Oium

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The orange area is the Chernyakhov/Santana de Mureṣ culture, and the red area is the extent of the Wielbark culture in the 3rd century. The dark pink area is Gotland and the green area is the traditional extent of Götaland. The purple area is the Roman Empire

Oium or Aujum was a name for an area in Scythia, where arguably the Goths under their king Filimer settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551.[1][2][3][4] Jordanes does not give the etymology, but many scholars interpret this word as a dative plural to the widespread Germanic words *aujō- or *auwō- and means "well-watered meadow" or "island".[2][3]

According to some historians, Jordanes' account of the Goths' history in Oium was constructed from his reading of earlier classical accounts and from oral tradition.[5][6] According to other historians, Jordanes' narrative has little relation to Cassiodorus,'[7] no relation to oral traditions,[8] and little relation to actual history.[9]

Archaeologically, the Chernyakhov culture also named Santana de Mureṣ contained parts of Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania corresponds with Gothic Scythia.[10]

Jordanes[edit]

Settlement[edit]

Jordanes states that king Filimer led the Goths in a search for suitable lands and when they arrived in Oium, they were delighted with the richness of the land. They crossed a bridge to get there, but when half the army[11] had made it across, the bridge fell into ruin, and so no one else could pass into the area anymore. According to Jordanes, the Goths claimed the land for themselves and defeated the previous inhabitants, the Spali.[12]

The Goths left Oium in a second migration to Moesia, Dacia and Thrace, but eventually returned, settling north of the Black Sea. Upon their return, they were divided under two ruling dynasties. The Visigoths were ruled by the Balþi and the Ostrogoths by the Amali. This account fits the patterns of the Wielbark culture and the Chernyakhov culture/Santana de Mureṣ, which show a Germanic migration from the Vistula Basin to Ukraine.[13]

Merger with Scythian, Dacian, Thracian and Hittite history from classic sources[edit]

Jordanes wrote (erroneously) that “Getae (Dacians) are the same with Goths, on the testimony of Orosius Paulus” [14]

Jordanes wrote that the Goths were descendents of Scythians and Thracians and thus had the same history. According to Jordanes, their royal line had originated near the sea of Azov, then moved northward toward Scandzia where they established a separate priest-king line on the island of Gotland.[citation needed]

Jordanes also merges Hittite history with that of the Goths, writing that a "Gothic" king Tanausis fought Vesosis, the king of Egypt in a battle at the river of Phasis and then pursued the Egyptians all the way back to Egypt.[15] Classical writers used the name Phasis to refer both to the Rioni River in Georgia, and to the Aras River, especially its upper reaches in what is now eastern Turkey.

After Tanausis death, the Goths were said to have embarked on another expedition, and a neighbouring tribe tried to kidnap the Gothic women. However, the women defended themselves and defeated the attackers under the leaders Lampedo and Marpesia. The two leaders cast lots, and Marpesia pursued the enemy into Asia where she conquered many tribes and apparently formed the Amazons.[16]

The story continues with the Gothic (Getic) king Antyrus, also known as Dromihete, being approached by Darius I, the king of Persia who wanted to conquer Dacia for its gold and rich land. However Dromihete (Antyrus) defeated and captured Darius. Instead of killing Darius, Dromihete invited Darius and his generals to sit down and eat all together. The meal for Darius and his generals was served in gold plates whilst the meal for Dromihete and his men in wooden plates. When Darius asked why he chose wooden plates, Dromihete answers that this is just to show Darius his generosity for everyone coming as a guest-visitor. By eating from the wooden plates, Dromihete wanted to show that there is nothing of value in Dacia. Darius left and years later, Xerxes I of Persia (who defeated the Spartans at Thermopylae) came back to revenge his father. He was also defeated by the Dacian (later Romanian) warriors. Even though these wars are well known in the Romanian history and culture, they were never made explicitly clear to the public outside Dacia (Romania). None of the attacks are described as being successful.[17]

At another point in the narrative, Philip II allied with the Goths by marrying Medopa who was the daughter of king Gudila. However, Philip needed gold and wanted to pillage the town of Odessos, a town belonging to the Goths. The Goths sent out their goðis who were dressed in white and played harps, chanting to their gods to help them. This stunned the Macedonians so much that they returned.[18]

According to Jordanes, a king named Sitalces wanted revenge much later, and gathered 150 000 men to attack the Athenians. He fought Perdiccas II, whom Alexander I had left as a ruler, and the Goths laid Greece waste.[19]

When Burebista was king, he had a priest named Decaeneus. He gave the Goths (Getae) (Dacians) laws, named bi-lageineis, taught them logic, philosophy and astrology. Then he selected a priestly elite who was taught theology and named them the Pilleati. The remainder of the Goths (Dacian) were called the Capillati.[20]

Julius Caesar tried to subdue the Goths (Dacians) without success, and the Goths (Dacians) also remained free during the reign of Tiberius.[20]

When Decaeneus was dead, Comosicus took his place, and after Comosicus, Scoryllus ruled the Goths-Getae in Dacia.[20]

A long time passed and the Romans were ruled by Emperor Domitian (A.D. 81-96). Domitian was set to conquer Dacia. As the Goths-Getae (historically, the Dacians) feared his avarice, they broke the truce with the Romans and pillaged the banks of the Danube and killed the soldiers and the generals. At this time Diurpaneus (king Duras-Diurpaneus of Dacia 69–86 or Decebalus who ruled 87-106) was king of the Goths-Getae (today Romania) and Oppius Sabinus was the governor of Moesia (having succeeded Fontejus Agrippa) (69–70). In 85 when Oppius Sabinus tried to conquer Dacians, the Goths (Dacians) beheaded Oppius Sabinus and plundered many Roman cities and fortifications. Domitian arrived with the legions to Illyria and sent Fuscus with a selected force. Fuscus used boats to build a pontoon bridge and crossed the Danube upstream from the Goths. The Gothic army defeated the Romans yet again, killed Fuscus and pillaged the Roman camp (86 AD). Several Romanian and American historians wrote about Jordanes' errors when considering that Getae were Goths.[21] [22] [23] [24]

The Goths' history[edit]

After this use of Dacian, Thracian and Scythian history, Jordanes returns to Gothic tradition by reciting the line of descent of the Gothic royal family from Gapt (Gaut or Odin).

This digression is followed by a statement that the Goths entered Moesia and Thrace in the late 2nd century where they stayed for some time. Based on Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, he writes that Emperor Maximinus Thrax (235 AD - 238 AD) was the son of a Goth who arrived at this time and an Alan woman.

Norse mythology[edit]

In the Hervarar saga, there is an account of Gothic legendary history and of battles with the Huns, and it may have been composed by Geats in southern Sweden, who have a prominent place in the poetry.[25] The saga conveys names of historical places in Ukraine during the period c. 150-450,[26] and they comprise for instance a form of the name for the Carpathians which most scholars agree is "a relic of extremely ancient tradition".[27] The Goths' capital is called Árheimar and is located on the Danpar (Dniepr). The place name Árheimar has been connected to the name Oium by both Heinzel and Schütte.[28]

In this legend, the Scandinavian Heidrek usurps the Gothic throne in Reidgotaland. Heidrek appears to establish a first contact with the Huns by kidnapping the Hun Princess Sifka, raping her and sending her back to the Huns pregnant with Hlöd. When Heidrek dies in the Carpathians, his son Angantyr succeeds him. However, his second son Hlöd, who had grown up with the Huns, claims his inheritance and attacks with a Hunnish horde comprising 187 200 mounted warriors.

The Goths are aided by the old Geatish king Gizur, and the war ends in an epic battle on the plains of the Danube, when Angantyr slays his brother Hlod.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jordanes, Getica, chapter IV (25) (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  2. ^ a b LISTSERV 14.4
  3. ^ a b Green, Dennis Howard (1998). Language and History in the Early Germanic World. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-79423-4, p.167.
  4. ^ Merrills, Andrew H. (2005). History and Geography in Late Antiquity. Cambridge University, ISBN 0-521-84601-3, p.120: "The term may, of course, have been a simple invention of Jordanes or Cassiodorus, intended to lend a witty verisimilitude to a knowingly derivative origin myth."
  5. ^ Merrills, Andrew H. (2005). History and Geography in Late Antiquity. Cambridge University, ISBN 0-521-84601-3, p.120: "The influence of oral tradition in this passage [the passage introducing Oium] is palpable. Classical and scriptural parallels for the over-population motif, the Arcadian description of the Scythian Canaan and the broken bridge image do suggest that Gothic migration stories had not survived uncontaminated by contact with the Mediterranean world, but they remain recognizably the tropes of oral tradition", and p. 121: "Jerome and Orosius had identified the relatively unfamiliar Goths with the Scythian Getae of ancient historiography. [...] In the wake of this authority, the identification of Oium could be made with little comment".
  6. ^ Wolfram, Herwig (2006). "Gothic history as historical ethnography" and Origo et religio: ethnic traditions and literature in early medieval texts". In From Roman Provinces to Medieval Kingdoms. Ed. Thomas F. X. Noble, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-32741-5, pp. 43-90.
  7. ^ Amory, Patrick: People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy 489-554, pp. 36 & 292.
    Kulikowski, Michael: Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 50-51.
  8. ^ Amory, Patrick: People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy 489-554, p. 295: "It is a mistake to think that any of the material in the Getica comes from oral tradition."
  9. ^ Kulikowski, Michael: Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 66.
  10. ^ On the identification of Oium with the Sintana de Mures/Chernyakhov culture-area:
    Green, D. H.: Language and history in the early Germanic world, pp. 167-168.
    On the extent of the Sintana de Mures/Chernyakhov culture and its identification with the Goths:
    Heather, Peter and Matthews, John: Goths in the Fourth Century, pp. 50-52 & 88-92
    Kulikowski, Michael: Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 62-63.
    Note that Kulikowski has criticized the use of the Getica as a source for the period; Kulikowski, Michael: Rome's Gothic Wars, p. 66.
  11. ^ Translation per Merrills, p. 120: "he decided that the army of the Goths with their families should move from that region [...] and it is said that when half the army had been brought over, the bridge whereby they had crossed the river fell into utter ruin."
  12. ^ Jordanes, Mierow, ed., Getica IV (27) 
  13. ^ Heather, Peter J. (1999). The Visigoths from the Migration Period to the Seventh Century. Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 0-85115-762-9, p. 16.
  14. ^ THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS by JORDANES - translated by Charles C. Mierow
  15. ^ Jordanes, Getica, chapter VI (47) (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  16. ^ Jordanes, Getica, chapter VII (49) (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  17. ^ Jordanes, Getica, chapter X (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  18. ^ Jordanes, Getica, chapter X (65) (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  19. ^ Jordanes, Getica, chapter X (66) (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  20. ^ a b c Jordanes, Getica, chapter XI (67) (link to translation by Mierow, 1915)
  21. ^ Walter Goffart, The Narrators of Barbarian History, Princeton 1988, p. 70.
  22. ^ Pârvan, Vasile (1928). Dacia: An Outline of the Early Civilization of the Carpatho-Danubian Countries. The University Press
  23. ^ Oțetea, Andrei (1970). The History of the Romanian people. Scientific Pub. Hoose.
  24. ^ Ioan Bolovan, Florin Constantiniu, Paul E. Michelson, Ioan Aurel Pop, Christian Popa, Marcel Popa, Kurt Treptow, A History of Romania, Intl Specialized Book Service Inc. 1997
  25. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). The origin of Rus'. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4 p. 198
  26. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). The origin of Rus'. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4 p. 214
  27. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). The origin of Rus'. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4 p. 199
  28. ^ Pritsak, Omeljan. (1981). The origin of Rus'. Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by Harvard University Press for the Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute. ISBN 0-674-64465-4 p. 209

External links[edit]