Oymyakon

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Oymyakon (English)
Оймякон (Russian)
Өймөкөөн (Sakha)
-  Rural locality  -
Selo[citation needed]
Oymyakon forests.jpg
Oymyakon in February 2013
Map of Russia - Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic in Russia
Oymyakon is located in Sakha Republic
Oymyakon
Oymyakon
Location of Oymyakon in the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic
Coordinates: 63°27′39″N 142°47′09″E / 63.46083°N 142.78583°E / 63.46083; 142.78583Coordinates: 63°27′39″N 142°47′09″E / 63.46083°N 142.78583°E / 63.46083; 142.78583
Administrative status
Country Russia
Federal subject Sakha Republic
Administrative district Oymyakonsky District[citation needed]
Municipal status
Municipal district Oymyakonsky Municipal District[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (July 17, 2011 est.) 500 inhabitants[1]
Time zone VLAT (UTC+10:00)[2]
Postal code(s)[3] 678752
Dialing code(s) +7 41154[citation needed]
Oymyakon on WikiCommons

Oymyakon (Russian: Оймяко́н, Sakha: Өймөкөөн, Öymököön) is a rural locality (a selo) in Oymyakonsky District of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located along the Indigirka River, 30 kilometers (19 mi) northwest of Tomtor on the Kolyma Highway.

Etymology[edit]

It is named after the Oymyakon River, whose name reportedly comes from the Even word kheium, meaning 'unfrozen patch of water; place where fish spend the winter'.[4] However, another source states that the Even word heyum (hэjум) (kheium may be a misspelling) means 'frozen lake'.[5]

Geography[edit]

Oymyakon, population 500, is in eastern Yakutia at approximately 750 meters above sea level. At the village's northerly position, day length varies from 3 hours in December to 21 hours in June.

History[edit]

During World War II an airfield was built here for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front.[6]

Climate[edit]

With an extreme subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dwd), Oymyakon is known as one of the candidates for the Northern Pole of Cold, the other being the town of Verkhoyansk. The ground there is permanently frozen (continuous permafrost).

On February 6, 1933, a temperature of −67.7 °C (−90 °F) was recorded at Oymyakon's weather station.[7][8][9] This is, along with the same reading at Verkhoyansk, the lowest recorded temperature for any permanently inhabited location on Earth. It is also the lowest temperature recorded in the Northern Hemisphere.[8] Only Antarctica has recorded lower official temperatures (the lowest being −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), recorded at Vostok Station on 21 July 1983.)[10][11]

The weather station is in a valley between Oymyakon and Tomtor. The station is at 750 meters (2,460 ft) and the surrounding mountains at 1,100 meters (3,600 ft), causing cold air to pool in the valley: in fact, recent studies show that winter temperatures in the area increase with altitude by as much as 10°C (18°F).[12]

Sometimes the temperature drops below 0 °C (32 °F) in late September and may remain negative until mid-May. In Oymyakon sometimes the average minimum temperature for January, February and December remains below −50 °C (−58 °F). Sometimes summer months can also be quite cold, but June and July are the only months where temperature has never dropped below −10 °C (14 °F). Oymyakon and Verkhoyansk are the only two permanently inhabited places in the world that have recorded temperatures below −60.0 °C (−76 °F) for every day in January.[13][14]

Oymyakon has never recorded an above freezing temperature between October 25 and March 17. [15]

Although winters in Oymyakon are long and excessively cold, summers are mild, sometimes with hot, and very hot, days. The warmest month on record is July 2010 with an average temperature of +18.7 °C (65.7 °F).[citation needed] In June, July and August temperatures over 30 °C (86 °F) are not rare during the day. On July 28, 2010, Oymyakon recorded a record high temperature of 34.6 °C (94 °F),[16] yielding a temperature range of 102.3 °C (184.1 °F). Verkhoyansk and Yakutsk are the only other places in the world with a temperature amplitude higher than 100 °C (180 °F).[citation needed]

The climate is quite dry, but as average monthly temperatures are below freezing for 7 months of the year, substantial evaporation occurs only in summer months. Summers are much wetter than winters.

Climate data for Oymyakon
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −16.6
(2.1)
−12.5
(9.5)
2.0
(35.6)
11.7
(53.1)
26.2
(79.2)
31.1
(88)
34.6
(94.3)
33.1
(91.6)
23.7
(74.7)
11.3
(52.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
−6.5
(20.3)
34.6
(94.3)
Average high °C (°F) −44.1
(−47.4)
−37.2
(−35)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
9.4
(48.9)
18.9
(66)
23.3
(73.9)
18.4
(65.1)
8.5
(47.3)
−8.5
(16.7)
−30
(−22)
−41.1
(−42)
−8.8
(16.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −47.4
(−53.3)
−43.3
(−45.9)
−30.1
(−22.2)
−12.8
(9)
3.3
(37.9)
12.3
(54.1)
15.8
(60.4)
10.9
(51.6)
2.4
(36.3)
−14.2
(6.4)
−34.2
(−29.6)
−44.4
(−47.9)
−15.1
(4.8)
Average low °C (°F) −51.4
(−60.5)
−50
(−58)
−40
(−40)
−24.7
(−12.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
3.3
(37.9)
6.2
(43.2)
2.2
(36)
−4.1
(24.6)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−39.3
(−38.7)
−48.5
(−55.3)
−22.6
(−8.7)
Record low °C (°F) −65.4
(−85.7)
−67.7
(−89.9)
−60.6
(−77.1)
−46.4
(−51.5)
−28.9
(−20)
−9.7
(14.5)
−9.3
(15.3)
−17.1
(1.2)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−47.6
(−53.7)
−58.5
(−73.3)
−62.8
(−81)
−67.7
(−89.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 6
(0.24)
7
(0.28)
5
(0.2)
6
(0.24)
13
(0.51)
34
(1.34)
45
(1.77)
39
(1.54)
23
(0.91)
14
(0.55)
12
(0.47)
8
(0.31)
215
(8.46)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 10 8 5 12 12 12 12 10 11 15 12 131
Mean monthly sunshine hours 34 120 251 315 298 309 322 248 141 130 66 16 2,250
Source #1: Погода и Климат,[17] February record low[8] February record high[18]
Source #2: Climate & Temperature (precipitation days and sunshine hours)[19]

In the media[edit]

Oymyakon has been featured in a number of television series:

  • The episode "The Winter's Tale" of the 1996 PBS weather documentary series Savage Skies.
  • The season two episode "Siberia" of the documentary series World's Most Dangerous Roads.
  • Oxford geographer Nick Middleton's television series and accompanying book Going to Extremes, in which he discusses his visit to this village and describes ways in which inhabitants cope with the extreme cold. Middleton describes how Oymyakon lies between two mountain ranges, trapping cold air between throughout the year.[20] In the winter, once every two days, the village's cattle's herd bull was harnessed between the shafts of a sledge with a big water tank on it and led to the spring. The men broke the ice on the spring, let the bull drink its fill, filled the water tank from the spring, and let the bull pull the tanker sledge back into the warm. The water spring was naturally warm and so stayed liquid below the surface ice.
  • Cameraman Geoff Mackley along with Rachael Wilson and Mark Whetu from New Zealand, made an episode for Discovery Channel series Dangerman. They were accompanied by translator Rob Walker (USA) and Vyacheslav Ipatiev (TourServiceCenter). Geoff rode the water bull to the spring, and spent a night outside in a tent.[21][22]
  • The episode "Hot and Cold" in the 2010 BBC series Extreme World features the village.[23]
  • The episode "Chilling Out" in the 1 April 2012 Episode of Australia's "60 Minutes".[24]
  • The travel series Departures Season 3 Episode 2 "Russia: The Bull of Winter" March 13, 2010. Travelers Scott Wilson and Justin Lukach, Director of Photography/Director Andre Dupuis, Translator Bogdan Almazov.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Coldest Inhabited Place on Earth: Oymyakon, Russia". Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  2. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  3. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  4. ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998, p. 307.
  5. ^ Tsintsius, V. I. (1977), Сравнительный словарь тунгусо-маньчжурских языков : материалы к этимологическому словарю 2, Leningrad: Nauka, p. 361 
  6. ^ Lebedev, Igor Aviation Lend-Lease to Russia Nova Publishers (1997) pp.44-49
  7. ^ N.A. Stepanova. "On the Lowest Temperatures on Earth". 
  8. ^ a b c "Northern Hemisphere: Lowest Temperature". WMO. Retrieved 2010-06-19. 
  9. ^ Herrera, Maximiliano. "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  10. ^ "World:Lowest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  11. ^ "Global Weather & Climate Extremes". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 4 February 2014. 
  12. ^ See Response of glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Range, eastern Siberia
  13. ^ Погода и Климат.
  14. ^ Погода и Климат.
  15. ^ http://www.pogodaiklimat.ru/monitor.php?id=24688&month=10&year=2013
  16. ^ Погода и Климат (раздел Климатический монитор)
  17. ^ Погода и Климат. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
  18. ^ "Погода в Оймяконе. Температура воздуха и осадки. Февраль 2014 г.". www.pogodaiklimat.ru. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  19. ^ Oymyakon Climate Guide to the Average Weather & Temperatures with Graphs Elucidating Sunshine and Rainfall Data & Information about Wind Speeds & Humidity. Retrieved November 5, 2011
  20. ^ Bijal P. Trivedi, Life Is a Chilling Challenge in Subzero Siberia, National Geographic Channel, May 12, 2004.
  21. ^ Travel notes, RamboCam, retrieved February 2010.
  22. ^ Cold Pole of North, Yakutia Travel, retrieved February 2010.
  23. ^ "Extreme world - How great are the world's divides?". BBC News. November 25, 2010. 
  24. ^ Channel Nine Australia - 60 Minutes - Chilling Out
  25. ^ "Episode Guide". Departures. Retrieved 21 July 2014. 

External links[edit]