Rhenania oil refinery (67) at Hamburg; targets of opportunity are Hamburg (28), Cuxhaven (25), Wesermunde (21), Uetersen (9), Bremen (1).
October 30, 1944 Gelsenkirchen/Hamm Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Gelsenkirchen/Hamm synthetic oil plant and marshalling yards.
October 31, 1944 Bottrop-Welheim RAF roundel.svg 101 bombers attacked the Ruhröl AG synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Chemical plant production in October was 10% of former capacity and 28% (1633 tons/day) in November.
November 1, 1944 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg After the British Air Staff requested on June 3 that RAF Bomber Command attack Ruhr oil plants,[6]:146 and Portal unsuccessfully attempted on July 5, 1944, to "move Harris away from area bombing to join the attacks on oil",[72] the Air Staff ordered Harris to bomb oil targets.
November 1, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the "Gelsenkirchen/Nordsten" [sic] synthetic oil plant.
November 1, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 143 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 2, 1944 Castrop-Rauxel Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 131 bombers attacked the Union Victor synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 2, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna After 459 B-17s dispatched to bomb Leuna were recalled on October 30 due to weather, 700 US bombers escorted by 750 fighters attacked the Leuna synthetic oil plant. A record 700 Luftwaffe fighters countered and the new Me 262, flying with the Luftwaffe's Kommando Nowotny shot down three bombers without loss.[citation needed] Leuna production was interrupted (but returned to 28% of capacity by November 20), and 6 more heavy attacks on Leuna through December were "largely ineffective because of adverse weather"[38]
November 2, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Sterkrade (Holten) synthetic oil plant.
November 3, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna/Moosbierbaum Patch 15th USAAF.png 2 of 3 PFF B-24s of the 450 BG bombed. The 450 BG also bombed Moosbierbaum on November 6; December 8 & 11; January 31; February 1, 7, & 9; and March 1 & 15.
November 4, 1944 Bottrop-Welheim Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Bottrop (Welheim) synthetic oil plant.
November 4, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 133 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 4, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the Hamburg/Rhenania oil refinery[73] and the 92 BG bombed the Harburg oil complex. The production capacity of the Phoenix tire plant at Harburg was 50,000 tires/month.
November 4, 1944 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the Ludwigshafen oil refinery. Ludwigshafen was also bombed as a diversion during the Battle of Berlin on November 18/19, 1943.
November 4, 1944 Neuenkirchen The 487 BG bombed the Neuenkirchen coking plant and the 452 BG bombed the "Benzalube Stoking Plant" at Neunkirchen on an Micro H experimental mission.
November 4, 1944 Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed Regensburg oil storage.
November 4 & 11-15, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Linz Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the benzol oil refinery.
November 4 & 7, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed.
November 5, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 450 BG & 485 BG bombed the oil refinery. The 450 BG also bombed the "Florisdorf Oil Refinery" on October 11, November 17, December 2 (as an alternate on a Straszhof Austria mission), & December 18 (the marshalling yard on March 12).
November 5, 1944 Ludwigshafen-Oppau Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed the Ludwigshafen chemical works.[verification needed] A Ludwigshafen target was also bombed by the 466th on January 1, 1945.
November 6, 1944 Duisburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 65 bombers attacked the Bruckhausen coking plant.[62]
November 6, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 134 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 6, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg 738 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 6, 12-17 & 19, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the Moosbierbaum oil refinery.
November 6, 1944 Bottrop-Welheim Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Bottrop (Welheim) synthetic oil plant.
November 6, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 92 BG bombed the Harburg oil complex.
November 8, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Merseburg rubber facility[verification needed] and the 92 BG bombed the Leuna oil complex.
November 9, 1944 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 277 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 10, 1944 Wiesbaden Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 452 BG bombed the oil plant: "Although other Aircraft, friendly, may be under you, drop your bombs" (Wing Commander). 9 B-17s also bombed a Wiesbaden target on November 13 (Mission 628).
November 11, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg A Speer memorandum identified that the oil and margarine plants in the Ruhr were on the verge of shutdown. The Vienna area had no fuel after November 15 (US intelligence report, February 1945).[74]:5
November 11, 1944 Castrop-Rauxel RAF roundel.svg 122 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 11, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 100 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 11, 1944 Bottrop-Welheim Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 124 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 11, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna/Kajren Patch 15th USAAF.png The 450 BG bombed the "Kajren Oil Refinery".
November 11/12 & 15, 1944 Dortmund RAF roundel.svg The Hoesch-Benzin synthetic oil plant was bombed.[62]
November 13, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the South plant. Only 1 of 3 Pathfinders B-24s of the 450 BG was able to bomb "Blochhammer Synthetic, Oppeln [province], Germany", (25 miles from Opole). Oppeln also had labor camps E17 (a cement factory), E419 and at Schalkendorf; Oderthal had labor camp E162; and Heydebreck had E711A.[75]
November 13, 25, & 30, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Linz Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the Linz benzol plant.
November 17 & 20, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the synthetic oil refinery.
November 18, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed a Vienna oil refinery.
November 18/19, 1944 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 309bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 19, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna/Schwechat Patch 15th USAAF.png 18 B-24s of the 450 BG bombed and hit both the refinery and the "Winterhafen Storage Facility" and 5 bombed the alternate target, the "Győr Marshalling Yard".
November 20, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 61 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 20, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Bomb damage from the attack was repaired by December 23.[76]
November 21, 1944 Koblenz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the oil refinery at Koblenz.
November 21, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 486 BG bombed Merseburg.
November 21/22, 1944 Castrop-Rauxel RAF roundel.svg 273 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 21/22, 1944 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) RAF roundel.svg 270 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 23, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svgEighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 168 RAF bombers and 134 USAAF bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
November 25, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the synthetic oil plant at Merseburg.
November 26, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) The 491 BG earned a DUC for bombing an oil refinery at Misburg.[77]
November 29, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Misburg oil refinery.
November 30, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed.
November 30, 1944 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 452 BG bombed the "Lützkendorf, Germany (Merseburg)"[specify] synthetic oil plant: "Merseburg is infested with enemy fighters" (B-17 "IDA WANN" crewmember of the 452 BG).
November 30, 1944 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Zeitz oil facility.
December 2, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 2, 1944 Dortmund RAF roundel.svg 83 bombers attacked the Zeche Hansa coking plant.[62]
December 2, 1944 Odertal Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 2, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 6, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 741: 446 B-17s bombed.
December 11, 1944 Oberhausen (Osterfeld) RAF roundel.svg The Osterfeld coking plant was bombed.[62]
December 12, 1944[verification needed] Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the South plant.
December 12, 1944[verification needed] Darmstadt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 452 BG bombed the locomotive repair yard and due to propwash, one squadron hit the "world's largest Chemical plant. (By accident)". A Darmstadt target was bombed on September 13 (Mission 628) along with other oil targets. In September 1944, Darmstadt was the center of the chemical industry and the optical industry, and the city had an academy for training V-2 technicians.[citation needed]
December 6, 1944[verification needed] Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Leuna oil refinery.
December 8, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 9, 1944 Regensburg oil refinery Patch 15th USAAF.png A Regensburg oil refinery was bombed. Regensburg had four small oil refineries for a total production of 80,000 tons/year.
December 11, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
December 12, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png 6 PFF B-24s of the 450 BG bombed the primary and alternate targets, as well as a target of opportunity.
December 12, 1944 Leipzig/Leuna Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 748: 337 B-17s bombed the synthetic oil plant.
December 12, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the "Norravska" [sic] oil refinery.
December 15, 1944 [Expand] Patch9thusaaf.png German oil storage was bombed at Heimbach, Wollseifen, Harperscheid, Schonau, Ruthen, and Dorsel.
December 16, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Linz Patch 15th USAAF.png The benzol plant was bombed. The 450 BG had been unable to bomb Linz on December 3 and instead bombed the Villach Marshalling Yard (also bombed the "North Main Marshalling Yard" in Linz on January 8, February 25, & March 31; "South Main" on January 8).
December 16, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx The lead 741st BS pilot bypassed the Brüx refinery target: "I'm not sure to this day that he wasn't right in avoiding that almost suicidal bomb run." (741st pilot George McGovern)[34]:182
December 16, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Unternehmen Bodenplatte for "capturing Allied fuel stocks" began with insufficient fuel.[53]:265
December 17, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 17, 1944 Odertal oil refinery Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24 42-51430 ("Tulsaamerican") ditched off the Vis Island coast.[51]
December 17, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The Moravská-Ostrava oil refinery was bombed.
December 18, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 18, 1944 Odertal Patch 15th USAAF.png The Odertal oil refinery was bombed.
December 18, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 18, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The Moravská-Ostrava oil refinery was bombed.
December 18, 1944
September 13, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Dwory US bombers attacked the "Monowitz synthetic plant".[73]:621
December 19, 1944 Blechhammer North & South Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 19, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The Moravská-Ostrava oil refinery was bombed.
December 20, 1944 Regensburg oil refinery Patch 15th USAAF.png The Regensburg oil refinery was bombed.
November 20, 1944[verification needed] Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the synthetic oil refinery.
December 21/22, 1944 Pölitz 209 aircraft bombed the Pölitz synthetic-oil refinery. Parts of the plant were damaged and the power-station chimneys collapsed.[specify]
December 22, 1944 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg "The most notable [advances] are the new [Type XXI] submarines and [synthetic] fuels, rockets, and jet propulsion generally.…It is…production rather than invention, particularly of synthetic fuels, that is going to be Germany's main difficulty." (R. V. Jones report to Winston Churchill)[23]:464
December 25, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx Patch 15th USAAF.png 253 B-17s and B-24s bombed the Brüx synthetic oil plant and main marshalling yards at Wels.
December 26, 1944 Blechhammer South Patch 15th USAAF.png
December 18, 1944 Odertal Patch 15th USAAF.png The Odertal oil refinery was bombed.
December 26, 1944
September 13, 1944 Flag of Poland.svg Dwory Patch 15th USAAF.png The Auschwitz oil refinery [sic] was bombed.
December 27, 1944 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Vösendorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Vosendorf oil refinery was bombed.
December 28, 1944 Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The Regensburg oil storage and freight yard was bombed.
December 28, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Kolín Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
December 28, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Kralupy Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
December 28, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Pardubice region Patch 15th USAAF.png The Pardubice oil refinery was bombed.
December 28, 1944 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Roudnice Patch 15th USAAF.png The Roudnice nad Labem oil storage and sidings were bombed.
December 29/30, 1944 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg 346 bombers attacked the synthetic oil plant.[62]
December 31, 1944 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 772: In Hamburg, 96 B-17s bombed the Wilhemsburg [sic] refinery, 71 bombed the Grassbruk refinery, 68 bombed other oil industry targets, and 72 bombed other industrial area targets.
December 31, 1944 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 772: 96 B-17s bombed the Hamburg oil refinery (bomb damage was repaired by February 14).[78]
January 1, 1945 Hanover/Dollbergen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png B-17s bombed the Dollbergen oil facility as a target of opportunity.
January 1, 1945 Dortmund coking plant RAF roundel.svg The 466th bombed the "Dortmund Hoesch Coking Plant".
January 1/2, 1945 Dortmund (Minster Stein) RAF roundel.svg [79]
January 1, 1945 Ehmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed the Ehmen storage depot.
January 1, 1945 Kassel Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed Derben (primary) and Kassel (secondary) targets: a vehicle workshop and an oil storage depot.[verification needed]
January 3, 1945 US flag 48 stars.svg "…the chimera of one air operation that will end the war…does not exist. …much of the Russian advance is due to the immobility conferred on the German ground forces by our attacks on oil." (Spaatz letter to Barney Giles)[53]:273
January 3, 1945 [80] Castrop-Rauxel RAF roundel.svg
January 3, 1945 [81] Dortmund (Hansa) RAF roundel.svg The Hansa coking plant was bombed in Dortmund, which refined oils into higher grade fuels. A Gelsenkirchener Bergwerke oil plant was in Dortmund.[82]
January 7, 1945 [specify] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 785: A Pathfinder force bombed an oil storage depot in W Germany.
January 8, 1945 Pölitz RAF roundel.svg Bombing "put the works out of action for the remainder of the war".[74]
January 1945 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Hungarian petroleum deposits and the nearby refineries "are indispensable" after bombing of the German coal hydrogenation plants (Hitler).[47]:1999
January 13/14, 1945 Pölitz RAF roundel.svg[83]
January 14, 1945 Kassel/Derben Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 792: 186 B-17s bombed an oil target at Derben.
January 14, 1945 Ehmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 792: 89 B-24s bombed an oil target at Ehmen.
January 14, 1945 Hallendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 792: 145 B-24s bombed an oil target at Hallendorf.[verification needed]
January 14, 1945 Hemmingstedt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 792: 91 B-24s bombed an oil target at Hemmingstedt.
January 14, 1945 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 792: 90 B-17s bombed oil targets at Magdeburg.
January 14/15, 1945 Dülmen RAF roundel.svg[84]
January 14/15, 1945 Leipzig/Leuna RAF roundel.svg[85]
January 15, 1945 Bochum RAF roundel.svg The Robert Muser coking plant was bombed.[62]
January 15, 1945 Recklinghausen RAF roundel.svg Oil production at the Recklinghausen/Forstezung [86] coking plant[62] was bombed.
January 16, 1945 Dessau Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png At Dessau, the 447 BG bombed the "oil plant" and the 487 BG bombed the "marshalling yards".
January 16, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg The USAAF bombed oil production at Harburg.[87]
January 16, 1945 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 796: 61 B-17s hit the Rothensee synthetic oil plant at Magdeburg. Magdeburg targets were bombed by the RAF on January 14/15 and, in the first major raid on Magdeburg, on January 21/22. Magdeburg may also have been bombed on February 22.[88]
January 16, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 796: 67 B-17s bombed the Ruhland oil plant.
January 16, 1945 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx RAF roundel.svg The 106th bombed Brüx.
January 16/17, 1945 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Brüx RAF roundel.svg[89] This attack and an earlier U.S. PFF attack on December 25 immobilized "the giant synthetic plant at BRUX".[75] By February 6, Brüx had experienced the worst damage since bombing started and production was not expected to resume for 2 months (with no prospect for resuming crude refining).[90]:s2
January 16/17, 1945 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg The coking plant was bombed.[62]
January 16/17, 1945 Zeitz RAF roundel.svg[91]
January 17, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 798: 158 B-17s are dispatched to hit the Rhenania (40) and Albrecht (34) oil refineries at Hamburg and the U-boat base at Hamburg (73). 78 of 84 B-24s hit the Rhenania oil refinery at Harburg.
February 5, 1945[verification needed] Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png Oil storage at Regensburg bombed.
January 20, 1945 Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed Regensburg oil storage.
January 20, 1945 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 801: 36 of 309 B-17s bombed the Holten oil plant at Sterkrade.
January 21, 1945 Aschaffenburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 803: 66 B-17s bombed the oil plant at Aschaffenburg.
January 21, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bombed the Lobau oil refinery.
January 21, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-17s bombed the Schwechat oil refinery.
January 21, 1945 Flag of Italy.svg Fiume Patch 15th USAAF.png 43 P-38s bombed an oil refinery at Fiume, Italy.
January 22, 1945 Gelsenkirchen RAF roundel.svg The 466th bombed Gelsenkirchen.
January 22, 1945 Oberhausen (Sterkrade) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 805: 167 B-17s were dispatched for visual attacks on the Holten synthetic oil plant at Sterkrade.
January 22/23, 1945 Duisburg RAF roundel.svg A heavy attack on the Bruckhausen[62] benzol plant at Duisburg-Hamborn inflicted severe damage.[92]:s4
January 23, 1945 Gelsenchirchen (Consolidation) The "CONSOLIDATED L/VT plant" at Gelsenkirchen was rendered inactive by an area attack.[93]:s4
January 28, 1945 Dortmund Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 809: 58 B-24s bombed an oil target at Gneisenau.
January 28, 1945 Dortmund Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 809: 115 B-24s bombed the Kaiserstuhl and Gneisenau coking plants at Dortmund.[62]
January 29, 1945 Kassel Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 811: 93 B-17s bombed the Henschel oil plant at Kassel using H2X radar.
January 31 & February 3, 1945 Dortmund benzol plant The "HANSA Benzol Plant" was bombed.[94]:s1
January 31 & February 1, 1945 Duisburg The "BRUCKHAUSEN Benzol Plant" was bombed.[95]:s1
January 31, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png In a blind attack,[96]:s1,3 670+ B-24s and B-17s bombed the Moosbierbaum oil refinery.
January 1945 Salzbergen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The Wintershell [sic] "straight crude oil refinery with a small cracking plant" was bombed.[97]:2
February 1, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png A visual attack[98]:s1,3 by 300+ B-17s and B-24s bombed the oil refinery.
February 2/3, 1945 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 323 aircraft attacked the Wanne-Eickel oil refinery[76](Krupp Treibstoffwerke). Most bombs hit open ground around the Shamrock 3/4 coal mine.
February 3/4, 1945[62] Bottrop The "PROSPER Benzol Plant" was bombed.[99]:s1
February 3/4, 1945[62] Dortmund RAF roundel.svg The Hansa coking plant was bombed. A later RAF Dortmund raid on March 12 was the heaviest World War II raid on a city in Europe (1108 aircraft).[62]
February 3, 1945 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 817: 116 B-24s bombed the Rothensee oil plant (246 bombed the marshalling yard).
February 4, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg The 466th bombed the "NORDSTERN Benzol Plant".[100]:s1
February 4, 1945 Oberhausen (Osterfeld) The Oberhausen "OSTERFELD Benzol Plant" was bombed.[101]:s1
February 5, 1945 Regensburg Patch 15th USAAF.png 730+ B-17s and B-24s bombed oil storage at Regensburg.
February 4/5, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg 96 Halifaxes, 12 Lancasters, and 12 Mosquitoes attacked the Nordstern synthetic-oil plant. Most of the bombs fell south of the target.
February 7, 1945 Leipzig/Böhlen The 447 BG bombed the Böhlen "oil refinery".
February 7, 1945 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 74 Lancasters bombed in the wintry conditions which had scattered the force.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Kagran Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Korneuburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the Lobau oil refinery.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Schwechat oil refinery was bombed.
February 7, 1945 Flag of Italy.svg Pola Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the oil storage at Pola.
February 7/8, 1945 Flag of Italy.svg Mestre Twelfth Air Force - Emblem.png Fighters and fighter-bombers supporting U.S. Fifth Army forces in the Serchio river valley destroyed an oil dump north of Mestre.
February 8/9, 1945 Pölitz RAF roundel.svg 477 aircraft in 2 waves caused severe damage. The Pölitz plant was captured April 26, 1945.
February 8/9, 1945 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 200 Halifaxes, 20 Mosquitoes, and 8 Lancasters conducted scattered bombing with only light damage to the oil refinery.
February 8/9, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png 49 aircraft bombed the oil refinery.
February 9, 1945 Lützkendorf Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 824: 233 B-17s bombed the "oil plant at Lützkendorf between Leipzig and Halle".
February 9, 1945 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 824: 10 B-24s bombed the oil plant and 268 using H2X hit the secondary target, the Magdeburg marshalling yard.
February 9, 1945 Dülmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 824: 107 of 152 B-17s using Micro H to bomb "an oil storage depot at Dülmen"[74]
February 10, 1945 Dülmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 825: 140 B-17s hit the secondary target, the Dülmen oil storage depot, using Micro H.
February 11, 1945 Dülmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 827: 124 of 127 B-24s attack the Dülmen oil depot using Micro H.
February 13, 1945 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the synthetic oil plant.
February 13/14, 1945 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) Bomb damaged was repaired by February 26.[102]
February 13/14, 1945 Leipzig/Böhlen RAF roundel.svg A diversion raid for the Bombing of Dresden, 360 Lancasters and Halifaxes bombed the Braunkohle-Benzin synthetic-oil plant at Böhlen 60 miles (97 km) from Dresden.[77]:205
February 13/14, 1945 [Expand] RAF roundel.svg As diversion raids for the Bombing of Dresden, de Havilland Mosquitoes bombed Magdeburg (71), Bonn (16), Misburg near Hanover (8), and Dortmund (6).[77]
February 13/14, 1945 Nuremberg/Würzburg area RAF roundel.svg Bombing of the Siemens-Schunkert electrical transformer plant in Nuremberg (the largest[16]:232 in the world) ignited the oil tanks.[78] Bombing destroyed the transformer plant c. February 1945.[103]
February 14, 1945 Dülmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 830: 35 aircraft bombed the Dülmen oil depot.
February 14, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png
February 14, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Lobau oil refinery was bombed.
February 14, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png 500+ B-24s, B-17s and P-38s bombed the Moosbierbaum oil refinery.
February 14, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Schwechat oil refinery was bombed.
February 15, 1945 Cottbus Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG The 447 BG bombed the Cottbus "oil refinery". Cottbus was also bombed on March 17.[104]
February 14/15, 1945 Leipzig/Rositz RAF roundel.svg Operation Thunderclap: 224 Lancasters and 8 Mosquitoes bombed the oil refinery in Rositz near Leipzig, causing damage to the southern part of the plant.
February 15, 1945 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 832
February 15, 1945 Magdeburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 832 bombed the Magdeburg oil facility(ies).[specify]
February 15, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 832
February 15, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Korneuburg Patch 15th USAAF.png
February 16, 1945 Dortmund Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 833: 78 B-17s bombed the Harpenerweg [sic] synthetic oil plant at Bochum-Langendeer, 112 bombed the Kaiserstuhl coking plant,[62] and the 92 BG bombed the "Hoesch Benzol coking plant".[verification needed] The small Dortmund/Harpenerweg "refinery" had began partial production c. February 6.[105]:s3
February 16, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 833: 104 B-17s bombed Nordstern.
February 16, 1945 Dortmund (Minster stein) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 833: 112 B-17s bombed the oil refinery at Minsterstein. [sic] By February 2, 1945, "Minster stein" had been conducting "at least partial production".[106]:s4
February 16, 1945 Salzbergen 46 B-24s bombed the Salzbergen oil refinery.
February 17, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Linz Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed the Linz benzol plant. A Linz target was also bombed by the 464 BG on January 20 and April 25, 1945.[51]
February 19, 1945 Alm Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 835: 37 B-17s bombed the Alm oil refinery.[verification needed]
February 19, 1945 Bochum Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 835: 99 B-17s bombed the Carolinenglück [107] synthetic oil plant.[62]
February 19, 1945 Dortmund Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 835: 74 B-17s bombed the Hoesch-Benzin GmbH synthetic oil plant.[62]
February 19, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Alma Pluto) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 835: 37 B-17s bombed the Alma Pluto coking plant.[62]
February 19, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 835: 36 B-17s bombed the Scholven synthetic oil plant.[62]
February 20, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png Schwechat oil refinery bombed.
February 20, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Lobau) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Lobau refinery and Floridsdorf railyard were bombed. "The attack was outstandingly successful, resulting in severe damage to the boiler house, virtual destruction of the distillation unit pump house, a probable hit on the fractionating tower, and serious damage to tankage and rail sidings.[75]
February 20/21, 1945 Düsseldorf-Reisholz RAF roundel.svg 173 aircraft attacked the Rhenania Ossag refinery at Düsseldorf-Reisholz, halting all oil production.
February 20/21, 1945 Monheim am Rhein RAF roundel.svg 128 aircraft bombed the Rhenania Ossag refinery at Monheim.
February 21, 1945 Worms RAF roundel.svg The 466th bombed the "Worms Oil Plant".
February 21, 1945 [specify] Patch9thusaaf.png A German oil storage depot was bombed.
February 19, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Alma Pluto) RAF roundel.svg 85 Lancasters bombed the Alma Pluto coking plant.[62]
February 22, 1945 Oberhausen (Osterfeld) RAF roundel.svg 82 Lancasters accurately bombed oil refineries at Osterfeld during Operation Clarion.
February 24, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 845: At Hamburg, 278 B-17s bombed the Albrecht oil refinery and 70 bombed the Harburg oil refineries. 383 B-17s are sent to hit the Deschimag U-boat yards at Bremen (200) and the Bremen W rail bridge (134). The 92 BG bombed the Albrecht synthetic oil complex.
February 24, 1945 Kamen RAF roundel.svg 340 aircraft bombed a "synthetic-oil plant in Bergkamen, just north of Kamen" using Oboe and H2S markers.
February 25, 1945 Munich Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 847: 174 B-17s bombed the oil storage tanks and marshalling yard at Munich. Munich also had a Metzler tire plant.
February 25, 1945 Kamen RAF roundel.svg 153 No. 3 Group RAF Lancasters carried out a G-H attack on the synthetic-oil refinery at Kamen.
February 25, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Linz Patch 15th USAAF.png The 485 BG bombed the benzol plant. The Third Army entered Linz and Salzburg on May 4[71]:790 after the Fifteenth Air Force had dropped 8,962 tons of explosives on Linz.
February 25, 1945 Neuberg[disambiguation needed] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed the Neuberg underground oil depot. Neuberg also had aircraft service/park facilities,[108]:40 and Neuburg am Donau (Zell) had an Me 262 production facility.
February 26, 1945 Dortmund benzol plant RAF roundel.svg 149 Lancasters bombed the "Hoesch-Benzin GmbH[62] benzol-oil plant" using G-H.
February 27/28, 1945 Wilhelmshaven Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 851: 23 B-24s bombed Wilhelmshaven oil storage by PFF.
February 28, 1945 Gelsenkirchen (Nordstern) RAF roundel.svg 156 Lancasters bombed Nordstern using G-H.
February 28, 1945 Frankfurt oil depot Patch9thusaaf.png Frankfurt/Main oil storage tanks were bombed.
February 1945 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Total POL production was down 27% from the production prior to the January raids.[109]:s1 Stocks of aviation fuel were down to 6,000 tonnes and in February, the Luftwaffe received only 400 tonnes:[citation needed] "anyone using [German] fuel for purposes other than the immediate conduct of operation will be considered a saboteur and court-martialed without mercy" (military order).[5]:461
March 1, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png 22 P-38s bombed the Moosbierbaum refinery and Tulln marshalling yard. Vienna also had aircraft service/park facilities at Tulln and Aspern.[110]:40
March 1, 1945 Flag of Hungary.svg Budapest & Nagykanizsa After the Fifteenth Air Force had dropped 8,370 tons of explosives on Budapest targets, Budapest was captured February 13, 1945[12]:1808 (the Red Army was within 10 miles on November 3, 1944).[79] On March 1, Germany launched the last major German offensive of World War II (Operation Frühlingserwachen) to retake Budapest and the Nagykanizsa oil fields south of Lake Balaton.
March 2, 1945 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Speer ordered that Nitrogen plants were to be repaired before the hydrogenation plants.
March 2, 1945 Chemnitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 859: 255 B-17s bombed Chemnitz.
March 2, 1945 Dresden Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 859: The 447 BG bombed the "oil refinery" at Dresden.[clarification needed]
March 2, 1945 Magdeburg/Rothensee Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 859: 24 B-17s bombed the Rothensee oil plant
March 2, 1945 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 859: 96 B-17s bombed the oil plant and gun batteries at Böhlen.
March 2, 1945 Leipzig/Rositz (Altenburg) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 859: The 384 BG bombed the oil plant at Rositz near Altenburg. An Altenburg target was also bombed on March 17.[111][specify]
March 2, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 859: 24 B-17s bombed the Ruhland oil plant.
March 3, 1945 Brunswick Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the chemical plant at Brunswick. Brunswick also had a Büssing-Nag truck plant.
March 1 & 4, 1945 Kamen RAF roundel.svg The chemical works at Bergkamen were bombed.[62] The 466th bombed Kamen on March 3.
March 4, 1945 Wanne-Eickel RAF roundel.svg 128 aircraft bombed.[62]
March 5, 1945 Gelsenchirchen (Consolidation) RAF roundel.svg 170 aircraft bombed the Consolidation coking plant at Gelsenkirchen.[62]
March 6, 1945 Salzbergen RAF roundel.svg The Wintershall oil refinery was bombed.
March 7, 1945 Castrop-Rauxel Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 487 BG bombed the oil refinery.
March 7, 1945 Dortmund Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png At Dortmund, 24 aircraft bombed the Hörde Refuge Association coking plant and 62 bombed the Harpenerweg coking plant.[62] The 466th also bombed Dortmund on March 12.
March 7, 1945 Dates[62] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 447 BG bombed the "DattelnEmscher Lippe" coking plant.
March 7/8, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg refineries RAF roundel.svg Bomber Command attacked the oil refinery at Harburg.
March 7/8, 1945 Hemmingstedt RAF roundel.svg 256 Halifaxes and 25 Lancasters of Nos 4, 6 and 8 Groups attempted to attack the Deutsche Erdöl-Aktiengesellschaft oil refinery at Hemmingstedt, near Heide, with little success.
March 8, 1945 Bochum Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 99 aircraft bombed the Robert Muser coking plant and 63 bombed the Bruchstraße coking plant.[62][clarification needed]
March 8, 1945 Bottrop (Mathias Stinnes) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 37 aircraft bombed the Mathias Stinnes coking plant.[62]
March 8, 1945 Dortmund Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 110 aircraft bombed the Gneisenau coking plant. On March 10, 509 aircraft bombed the Verschiebebahnhöfe at Dortmund.[62]
March 8, 1945 Essen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png In Essen, 114 aircraft bombed the Emil coking plant, and 109 bombed the marshalling yards.[62]
March 8, 1945 Gelsenchirchen (Scholven/Buer) Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 75 aircraft bombed Scholven.[62]
March 8, 1945 Hüls Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 111 aircraft bombed the Auguste Victoria coking plant at Marl-Hüls.[62]
March 10, 1945 Gelsenchirchen (Scholven/Buer) RAF roundel.svg 155 aircraft bombed Scholven.[62]
March 11, 1945 Bremen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Bremen oil plant.
March 11, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 486 BG bombed a Hamburg oil plant.
March 11/12, 1945 Flag of SFR Yugoslavia.svg Zagreb[2] Patch9thusaaf.png The 596 BS attacked a synthetic ammunition filling plant at Zagreb.[112] The Bergius process for synthetic oil production was also used for synthesizing ammonia for explosives. The small petrol refinery between Zagreb and Vrapče was named Sveta Klava, then Astra.[113]:5
March 12, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png B-24s and B-17s bombed the Floridsdorf oil refinery.
March 11, 1945 Nienhagen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 486 BG bombed a Nienhagen oil facility.
March 13, 1945 Lützkendorf RAF roundel.svg The 106th bombed Lützkendorf.[114]
March 13/14, 1945 Gelsenchirchen (Consolidation) RAF roundel.svg 80 aircraft bombed the Consolidation coking plant.[62]
March 13/14, 1945 Herne RAF roundel.svg 82 aircraft bombed the Erin coking plant.[62]
March 14, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Prior to a raid targeting a Vienna oil refinery, the briefing officer told crews to avoid the St. Stephen's Cathedral, the Vienna State Opera, the Schönbrunn Palace and other historic buildings and schools. Due to weather, the alternate (Wiener Neustadt marshaling yards) was bombed.[34]:228–9
March 14, 1945 Dates RAF roundel.svg 50 aircraft bombed the Emscher-Lippe coking plant.[62]
March 14, 1945 Hattingen RAF roundel.svg 51 aircraft bombed the Henrichshütte coking plant.[62]
March 14, 1945 Flag of Hungary.svg Szöny Patch 15th USAAF.png The Szöny oil refinery was bombed.
March 14, 1945 Flag of Hungary.svg Almásfüzitő Patch 15th USAAF.png The Almásfüzitő oil refinery was bombed.
March 15, 1945 Bottrop-Welheim RAF roundel.svg 121 aircraft bombed the Ruhröl AG synthetic oil plant.[62]
March 15, 1945 Castrop-Rauxel RAF roundel.svg 119 aircraft bombed the Union Victor synthetic oil plant.[62]
March 15, 1945 Hanover (Deurag-Nerag) The bombing caused an "indefinite shutdown".[80]
March 15, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Patch 15th USAAF.png In the 15AF's deepest penetration into Germany, 109 B-17s bombed the oil refinery at Ruhland.
March 15, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Floridsdorf` oil refinery was bombed.
March 15, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Moosbierbaum oil refinery was bombed.
March 15, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Schwechat oil refinery was bombed.
March 15, 1945 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Kolín Patch 15th USAAF.png 103 B-17s bombed the oil refinery as an alternate target.
March 16, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Floridsdorf oil refinery was bombed.
March 16, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Korneuburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The Korneuburg oil refinery was bombed.
March 16, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Moosbierbaum) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Moosbierbaum oil refinery was bombed.
March 16, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Schwechat) Patch 15th USAAF.png The Schwechat oil refinery was bombed.
March 17, 1945 Dortmund RAF roundel.svg 77 aircraft bombed the Gneisenau coking plant.[62]
March 17, 1945 Hüls Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 90 aircraft bombed the chemical works at Marl-Hüls.[62]
March 17, 1945 Leipzig/Böhlen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 892: 152 B-17s bombed the oil refinery at Böhlen.
March 17, 1945 Leipzig/Rötha Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 892: 127 B-17s bombed the oil refinery and power station at Molbis (the 92 BG bombed the Molbis benzol plant). A Molbis target had been bombed on September 12 (Mission 626), and the 303 BG bombed the Molbis thermal electric power station in Rötha on May 28.[81]
March 17, 1945 Ludwigshafen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 892: 138 B-17s bombed the secondary target, the Bittefeld[verification needed] oil refinery. After the Eighth Air Force had dropped 17,796 tons of explosives on Ludwigshafen-Mannheim, Ludwigshafen was captured on March 21.[47]:2065
March 17, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 892: 214 B-17s bombed the Ruhland oil refinery.
March 18, 1945 Bochum RAF roundel.svg 75 aircraft bombed the Harpenweg coking plant.[62]
1945-03-18 Bochum RAF roundel.svg 22 Lancasters bombed oil plants at Hattingen and Langendreer in Bochum.
March 18, 1945 Hattingen RAF roundel.svg 78 aircraft bombed the Henrichshütte coking plant.[62]
March 19, 1945 Gelsenchirchen (Consolidation) RAF roundel.svg 79 aircraft bombed the Consolidation coking plant.[62]
March 19, 1945 Ruhland Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 486 BG bombed a Ruhland oil plant.
March 20, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 898: The 92 BG bombed a Harburg oil plant.
March 20, 1945 Hemmingstedt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 898: 114 B-24s attacked the oil refinery at Hemmingstedt.
March 20, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Kagran Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
March 20, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Korneuburg Patch 15th USAAF.png The oil refinery was bombed.
March 20/21, 1945 Hemmingstedt RAF roundel.svg 166 Lancasters attacked the Hemmingstedt oil refinery.
March 21, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Patch 15th USAAF.png 3 oil refineries and a goods depot were bombed at Vienna.
March 21, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna (Floridsdorf) Patch 15th USAAF.png The 32 BS bombed.
March 21/22, 1945 Bochum RAF roundel.svg 143 aircraft bombed the Harpenweg coking plant.[62]
March 22, 1945 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Kralupy Patch 15th USAAF.png The Kralupy oil refinery was bombed.[34]:234
March 22, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Patch 15th USAAF.png The Ruhland oil refinery was bombed (some bombers dispatched to Ruhland bombed the Lauta aluminum works to the North).
March 22, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Patch 15th USAAF.png Two Vienna oil refineries were bombed.
March 23, 1945 Ruhland-Schwarzheide Patch 15th USAAF.png The Ruhland oil refinery was bombed.
March 23, 1945 Flag of Austria.svg Vienna Patch 15th USAAF.png Vienna oil refinery(ies) bombed. After the Fifteenth Air Force had dropped 30,122 tons of explosives on Vienna targets,

the Soviet Vienna Offensive began on April 2, encircled Vienna on April 7, and the garrison surrendered on April 13.[79]

March 24, 1945 Bochum RAF roundel.svg 95 aircraft bombed the Harpenweg coking plant.[62]
March 25, 1945 Bücken Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 913: 1,009 bombers and 341 fighters are dispatched to hit 7[specify] oil plants and a tank factory. 57 B-24s bombed the Bücken oil depot.
March 25, 1945 Ehmen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 913: 59 B-24s bombed the Ehmen oil depot
March 25, 1945 Nuremberg/Würzburg area Patch9thusaaf.png Erbach [sic], Germany, oil storage depot bombed. Erlbach was south of Ebrach between Würzburg and Nuremberg.
March 25, 1945 Hitzacker Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 913: 127 B-24s bombed the Hitzacker oil depot.
March 25, 1945 Neuenheerse Patch9thusaaf.png Neuenheerse, Germany, oil storage depot bombed.
March 25, 1945 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 915: 185 B-17s are sent to hit the Zeitz synthetic oil plant.
March 27, 1945 Bremen-Farge RAF roundel.svg 95 Lancasters of No 5 Group successfully attacked an oil-storage depot at Farge.
March 27, 1945 Hamm RAF roundel.svg 150 aircraft bombed the Heessen coking plant in the last strategic bombing in the Ruhr Area.[62]
March 28, 1945 Dedenhausen Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 486 BG bombed a Dedenhausen oil facility near Hanover.
March 28, 1945 Nuremberg/Würzburg area The 596 BS bombed the Ebrach oil depot. Ebrach was north of Erlbach between Würzburg and Nuremberg.
March 30, 1945 Ebenhausen Patch9thusaaf.png The Ebenhausen oil depot in Germany was bombed.
March 30, 1945 Hamburg-Harburg refineries Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 169 bombers attacked an oil depot at Hamburg, and the 487 BG bombed a Hamburg oil refinery.
March 31, 1945 Bad Berka Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 920: 29 B-17s bombed the secondary target, the Bad Berka oil plant.[specify] The 100 BG attacked the Bad Berka oil storage. Bad Berka underground work plant used forced labor.[73]:148
March 31, 1945 Nuremberg/Würzburg area Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png B-17s bombed the Erbach [sic] oil depot.[82] Erlbach was south of Ebrach between Würzburg and Nuremberg.
March 31, 1945 Erfurt Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 920: 20 B-17s bombed the Erfurt oil depot.[83] Erfurt had also been bombed on February 9 (by the 384 BG) and on March 17.[84]
March 31, 1945 Gotha Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 920: 20 B-17s bombed the Gotha oil plant[specify] as secondary target (Gotha also had an aircraft production center.)[31] The Ohrdruf forced labor camp near Gotha was the 1st found by the Allies, and Eisenhower, Patton, and Bradley inspected the Ohrdruf Nord work camp on April 12, 1945. After an April 13/14 overnight visit with his father, John Eisenhower visited Buchenwald on April 14.[71]:564k,761,764,770
March 31, 1945 Marienburg-Gdynia Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png B-17s bombed the Marienburg oil depot.[82] Stalag XX-B was at Marienburg.
March 31, 1945 Nuremberg/Würzburg area Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png B-17s bombed the Würzburg oil depot.[82]
March 31, 1945 Zeitz Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 920: 229 B-17s bombed the synthetic oil refinery at Zeitz using H2X radar
April 4, 1945 Nuremberg/Würzburg area Patch9thusaaf.png The Ebrach oil depot was bombed.
April 7, 1945 Buchen[clarification needed] Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png 36 B-17s bombed the Buchen oil depot.
April 7, 1945 Hitzacker Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png The 384 BG bombed the Hitzacker underground storage.
April 7/8, 1945 Leipzig/Rötha RAF roundel.svg The bombing of the benzol plant at Molbis, near Leipzig, ceased all production at the plant. Halle and Leipzig were captured by the VII Corps on April 14.[47]:2133
April 8, 1945 Durben Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 920:[verification needed] 31 B-17s bombed the Durben oil depot.
April 8, 1945 Lützkendorf RAF roundel.svg The 106th bombed Lützkendorf. The US First Army was in Leipzig on April 18, 1945.[12]:1897
April 8, 1945 Munchenbernsdorf Patch9thusaaf.png The Munchenbernsdorf oil storage depot was bombed.
April 8, 1945 Flag of Italy.svg Po Valley Twelfth Air Force - Emblem.png Oilfields in the central Po Valley were bombed. On April 20, US ground forces encountered "half-hearted resistance [in capturing the] flat ground of the Po Valley with its excellent road network".[85]
April 8, 1945 Nienhagen oil refinery Patch9thusaaf.png The Nienhagen oil refinery was bombed.
April 9, 1945 Bad Berka Patch9thusaaf.png The 596 BS bombed the Bad Berka oil storage.
April 9, 1945 Dedenhausen Patch9thusaaf.png The Dedenhausen oil target was bombed.
April 9, 1945 Neuberg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 935: 89 B-17s bombed the underground oil depot.
April 11, 1945 Freiham Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 941: 300 B-17s bombed the Freiham oil depot.
April 11, 1945 Regensburg Eighth Air Force - Emblem (World War II).png Mission 941: 80 B-24s bombed the Regensburg oil depot and 31 bombed the munitions depot.The 401 BG bombed a Regensburg target on April 16. The Fifteenth Air Force dropped 5,815 tons of explosives on Regensburg.
April 12, 1945 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUS flag 48 stars.svg Strategic Bombing Directive No. 4 ended the strategic air war in Europe. On April 16, Spaatz notified Doolittle and Twining: "The advances of our ground forces have brought to a close the strategic air war waged by the United States Strategic Air Forces and the Royal Air Force Bomber Command.".
April 18, 1945 Neuburg Patch9thusaaf.png Oil storage at Neuburg an der Donau was bombed.
April 18, 1945 Flag of Czechoslovakia.svg Roudnice Patch 15th USAAF.png 115 B-17s bombed the Roudnice nad Labem oil storage and marshalling yards.
April 19, 1945 Annaburg Patch9thusaaf.png Oil storage was bombed at Annaburg.
April 19, 1945 Deggendorf Patch9thusaaf.png Oil storage was bombed at Deggendorf.
April 24, 1945 Schrobenhausen Patch9thusaaf.png The oil depot was bombed at Schrobenhausen.
April 25/26, 1945 Flag of Norway.svg Tønsberg RAF roundel.svg During the RAF's "last major strategic raid", 107 Lancasters destroyed the small "Vallo-Taneberg" oil refinery at Tønsberg.
April 1945 Flag of German Reich (1935–1945).svg Germany's oil production was 5% that of the previous year:[34]:249

Jan - Feb - Mar - Apr 1945
tbd - tbd - tbd - c. 7,000 tons/month
By the end of the war, instead of using "200 liters of J-2 fuel taxiing for 5 minutes," Me 262 jet fighters were towed by oxen to save fuel.[citation needed] "General Carl Spaatz had been insistent—and correct. The enemy would fight for oil, and the enemy would lose his fighters, his crews, and his fuel" (Herman S. Wolk, USAF historian, June 1974)[86]

May 10, 1945 US flag 48 stars.svg Harry S. Truman signed Joint Chiefs of Staff Directive 1067, which prohibited German production of oil until superseded in July 1947.

Notes[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "German Trust To Oppose Standard Oil". New York Times. November 11, 1906. Retrieved 2013-10-23. "In 1906, Standard Oil included the German-American Petroleum Company, the Mannheim-Bremen Petroleum Company and, formerly known as Korff, the Petroleum Refinery." 
  2. ^ Frankfurt also had a Naxos Union grinding wheel plant.
Citations
  1. ^ Bomber Command Campaign Diary
  2. ^ a b c McKillop
  3. ^ Mission histories for Bombardment Groups:
    92 BG, 100thBG.com
    301 BG (32 BS), 303rdBG.com, 397 BG (596 BS, [1], 398th.org
    401BG.com, 447BG ( cybercity,[verification needed] 43-37797, 450 BG (Cottontails), 452 BG, 461st.org, 464 BG (zplace2b), 485thBG.org, 486th.org, 487thBG.com
  4. ^ a b c d Wuesthoff, Scott E (1994). The utility of targeting the petroleum-based sector of a nation's economic infrastructure. Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press. p. 11. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Miller, Donald L. (2006). Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 53,118,321,323. ISBN 978-0-7432-3544-0. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Levine, Alan J (1992). The Strategic Bombing of Germany, 1940-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 9,144,177. ISBN 978-0-275-94319-6. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  7. ^ Overy, Richard (1997). Why the Allies Won. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-393-31619-3. 
  8. ^ Mitcham, Samuel W (2007). Eagles of the Third Reich: Men of the Luftwaffe in World War II. Stackpole Books. pp. 91–92. ISBN 978-0-8117-3405-9. 
  9. ^ a b Bomber Command Diary May–June 1940
  10. ^ a b c Caldwell, Donald; Muller, Richard. The Luftwaffe Over Germany: Defense of the Reich. pp. 198, 204. Retrieved 2008-11-15. 
  11. ^ Charles W. McArthur (1990). Operations analysis in the U.S. Army Eighth Air Force in World War II. ISBN 9780821801581 [page needed]
  12. ^ a b c d e Turner, S.J., F.R.G.S—maps (June 1944). Pictorial History of the Second World War. Wm. H. Wise & Co., Inc. 
    • Vol. 1 [September 3, 1939—August 25, 1941]. 1944. 
    • Vol. 2 [September 3, 1941—August 15, 1943]. 1944. 
    • Vol. 3 [September 3, 1943—September 1, 1944]. 1946 [1944]. 
    • Vol. 4 [September 4, 1944—September 2, 1945]. September, 1946—Fifth edition [March, 1946].  [page needed]
  13. ^ a b c Gilbert, Sir Martin (June 2004). The Second World War. p. 98,160,388. ISBN 978-0-8050-7623-3. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  14. ^ a b Supplement Part 10 Table 3
  15. ^ Stranges, Dr. Anthony. "Fischer-Tropsch Archive". Washington, D.C.: Fischer-Tropsch.org. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
    ^14.10 Western Axis Subcommittee (December 5, 1943). ""Unknown" Synthetic Oil Plants of the Western Axis" (pdf). Enemy Oil Committee. p. 13. Retrieved 2009-05-11. 
    ^13.20 "tbd". [page needed]
    ^13.30 Western Axis Subcommittee. "Estimated Refinery Output in Axis Europe -- 1943" (pdf). Enemy Oil Committee. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
    • Table IV: Hungarian Refineries. 
    ^13.40 Hartley, Harold (26 November 1943). "J.I.C (43) 480: The Axis Oil Position in Europe: November 1943" (pdf). pp. 32 pdf pages. Retrieved 2009-05-21. [verification needed]
    ^13.50 "Meeting No. 45/6" (pdf). Enemy Oil Intelligence Committee. February 6, 1945. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
    • Memorandum. p. 19 of pdf. 
    • Minutes. p. 20 of pdf. 
    • Annex. p. 27 of pdf. 
    • Weekly Survey No. 31. Economic Advisory Branch. 2 February 1945. p. 32 of pdf. 
    • Table I, Estimated Output …. 6.2.45. p. 33 of pdf. 
    • Table II …. 6.2.45. p. 34 of pdf. 
    • Table III Output Production Status …. pp. 35–7 of pdf. 
    ^13.55 "Index of Documents, Reel #304". Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
    ^13.60 "Status of the Enemy Oil Committee" (pdf). Enemy Oil Intelligence Committee. February 12, 1945. p. 1. Retrieved 2009-03-22. 
    ^13.70 "Report On Investigations by Fuels and Lubricants Teams At The I.G. Farbenindustrie, A. G., Works, Ludwigshafen and Oppau". US Bureau of Mines, Office of Synthetic Liquid Fuels. August 1946. Retrieved 2009-03-21. 
    ^13.80 "Summaries: Microfilm 2, U.S. Government Technical Oil Mission" (pdf). pp. 15 pdf pages (last numbered 14). Retrieved 2009-05-21.  Table of Contents
  16. ^ a b c d e f Gurney, Gene (Major, USAF) (1962). The War in the Air: a pictorial history of World War II Air Forces in combat. New York: Bonanza Books. pp. 172, 215, 217, 232. 
  17. ^ Ministry of Economic Warfare. The Bomber's Baedeker. PRO London. AIR 14/2662.  (cited by Coffey, p. 237)
  18. ^ Becker, Peter W. (1981). "The Role of Synthetic Fuel In World War II Germany: implications for today?". Air University Review (Maxwell AFB). Archived from the original on 2013-02-22. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  19. ^ a b c d US Secretary (January 1943). Casablanca Conference: Papers and Minutes of Meetings. available at Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library; COMBINED CHIEFS OF STAFF: Conference proceedings, 1941-1945; Box 1: Office of the Combined Chiefs of Staff. pp. 40–43,88,256. "Brehon Somervell … DECLASSIFIED … 10/29/73 … U.S. SECRET … BRITISH MOST SECRET … COPY NO. 32"  (Brehon Somervell is stamped on the inside front cover of the Eisenhower Library copy, and the copy number is stamped on the inside back cover)
    C.C.S. 158: Axis Oil Position. January 19, 1943.  (pages 40-2)
    C.C.S. 166/1/D: "The Bomber Offensive from the United Kingdom" (jpg). January 21, 1943. "Approved by Combined Chiefs of Staff at their 65th meeting on January 21, 1943. ... You should take every opportunity to attack Germany by day [and] to destroy objectives that are not unsuitable for night attack""  (distributed version, pages 88-9)
    C.C.S. 62nd Meeting [minutes]. "January 19, 1943, at 1600". p. 254. "1. AXIS OIL POSITION [pp. 255-257]" 
  20. ^ "World War II: Caucasuses Campaign (1942)". histclo.com. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  21. ^ USAAF. "Army Air Force Research Histories". AAF Historical Offices. Retrieved 2009-05-09. [dead link]
    ^13.03 AAFRH-3: Cruickshank, Earl (19xx–AFHS No. 103) [1944]. The Ploesti Mission of 1 August 1943. p. vii. "We must, therefore, apply [bombardment] to those specially selected and vital targets which will give the greatest return."  (p. vii: Arnold to Spaatz, April 10, 1943)
    ^13.10 AAFRH-10: tbd (19xx–AFHS No. 110) [August 1945]. The War Against the Luftwaffe: AAF Counter-Air Operations, April 1943-June 1944. "SECRET … Classification Cancelled … JUN 8, 1959 ... the Bradley Plan [was the plan for ] troop build-up for the Eighth Air Force. ... General Arnold prepared a Plan to Assure the Most Effective Exploitation of the Combined Bomber Offensive" and submitted it to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 9 October 1943."  (p. 84)
    ^13.18 AAFRH-18: tbd (tbd). The Early Operations of the Eighth Air Force and the Origins of the Combined Bomber Offensive. 
    ^13.19 AAFRH-19: Stormont, John F. (Capt) (March 1946) [1945 summer]. The Combined Bomber Offensive: April through December 1943. AAF Historical Office; Headquarters, Army Air Force. "SECRET … Classification Cancelled … JUN 10 1959"  (available at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library in the "Collection of 20th Century Military Records, 1918-1950 Series I"; Historical Studies Box 35).
    ^13.22 AAFRH-22: Norris, Joe L. (Capt) (April 1947) [1946 Winter-Spring]. The Combined Bomber Offensive: 1 January to 6 June 1944. p. 6. "SECRET … Classification Cancelled … JUN 10, 1959 … In December 1942 … Arnold … directed that the group of operations analysts under C/AS, Management Control, prepare … In compliance with this directive, the Committee of Operations Analysts submitted on 8 March 1943 a comprehensive report on Axis industry. … Nineteen vital industries were selected … which if destroyed would … stagnate the German war machine. (p. 6)"  (also available in Box 35)
  22. ^ "466th" (No. 466 Squadron RAAF): "466 Squadron Missions". 466 Squadron. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  23. ^ a b c Jones, R. V. (1978). Most Secret War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945. London: Hamish Hamilton. p. 381. ISBN 0-241-89746-7. 
  24. ^ Shugg, Roger W.; DeWeerd, H. A.; Lieutenant Colonel (January, 1947—Second Edition) [January, 1946—Second Edition]. World War II: A Concise History. Washington: Infantry Journal Press. p. 264. 
  25. ^ a b c d e f g HQ. U.S.S.T.A.F. (5 March 1944). Plan for Completion of Combined Bomber Offensive. Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library: SMITH, WALTER BEDELL: Collection of World War II Documents, 1941-1945; Box No.: 48: HQ, U.S.S.T.A.F. "MOST SECRET … DECLASSIFIED … 4/4/74" 
  26. ^ Bomber Command Diary June 1943
  27. ^ Bomber Command Diary July 1943
  28. ^ a b Jablonski, Edward (1971). Airpower. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. Retrieved 2013-10-23.  4 volumes:–––^I Terror from the Sky (pages 1-168)–––^II Tragic Victories (pages 1-192)–––^III Outraged Skies (pages 1-136)–––^IV Wings of Fire (pages 1-218)
  29. ^ "People: Entertainers". Time. August 23, 1943. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  30. ^ Mission List B17G 42-31238 Devil's Ball 351st Bomb Group
  31. ^ a b c Arnold, Henry H.—Foreword (June 1944--Special Edition for AAF Organizations) [May 1944]. AAF: The Official Guide to the Army Air Forces. New York: Pocket Books. p. 337. 
  32. ^ http://www.b17pbemgame.com/317_bomb_squadron_roster.htm
  33. ^ Spaatz Collection. Library of Congress, Manuscript Division. :
    ^27.10 1943-12-27: Arnold, Henry H. (27 December 1943). "[letter to Spaatz: "Dear Tooey"]". Spaatz Collection (Box 14). "we must use our initiative and imagination with a view of seeking out, destroying the German Air Force in the factories, depots, on the ground, or in the air, wherever they may be."  (quoted by Mets note 51, pp. 191,383)
    ^27.25 1944-02-03: ----- (3 February 1944). Objectives for Area Attack [memorandum to Eaker]. available at AF/HSO microfilm, reel A5616, fr. 45. 
    ^27.20 1944-01-21: Spaatz, Carl (21 January 1944). "[message to Arnold]". Spaatz Collection (Box 14). 
    ^27.30 1944-02-15: Hughes, Richard D. (15 February 1944). "Conference Held at A.E.A.F Headquarters, Stanmore 15 February 1944 [letter and notes]". Spaatz Collection (Box 14). 
    ^27.35 Col. Richard D. Hughes was Eaker's "target-selection specialist." (Coffey, p. 237)
    ^27.40 1944-02-19: Spaatz, Carl (19 February 1944). "[message to Arnold]". Spaatz Collection (Box 14). 
    ^27.50 1944-03-24: Spaatz, Carl (24 March 1944). "Employment of Strategic Air Forces in the Support of OVERLORD". Spaatz Collection (Box 14). "We believe attacks on transportation will not force the German fighters into action. We believe they will defend oil to their last fighter plane."  (quoted by Mets note 100, pp. 204,386)
    ^27.60 1944-03-25: "Final Minutes of a Meeting held on Saturday, March 25, to Discuss the Bombing Policy in the Period Before 'OVERLORD'". Spaatz Collection (Box 14). ""apart from the attack on the GAF,[German Air Force] the transportation plan was the only one which offered a reasonable chance of the air forces making an important contribution to the land battle during the first vital weeks of OVERLORD"  (quoted by Mets, p. 208)
    ^27.70 1944-08-09: Kuter, Laurence (Brig. Gen.) (9 August 1944). "[memo to Arnold]". Spaatz Collection (Box 15).  Kuter quotes an Air Ministry memorandum for the July 5 meeting. (cited by Mets note 60, pp. 269, 394: "staff meeting the British Chiefs of Staff ... 5 July 1944 ... Portal had tried to move Harris away from area bombing to join in the attacks on oil. ... the recommendation that emerged was a gigantic attack on Berlin")
    ^27.80 1944-09-23: "Directives Agreed by DCAS, RAF, and Lieutenant General Carl Spaatz". Spaatz Collection (Box 15). 23 September 1944. "The German rail and waterborne transportation systems; tank production plants and depots, ordnance depots; and M.T. (motor transport) production plants and depots"  became the secondary priorities. (quoted by Mets note 23, pp. 260,393)
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Ambrose, Stephen E. (2001). The Wild Blue: The Men and boys who flew the B-24s over Germany. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0339-9. 
  35. ^ a b c d e Stout, Jay A (November 2003). Fortress Ploesti: The Campaign to Destroy Hitler's Oil Supply. p. 145,190. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h Speer, Albert (20xx—electronic version) [1970—English version, 1969—German: Erinnerungen (Recollections)]. Inside the Third Reich. Translated by Richard and Clara Winston. New York and Toronto: Macmillan. p. tbd-tbd,348,tbd-tbd,tbd,tbd [1970: 412–3,414,415–7,419,655]. ISBN 978-0-684-82949-4. LCCN 70119132. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 
  37. ^ a b c http://www.milhist.net/usaaf/ploesti.html
  38. ^ a b c d e f D'Olier, Franklin (Chairman); Alexander, Ball, Bowman, Galbraith, Likert, McNamee, Nitze, Russell, Searls, Wright (September 30, 1945). "The Attack on Oil". The United States Strategic Bombing Survey Summary Report (European War). Air University Press. Retrieved 2009-02-10. 
  39. ^ Haines, William (Lt. Col.) (6 June 1945). ULTRA History of U.S. Strategic Air Force Europe vs. German Air Forces, SRH-013.  (cited by Mets, pp. 212,386,392: "copy provided to author by Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. Another copy is in the National Archives". p. 343: "Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. was a member of General Spaatz's staff in England in World War II.")
  40. ^ a b Levine, Alan J (1992). The Strategic Bombing of Germany: 1940-1945. ISBN 9780275943196. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  41. ^ http://orbat.com/site/sturmvogel/ussbsnat.html
  42. ^ "Unipetrol RPA - Rafinérie Litvínov a Kralupy nad Vltavou" (in Czech). chemopetrol.cz. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  43. ^ Levine The strategic bombing of Germany, 1940-1945 p150
  44. ^ a b Strange, Anthony N (2000). "Germany's Synthetic Fuel Industry 1927-45" (pdfFischer.Tropsch.org). The German Chemical Industry in the Twentieth Century—Google books. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 
  45. ^ Bari (1944). Fifteenth Air Force, The Air Battle of Ploieşti. Italy. p. 27.  (cited by Stout p. 137)
  46. ^ The Air Battle of Ploesti Written in the Skies Over Romania by U.S. Fifteenth Air Force and 205 Group (RAF) Between 5 April and 19 August. 941st Engineering Battalion. 1945. p. 108.  (cited by Stout p. 137)
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Bauer, Eddy (original text) (1966) [1972]. Illustrated World War II Encyclopedia. H. S. Stuttman Inc. p. 1478 (Vol 11), 1999 (Vol 15). ISBN 0-87475-520-4. 
  48. ^ Bomber Command Diary June 1944
  49. ^ "Startseite" (in German). Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  50. ^ Coffey, Thomas M. (1977). Decision over Schweinfurt: The U.S. 8th Air Force Battle for Daylight Bombing. New York: David McKay Company. p. 237,241. 
  51. ^ a b c d e Baugher, Joseph F. Encyclopedia of American Aircraft. att.net. 
  52. ^ Boog, Horst; Krebs, Gerhard; Vogel, Detlef (2006-05-04). Germany and the Second World War: Volume VII: The Strategic Air War in Europe and the War in the West and East Asia, 1943-1944/5. ISBN 9780198228899. 
  53. ^ a b c Mets, David R. (1997 - paperback) [1988]. Master of Airpower: General Carl A. Spaatz. pp. 265, 273, 287. 
  54. ^ Infield, Glenn B. (1973). The Poltava Affair: A Russian Warning, An American Tragedy. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. p. 156. LCCN 72093628. 
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  57. ^ http://www.bbw.ro/articol_372/despina_automotive.html
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  68. ^ Galland, Adolf (1968 Ninth Printing - paperbound) [1954—Die Ersten un die Letzten]. The First and the Last: The Rise and Fall of the German Fighter Forces, 1938-1945. New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 210, 224, 239. 
  69. ^ Reyher, Charles R. (tbd). Memoirs of a B-29 Pilot. p. 212. ISBN 978-1-4357-1508-0. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  70. ^ Kopp, Carlo (2007). "The US Air Force Synthetic Fuels Program". Air Power Australia. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
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  72. ^ Chandler, Alfred D., Jr., ed.; Ambrose, Stephen E., assoc. ed. (23 October 1944). "[Eisenhower message to Marshall]". The Papers of Dwight David Eisenhower: The War Years (Baltimore MD: Johns Hopkins): 2247–8.  (cited by Mets note 20, pp. 260,393,406)
  73. ^ a b Aroneanu, Eugène; Whissen, Thomas (1996). Inside the Concentration Camps. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 148,621. ISBN 978-0-275-95446-8. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  74. ^ a b Taylor, Frederick (2005) [2004 - HarperCollins edition]. Dresden, Tuesday, February 13, 1945 (pdf—Google books). London: Bloomsbury. p. 207. ISBN 0-7475-7084-1. 
  75. ^ a b Twining, Nathan (Foreword) (February 1945). "Attack on Vienna: 20 February 1945". Vienna (Lobau) Oil Refinery. Fifteenth Air Force (available at USAHEC). Retrieved 2009-03-11. "UNCLASSIFIED [from SECRET] … on 9 Feb 88" 
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  77. ^ a b De Bruhl, Marshall (2006). Firestorm: Allied Airpower and the Destruction of Dresden. Random House. p. 205. 
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  81. ^ "Ed Miller's Military Page". Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  82. ^ a b c Carter, Kit C.; Mueller, Robert. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Center for Air Force History. p. 661. ISBN 978-1-4289-1543-5. Retrieved 2009-01-10. 
  83. ^ Robert Mueller. Combat Chronology: 1941-1945. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781428915435. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  84. ^ Bill Yenne (2006). B-17 at War. Zenith Imprint. ISBN 9780760325223. Retrieved 2013-10-23. 
  85. ^ Ostendorf, Vernon A., Lt. Col. (Foreword); Powers, James A., Major (Preface) (1946). History of the 3rd Battalion, 338th Regiment, 85th Infantry Division: World War II. Campus Publishing Company. pp. 124–5. 
  86. ^ Wolk, Herman S. (June 1974). Prelude to D-Day: The Bomber Offensive. p. 65.  (cited by Mets note 140, pp. 216,387)

References[edit]