Ojibwe dialects

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The Ojibwe language is spoken in a series of dialects occupying adjacent territories, forming a language complex in which mutual intelligibility between adjacent dialects may be comparatively high but declines between some non-adjacent dialects. Mutual intelligibility between some non-adjacent dialects, notably Ottawa, Severn Ojibwe, and Algonquin, is low enough that they could be considered distinct languages. There is no single dialect that is considered the most prestigious or most prominent, and no standard writing system that covers all dialects. The relative autonomy of the regional dialects of Ojibwe is associated with an absence of linguistic or political unity among Ojibwe-speaking groups.

The general name for the language in Ojibwe is /anɪʃɪnaːpeːmowɪn/, written in one common orthography as Anishinaabemowin and as ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ in 'Eastern' syllabics, with local pronunciation and spelling variants, and in some cases distinctive local names for particular dialects. The dialects of Ojibwe are spoken in Canada from western Québec, through Ontario, Manitoba and parts of Saskatchewan, with outlying communities in Alberta and British Columbia,[1][2] and in the United States from Michigan through Wisconsin and Minnesota, with a number of communities in North Dakota and Montana, as well as migrant groups in Kansas and Oklahoma.[2][3] The dialects of Ojibwe are divided into distinctive northern and southern groups, with intervening transition dialects that have a mixture of features from the adjacent dialects.

This article lays out the general structure of Ojibwe dialectology, with links to separate articles on each dialect. The Potawatomi language is closely related to Ojibwe; information is at Ojibwe language: Relationship of Ojibwe and Potawatomi. An Ojibwe pidgin language is discussed at Ojibwe language: Broken Ogghibbeway, and the use of various dialects of Ojibwe as lingua franca is at Ojibwe language: Lingua franca. Ojibwe borrowed words are found in Menominee and Michif; for discussion see Ojibwe language: Ojibwe influence on other languages.

Classification[edit]

The subgrouping of Ojibwe dialects based on lexical innovations and mutual intelligibility (rather than morphology or pronunciation). EOj = Eastern Ojibwe; SWOj = Southwestern Ojibwe; COj = Central Ojibwe; NWOj = North(western) Ojibwe.[4]

The recognized dialects of Ojibwe are spoken in the region surrounding the Great Lakes, in Ontario, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, with other groups of speakers in western Québec in the area along the Québec-Ontario border, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and a few communities in Alberta, North Dakota, Montana, British Columbia, Oklahoma and Kansas.[5] While there is some variation in the classification of Ojibwe dialects, at a minimum the following are recognized, proceeding west to east: Western Ojibwe (Saulteaux), Southwestern Ojibwe (Chippewa), Northwestern Ojibwe, Severn Ojibwe (Oji-Cree), Ottawa (Odawa), Eastern Ojibwe, and Algonquin. Field research conducted in the 1980s and 1990s led to the recognition of several other dialects: (a) Berens Ojibwe along the Berens River in northwestern Ontario, to be distinguished from Northwestern Ojibwe; (b) Border Lakes Ojibwe, in western Ontario in the area bounded by the borders of Ontario, Manitoba, and Minnesota; (c) North of (Lake) Superior; and (d) Nipissing. Some sources recognize a Central Ojibwe dialect,[5][6] covering approximately the same territory as North of (Lake) Superior and Nipissing. In this article the analysis in which Central Ojibwe is not recognized is accepted.[7]

Two analyses of the relationships between the Ojibwe dialects are in agreement on the assignment of the strongly differentiated Ottawa dialect to a separate subgroup, and the assignment of Severn Ojibwe and Algonquin to another subgroup, and differ primarily with respect to the relationships between the less strongly differentiated dialects. Rhodes and Todd recognize several different dialectal subgroupings within Ojibwe: (a) Ottawa; (b) Severn and Algonquin; (c) a third subgroup which is further divided into (i) a subgrouping of Northwestern Ojibwe and Saulteaux, and a subgrouping consisting of Eastern Ojibwe and a further subgrouping comprising Southwestern Ojibwe and Central Ojibwe (see figure, this section).[8]

Valentine has proposed that Ojibwe dialects are divided into three groups: a northern tier consisting of Severn Ojibwe and Algonquin; a southern tier consisting of "Odawa, Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwe, the Ojibwe of the Border Lakes region between Minnesota and Ontario, and Saulteaux; and third, a transitional zone between these two polar groups, in which there is a mixture of northern and southern features."[9] In this article the classification proposed by Valentine is utilized for the classification and subgrouping of Ojibwe dialects.

The distinction between the northern and southern dialect groupings is argued to "align to some extent with traditional subsistence patterns, in that the southern groups typically harvested maple sugar and wild rice, allowing for population aggregations that promoted such social institutions as medicine societies and totemic clan structures."[10] Similarly, northern groups have made most extensive use of northern "waterways that flow into James and Hudson Bays, while southern groups were situated on the Great Lakes, Huron and Superior."[10]

Ojibwe dialects are distinguished by features of phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon. Some dialects, most notably Severn Ojibwe, Algonquin, and Ottawa are characterized by many distinct features; such extensive differentiation is associated with lengthy "periods of isolation from other varieties of Ojibwe".[11] Dialects that are adjacent to strongly differentiated dialects may show a mixture of transitional features.[12] For example, the Border Lakes dialect is not strongly distinguished from the adjacent Western Ojibwe (Saulteaux) and Southwestern Ojibwe (Chippewa) dialects, and is characterized by the "grading of a few minor features."[13]

In some situations there is a mismatch between speakers' self-designations and what is supported by linguistic data.[14] For example, the communities at Golden Lake, Ontario and Maniwaki, Quebec are described by speakers at those locations as members of the Algonquin dialect, although linguistically both are distinct from the clearly Algonquin communities north of those locations, and are assigned to the Nipissing dialect.[15]

The degree of mutually intelligibility between nonadjacent dialects of Ojibwe varies considerably; recent research has helped to show the extent of the distance between Ottawa and the maximally different Severn Ojibwe dialect spoken in northwestern Ontario.[16] Because the dialects of Ojibwe are at least partly mutually intelligible, Ojibwe is usually considered to be a single language with a number of dialects.[17] However, the relatively low degrees of mutual intelligibility between some nonadjacent Ojibwe dialects led to the suggestion that Ojibwe "...could be said to consist of several languages...".[18]

Northern dialects[edit]

The Northern dialects of Ojibwe are Severn Ojibwe and Algonquin; they are strongly differentiated from other dialects of Ojibwe. A set of features characterise the northern dialects, and are found to varying degrees in adjacent transition dialects.[16]

Severn Ojibwe[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: OJS (Severn Ojibwe)

Severn Ojibwe, also called Oji-Cree or Northern Ojibwa, and Anihshininiimowin in the language itself, is spoken in northern Ontario and northern Manitoba. Although there is a significant increment of vocabulary borrowed from several Cree dialects, Severn Ojibwe is a dialect of Ojibwe.[16] Two minor sub-dialects have been identified: Big Trout Lake, and Deer Lake, with Big Trout Lake being further subdivided into a Severn subgroup and a Winisk River subgroup.[19] Severn Ojibwe is primarily written by its speakers using the Cree syllabary.[20]

Algonquin[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: ALQ (Algonquin)
Main article: Algonquin language

The Algonquin dialect of Ojibwe is spoken in communities in northwestern Quebec and eastern Ontario (to be distinguished from the name of the Algonquian language family). Algonquin is spoken along the Ottawa River valley east of the Quebec-Ontario border, centered around Lake Abitibi. Recognized Algonquin communities include: Amos (Pikogan), Cadillac, Grand Lac Victoria, Hunter's Point, Kipawa (Eagle Village), Notre Dame du Nord (Timiskaming), Rapid Lake (Barriere Lake), Rapid Sept, Lac Simon, Québec, Winneway (Long Point).[21] The communities of Grand Lac Victoria (Kitcisakik) on Grand Lac Victoria and Lac Rapide on Cabonga Reservoir are within La Vérendrye Wildlife Reserve, a provincial park in Québec.

Algonquin is sometimes referred to as 'Northern Algonquin' to distinguish it from the southern communities at Golden Lake, Ontario and Maniwaki, Ontario which have traditionally been grouped with Algonquin, but are here classified as belonging to the Nipissing dialect.[22]

Although speakers of Ojibwe in the community of Kitigan Zibi (also called River Desert and formerly called Maniwaki) at Maniwaki, Québec self-identify as Algonquin, the language spoken there is Nipissing; Maniwaki speakers were among those who migrated from Oka, Quebec.[16] Similarly, the nineteenth-century missionary Grammaire de la language algonquine ('Grammar of the Algonquin language') describes Nipissing speech.[23]

Algonquin is generally written in a French-based orthography in which the acute accent is used to indicate vowel length and the use of several consonant symbols accords with their general French values.[24]

The Nipissing dialect term omàmìwininì 'downriver people' refers to Algonquin speakers,[25][26] with the term for the language being omàmìwininìmowin.[26] The general Algonquin self-designation is Anicinàbe[27] or orthographic equivalent Anishinàbe.[28]

There is support for a Western Algonquin subdialect, extending "…inland from Lake Huron and east of Lake Superior…" toward the Ontario-Québec border. Representative communities from this area include Temagami, Ontario and Biscotasing, Ontario.[29]


Southern dialects[edit]

The southern dialects are presented east to west.

Ottawa[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: OTW (Ottawa)
Main article: Ottawa language

The Ottawa dialect is spoken in southern Ontario and northern Michigan, with main communities on Manitoulin Island, Ontario; at Walpole Island, Ontario; as well as Saugeen and Cape Croker.[30] Ottawa and the neighboring Eastern Ojibwe dialect are characterized by extensive vowel Syncope, which deletes metrically weak short vowels.[16]

The most general term for the Ottawa dialect is Nishnaabemwin, which is also applied to Eastern Ojibwe. The term Daawaamwin '(speaking the) Ottawa language' is also used to refer specifically to Ottawa.[31]

Ottawa is generally written with a version of the Double vowel writing system.[32]

Eastern Ojibwe[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: OJG (Eastern Ojibwe)

The Eastern Ojibwe dialect is spoken east of Georgian Bay, Ontario. The main Eastern Ojibwe communities are Curve Lake, Ontario and Rama, Ontario. Eastern Ojibwe and the neighboring Ottawa dialect are characterized by extensive vowel Syncope, which deletes metrically weak short vowels.

The most general term for the Eastern Ojibwe dialect is Nishnaabemwin, which is also applied to Ottawa. The term Jibwemwin '(speaking the) Ojibwe language' is not restricted to a specific dialect; a recent Eastern Ojibwe dictionary notes that Jibwemwin and Nishnaabemwin are interchangeable.[33]

Eastern Ojibwe is generally written with a version of the Double vowel writing system.[32][34]

Southwestern Ojibwe[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: CIW (Southwestern Ojibwe ("Chippewa"))
Main article: Chippewa language

Southwestern Ojibwe is spoken in Minnesota and Wisconsin.[35][36] This dialect is also referred in English as "Chippewa". The general Ojibwe term Anishinaabemowin is applied to this dialect.[37] Southwestern Ojibwe is most generally written using the Double vowel writing system.[38]

Border Lakes[edit]

There is no Ethnologue entry or ISO 639-3 code for this dialect of Ojibwe.

Border Lakes Ojibwe is spoken in the Lake of the Woods area of Ontario near the borders of Ontario, Minnesota, and Manitoba. Although communities within the Border Lakes area have been considered part of the Saulteaux dialect,[39] current classification treats Border Lakes as a separate dialect in the Southern tier.[16] Communities identified as Border Lakes include Lac La Croix, Emo (Rainy River First Nation), and Whitefish Bay, all in Ontario.[40]

Saulteaux[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: OJW (Plains Ojibwe/Saulteaux ("Western Ojibwe"))

Saulteaux Ojibwe (also Western Ojibwe or Plains Ojibwe) is spoken in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta, with an outlying group in British Columbia. The language is referred to, as written in the local orthography, Anihšināpēmowin, Nahkawēwin,[41] or Nahkawēmowin (as written in the local system).

The writing system commonly used for Saulteaux incorporates the Americanist phonetic symbols /š/ for /ʃ/ and /č/ for /tʃ/; marks long vowels with the macron; writes lenis consonants with voiceless symbols, and writes fortis consonants with /h/ before a lenis consonant, as in the name for the language, Anihšināpēmowin.

Transition dialects[edit]

The transition dialects are listed east to west.

Nipissing communities have sometimes been classified as Eastern Ojibwe,[42][43] but other research notes that several features distinguish the dialect documented at Gitigan Zibi (Maniwaki) from Eastern Ojibwe material documented from the core Eastern Ojibwe communities of Curve Lake and Rama.[44]

Nipissing[edit]

There is no Ethnologue entry or ISO 639-3 code for the Nipissing dialect of Ojibwe.

The Nipissing dialect of Ojibwe is spoken in the area of Lake Nipissing in Ontario. A representative community in the Nipissing dialect area is Golden Lake, although the language is moribund at that location.[45][46] Although speakers of Ojibwe in the community of Kitigan Zibi (also called River Desert) at Maniwaki, Québec self-identify as Algonquin,[47] the language spoken there is Nipissing. Maniwaki speakers were among those who migrated from Oka, Quebec.[16] Similarly, the nineteenth-century missionary Grammaire de la language algonquine ('Grammar of the Algonquin language') describes Nipissing speech.[23]

The term odishkwaagamii 'those at the end of the lake' is attributed to Algonquin speakers as a term for Nipissing dialect speakers, with related odishkwaagamiimowin 'Nipissing language'.[48][49] It is also cited from Ojibwe dialects other than Nipissing or Algonquin with the meaning 'Algonquin Indian', for example from Southwestern Ojibwe;[50] other sources ranging from the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries cite the same form from several different Ojibwe dialects, including Ottawa.[51]

Speakers of this dialect generally use a French-based writing system.[47][52]

North of Superior[edit]

There is no Ethnologue entry or ISO 639-3 code for the North of Superior dialect of Ojibwe.

The North of Superior dialect is spoken on the north shore of Lake Superior in the area to the west and east of Lake Nipigon. Communities include (east to west) Pic Mobert, Pic Heron, Pays Plat, Long Lac, Aroland, Rocky Bay, and Lake Helen, all in Ontario.[53]

Berens River Ojibwe[edit]

There is no Ethnologue entry or ISO 639-3 code for the Berens River dialect of Ojibwe.

Berens River Ojibwe is spoken along the Berens River in northern Ontario. Reported communities include Pikangikum and Poplar Hill, both in Ontario.[54]

Northwestern Ojibwe[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: OJB (Northwestern Ojibwe)

The Northwestern dialect of Ojibwe is spoken approximately from northwest of Lake Nipigon, north of the Lake of the Woods area south of the Berens River to the Manitoba border. Communities identified as Northwestern include (east to west) Armstrong, Osnaburgh House, Cat Lake, Lac Seul, Grassy Narrows, and Red Lake.[40]

Dialect not recognized in this analysis[edit]

Central Ojibwe[edit]

Ethnologue entry and ISO 639-3 code: OJC (Central Ojibwe)

The Central Ojibwe dialect (also known as Central Ojibwe, Ojibway) is recognized in some analyses as a dialect of Ojibwe spoken in Ontario from Lake Nipigon in the west to Lake Nipissing in the east.[43][55] In the analysis accepted in this article Central Ojibwe is not recognized; it is divided into North of (Lake) Superior and Nipissing.[16]

Language code correspondence table[edit]

In literature[edit]

This article and related articles Ethnologue Linguasphere Moseley Glottolog
Potawatomi Northern Potawatomi pot
Potawatomi
62-ADA-d
Ojibwa+
Anissinapek
62-ADA-dc
Potawatomi
Potawatomi[56] ojib1240
Ojibwa-Potawatomi
pota1247
Potawatomi
Southern Potawatomi
Ojibwe Severn Ojibwe Eastern Big Trout oji
Ojibwa
ojs
Ojibwa, Severn
Winisk River Ojibwa 62-ADA-dh
Ojibwa-Northern
62-ADA-dha
Ojibwa-Northeastern
Ojibwe[57] Severn Ojibwe
(Oji-Cree)[58]
ojib1241
Ojibwa
seve1242
Severn-Algonquin
seve1240
Severn Ojibwa
wini1244
Winisk River Ojibwa
Western Big Trout Severn River Ojibwa seve1241
Severn River Ojibwa
Deer Lake
Island Lake 62-ADA-dhb
Ojibwa-Northwestern
Algonquin N/A alq
Algonquin
N/A 62-ADA-db
Anissinapek
Old Algonquin[59] algo1255
Algonquin
N/A
Northern Algonquin Northern Algonquin
(various)
Northern Algonquin[60]
Western Algonquin
Nipissing Ojibwe Maniwaki Algonquin Maniwaki Algonquin Southern Algonquin
(Nipissing Algonquin)[61]
mini1254
Miniwaki
Nipissing Ojibwe oji
Ojibwa
(cont'd)
ojc
Ojibwa, Central
62-ADA-de
Ojibwa-Eastern
Nishnaabemwin[62] Eastern Ojibwe[62] nucl1723
Nuclear Ojibwa
cent2252
Central-Eastern-
Southwestern
Ojibwa
cent2136
Central Ojibwa
North of Superior Ojibwe
Eastern Ojibwe ojg
Ojibwa, Eastern
east2542
Eastern Ojibwa
Ottawa Chippewa-Ottawa otw
Ottawa
62-ADA-dd
Odawa
Ottawa/Odawa[62] otta1242
Ottawa
Ottawa-Ottawa
Broken Ogghibbeway N/A 62-ADA-da
Algonquin-Vehicular
N/A nucl1723
Nuclear Ojibwa
(cont'd)
cent2252
Central-Eastern-
Southwestern
Ojibwa (cont'd)
N/A
Southwestern Ojibwe ciw
Chippewa
Upper Michigan-
Wisconsin
Chippewa
62-ADA-dg
Ojibwa-Southwestern
Southwestern Ojibwe
(Anishinaabemowin)[63]
chip1241
Chippewa
uppe1274
Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa
Central Minnesota Chippewa cent2135
Central Minnesota Chippewa
Minnesota Border Chippewa minn1250
Minnesota Border Chippewa
Red Lake Chippewa redl1238
Red Lake Chippewa
turt1236
Turtle Mountain Chippewa
Saulteaux ojw
Ojibwa, Western
Saulteaux[64] Saulteaux[64] nort3181
Northwestern-Saulteaux Ojibwa
west1510
Western Ojibwa
Border Lakes Ojibwe ojb
Ojibwa, Northwestern
Rainy River Ojibwa 62-ADA-df
Ojibwa-Southern
nort2961
Northwestern Ojibwa
rain1239
Rainy River Ojibwa
Northwestern Ojibwe Lake of the
Woods Ojibwa
lake1257
Lake of the Woods Ojibwa
Lac Seul Ojibwa Northern Ojibwe[64] lacs1238
Lac Seul Ojibwa
Albany River Ojibwa alba1270
Albany River Ojibwa
Berens River Ojibwe Berens River Ojibwa bere1251
Berens River Ojibwa

In regionally specific dictionaries[edit]

This article and related articles Ethnologue Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary
Ojibwe People's Dictionary
Anishinaabe-Ikidowinan Dictionary
Ojibwe Eastern Ojibwe oji
Ojibwa
ojg
Ojibwa, Eastern
[unmarked]
Southern Ojibwa
Oj: Eastern Ojibwa R: Rama
CL: Curve Lake
(CI: Christian Island)
(CT: Chippewa of the Thames)
CC: Cape Croker
Ottawa Chippewa-Ottawa otw
Ottawa
Ot: Chippewa/Ottawa W: Walpole Island
(KP: Kettle Point)
S: Sarnia
BC: Bay City
CV: Cross Village
Ottawa-Ottawa M: Manitoulin
Southwestern Ojibwe ciw
Chippewa
Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa N/A (Upper Peninsula Michigan)
N/A (Northeastern Wisconsin)
RC: Red Cliff
BR: Bad River
LCO: Lac Courte Oreilles
S: South Central Region SC: St. Croix
ML: Mille Lacs (District 3)
Central Minnesota Chippewa C: North Central Minnesota LL: Leech Lake (Central & South)
ML: Mille Lacs (District 1 & 2)
FL: Fond du Lac
WE: White Earth (Central & South)
Minnesota Border Chippewa N: Northern Minnesota N/A (Grand Portage)
BF: Bois Forte
LL: Leech Lake (North)
Red Lake Chippewa RL: Red Lake (Ponemah)
N/A (White Earth (North))
N/A (Turtle Mountain)
Border Lakes Ojibwe ojb
Ojibwa, Northwestern
Rainy River Ojibwa BL: Eastern Canadian Border Lakes LLC: Lac La Croix
NI: Nigigoonsiminikaaning
Northwestern Ojibwe Lake of the Woods Ojibwa N/A (Western Canadian Border Lakes)
Lac Seul Ojibwa [unmarked]
Northwestern Ojibwe
[English River] LS: Lac Seul
      Frenchman's Head
Albany River Ojibwa [Albany River] CL: Cat Lake
Os: Osnaburgh (Mishkeegogamang)
      Slate Falls
Berens River Ojibwe Berens River Ojibwa [Berens River] Pi: Pikangikum
      Poplar Hill

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 6
  2. ^ a b Nichols, John, 1980, pp. 1–2
  3. ^ Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981
  4. ^ Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 62
  5. ^ a b Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 54, Fig. 2
  6. ^ Gordon, Ray, 2005, Ethnologue entry for Central Ojibwa
  7. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 456
  8. ^ Rhodes, Richard and E. Todd, 1981, p. 61, Fig. 5
  9. ^ J. Randolph Valentine, 1994, p. 39
  10. ^ a b Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p 45
  11. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 43–44
  12. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 42
  13. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 41
  14. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 43, 78
  15. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, pp. 32, 78-79
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994
  17. ^ Rhodes, Richard, and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 52
  18. ^ Rhodes, Richard and E. Todd, 1981, p. 52
  19. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 118
  20. ^ Nichols, John. 1996.
  21. ^ Gilstrap, Roger, 1978
  22. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 32
  23. ^ a b Cuoq, Jean André, 1891
  24. ^ McGregor, Ernest, 1987, pp. vii-xi
  25. ^ Cuoq, Jean André, 1896, p. 298
  26. ^ a b McGregor, Ernest, 1987, p. 282
  27. ^ Cuoq, Jean André, 1896, p. 48; Cuoq does not write the accent.
  28. ^ McGregor, Ernest, 1987, p. 41
  29. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 32, 110
  30. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 2001
  31. ^ Baraga, Frederic, 1878, p. 336 gives <Otawamowin>
  32. ^ a b Rhodes, Richard, 1985
  33. ^ Snache, Irene, 2005,
  34. ^ Snache, Irene, 2005, pp. 111–112
  35. ^ Nichols, John, 1980
  36. ^ Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995
  37. ^ Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995, p. 10
  38. ^ Nichols, John and Earl Nyholm, 1995, pp. xxiii-xxviii
  39. ^ Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd, 1981, p. 54, Fig. 2
  40. ^ a b Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 33
  41. ^ Cote, Margaret, 1984
  42. ^ Rhodes, Richard, 1976
  43. ^ a b Rhodes, Richard and Evelyn Todd, 1981
  44. ^ O'Meara, John, 1993
  45. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, p. 110
  46. ^ Day, Gordon, 1978
  47. ^ a b McGregor, Ernest, 1987
  48. ^ Cuoq, Jean André, 1886, p. 314
  49. ^ McGregor, Ernest, 1987, p. 275
  50. ^ Baraga, Frederic, 1878, p. 314
  51. ^ Day, Gordon, 1978, p. 791
  52. ^ Cuoq, Jean Andre, 1886
  53. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 28, 33
  54. ^ Valentine, J. Randolph, 1994, pp. 31, 417-422
  55. ^ Raymond G. Gordon, Jr, ed. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. 15th edition. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  56. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 74
  57. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 70
  58. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 78
  59. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, pp. 25-26
  60. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 68
  61. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, pp. 81-82
  62. ^ a b c Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 67
  63. ^ Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 82
  64. ^ a b c Moseley, Christopher, 2007, p. 77

References[edit]

  • Baraga, Frederic. 1878. A dictionary of the Otchipwe language, explained in English. A new edition, by a missionary of the Oblates. Part I, English-Otchipwe; Part II, Otchipwe-English. Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois. Reprint (in one volume), Minneapolis: Ross and Haines, 1966, 1973.
  • Bloomfield, Leonard. 1958. Eastern Ojibwa: Grammatical sketch, texts and word list. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Cappel, Constance.(editor), 2007. Odawa Language and Legends: Andrew J. Blackbird and Raymond Kiogima, Philadelephia, PA: Xlibris Corp.
  • Cote, Margaret. 1984. Nahkawēwin: Saulteaux (Ojibway dialect of the Plains). Regina SK: Saskatchewan Indian Federated College.
  • Cuoq, Jean André. 1886. Lexique de la langue algonquine. Montréal: J. Chapleau.
  • Cuoq, Jean André. 1891. Grammaire de la langue algonquine. Société royale du Canada, Mémoires 9(1): 85-114; 10(1): 41-119.
  • Day, Gordon. 1978. "Nipissing." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, pp. 786–791. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004575-4
  • Day, Gordon and Bruce Trigger. 1978. "Algonquin." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, pp. 792–797. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004575-4
  • Gilstrap, Roger. 1978. Algonquin dialect relationships in northwestern Quebec. National Museum of Man Mercury Series. Canadian Ethnology Service Paper No. 44. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. ISSN 0316-1862
  • Goddard, Ives. 1978. "Central Algonquian Languages." Bruce Trigger, ed., Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 15, Northeast, pp. 583–587. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-004575-4
  • Goddard, Ives. 1979. “Comparative Algonquian.” Lyle Campbell and Marianne Mithun, eds, The languages of Native America, pp. 70–132. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-74624-5
  • Goddard, Ives. 1994. "The West-to-East Cline in Algonquian Dialectology." William Cowan, ed., Papers of the 25th Algonquian Conference, pp. 187–211. Ottawa: Carleton University. ISSN 0031-5671
  • Goddard, Ives. 1996. "Introduction." Ives Goddard, ed., The Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 17. Languages, pp. 1–16. Washington, D.C.: The Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-16-048774-9
  • Gordon Jr., Raymond. 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition. Ethnologue entry for Central Ojibwa. Retrieved May 31, 2009. Dallas: SIL International. ISBN 978-1-55671-159-6
  • McGregor, Ernest. 1987. Algonquin lexicon. Maniwaki, QC: River Desert Education Authority.
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