Oka, Quebec

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Oka
Ganehsada:geh
Municipality
Oka village and Lake of Two Mountains as seen from Mount Oka
Oka village and Lake of Two Mountains as seen from Mount Oka
Location within Deux-Montagnes RCM.
Location within Deux-Montagnes RCM.
Oka is located in Central Quebec
Oka
Oka
Location in central Quebec.
Coordinates: 45°28′N 74°05′W / 45.467°N 74.083°W / 45.467; -74.083Coordinates: 45°28′N 74°05′W / 45.467°N 74.083°W / 45.467; -74.083[1]
Country  Canada
Province  Quebec
Region Laurentides
RCM Deux-Montagnes
Settled 1721
Constituted September 8, 1999
Government[2]
 • Mayor Richard Lalonde
 • Federal riding Argenteuil—Papineau—Mirabel
 • Prov. riding Mirabel
Area[2][3]
 • Total 85.90 km2 (33.17 sq mi)
 • Land 57.30 km2 (22.12 sq mi)
Population (2011)[3]
 • Total 3,969
 • Density 69.3/km2 (179/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006-2011 Increase 20.3%
 • Dwellings 1,633
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s) J0N 1E0
Area code(s) 450 and 579
Highways Route 344
Website www.municipalite.oka.qc.ca
Oka waterfront

Oka (Cayuga: Ganehsada:geh [4]) is a Canadian village on the northern bank of the Ottawa River (Rivière des Outaouais in French), northwest of Montreal, Quebec. Located in the Lower Laurentians on Lake of Two Mountains, the main thoroughfare through town is Quebec Route 344. It was originally settled by Europeans in 1721 by the Sulpician Order branch of the Roman Catholic Church.

History[edit]

The area was inhabited for thousands of years by cultures of First Nations peoples. At the time of European contact, when Montreal was founded, the Mohawk Nation, an Iroquoian-speaking people based in upstate New York, used this territory as a hunting ground.

The Sulpician Order established a Roman Catholic mission and trading post at what became the adjacent Kanesatake. The Mohawk made this a new base and were granted a nine-mile square portion of land by the French king in 1716. The Sulpician Order was granted a narrow strip next to theirs. Unhappy with that, they arranged a change to the grant without informing the Mohawk.

A niobium mine (also known as columbium) was operated just off the Ste-Sophie road not far from the Trappist monastery.

Oka Crisis[edit]

Main article: Oka Crisis

In 1990, the small community gained international attention in what became known as the Oka Crisis. During a 78-day confrontation, the Quebec Police Force (and later national army units) were opposed to members of the Mohawk nation of the adjacent community of Kanesatake, who had barricaded the dirt road to the land. Numerous members of the Mohawk nation, First Nations and Native American tribes came to Kanesatake from other areas to show support. In addition, for several weeks, Mohawk at Kahnawake blockaded the approach to the Mercier Bridge, which ran through their land.

The Mohawk were protesting the city of Oka's decision to develop a pine grove and cemetery for another nine holes of a private golf course and new luxury housing. The Mohawk considered this land sacred, as they had traditionally used it. Standing tombstones marked their ancestors' graves. Several years before they had lost a land claim court case in which they tried to retrieve this historic land, taken by deception by the French Sulpician Order in the 18th century and later sold.

Attractions[edit]

In the summertime, the community's long stretch of beachfront along the Ottawa River and the Lake of Two Mountains and marina draw people from Montreal and neighboring cities to the area. Another attraction is the Abbey of Notre-Dame du Lac, famous for its Oka cheese produced by Trappists monks living at the monastery.

A small ferry service operates between Oka and the town of Hudson across the Ottawa River; this is replaced by a toll ice bridge during the winter months.[5] There is also connection with the AMT Deux-Montagnes Train to and from Montreal's Central Station and Deux-Montagnes Station by the OKA Express mini-bus.[6]

Demographics[edit]

Population trend:[7]

  • Population in 2011: 3969 (2006 to 2011 population change: 20.3%)
  • Population in 2006: 3300
  • Population in 2001: 3194
  • Population in 1996:
    • Oka (municipality): 1514
    • Oka (parish): 1498
  • Population in 1991:
    • Oka (municipality): 1658
    • Oka (parish): 1656

Private dwellings occupied by usual residents: 1546 (total dwellings: 1633)

Mother tongue:

  • French as first language: 92.3%
  • English as first language: 4%
  • English and French as first language: 1.2%
  • Other as first language: 2.5%

Education[edit]

The Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Îles (CSSMI) operates French language public schools.[8]

Schools include:

The Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board (SWLSB) operates Anglophone public schools. Mountainview Elementary School and Saint Jude Elementary School, both in Deux-Montagnes, serve this community.[10][11]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Oka
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13
(55)
14
(57)
25.6
(78.1)
30
(86)
32.8
(91)
35
(95)
36.1
(97)
35.6
(96.1)
32.5
(90.5)
27.8
(82)
23.9
(75)
16.5
(61.7)
36.1
(97)
Average high °C (°F) −6.4
(20.5)
−4.2
(24.4)
1.6
(34.9)
10.3
(50.5)
18.8
(65.8)
23.4
(74.1)
25.9
(78.6)
24.4
(75.9)
19.2
(66.6)
12.2
(54)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.9
(26.8)
10.6
(51.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.3
(11.7)
−9.4
(15.1)
−3.3
(26.1)
5.1
(41.2)
12.7
(54.9)
17.5
(63.5)
20
(68)
18.7
(65.7)
13.7
(56.7)
7.3
(45.1)
0.7
(33.3)
−7.2
(19)
5.4
(41.7)
Average low °C (°F) −16.2
(2.8)
−14.6
(5.7)
−8.1
(17.4)
−0.2
(31.6)
6.6
(43.9)
11.6
(52.9)
14.1
(57.4)
12.9
(55.2)
8.1
(46.6)
2.4
(36.3)
−3.1
(26.4)
−11.5
(11.3)
0.2
(32.4)
Record low °C (°F) −38.3
(−36.9)
−38.3
(−36.9)
−30
(−22)
−16.1
(3)
−6.1
(21)
−2
(28)
2.2
(36)
−0.6
(30.9)
−5
(23)
−10
(14)
−24
(−11)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−38.3
(−36.9)
Precipitation mm (inches) 91.2
(3.591)
70
(2.76)
79.2
(3.118)
84.8
(3.339)
86.9
(3.421)
99
(3.9)
106.4
(4.189)
103.1
(4.059)
96.5
(3.799)
90
(3.54)
97.3
(3.831)
86
(3.39)
1,090.3
(42.925)
Source: Environment Canada[12]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reference number 45314 of the Commission de toponymie du Québec (French)
  2. ^ a b Ministère des Affaires municipales, des Régions et de l'Occupation du territoire - Répertoire des municipalités: Oka
  3. ^ a b "Oka census profile". 2011 Census data. Statistics Canada. Retrieved 2010-11-22. 
  4. ^ "Cayuga: Our Oral Legacy - Home. Cayuga Digital Dictionary". Retrieved 2012-05-27. 
  5. ^ "Hudson-Oka ice bridge opens". The Gazette. 2009-01-22. Retrieved 2009-10-27. 
  6. ^ OKA Express mini-bus
  7. ^ Statistics Canada: 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 census
  8. ^ "Admission et inscription." Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Iles. Retrieved on December 7, 2014. "La Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Iles (CSSMI) offre ses services aux résidents des municipalités de : Blainville, Boisbriand, Bois-des-Filion, Deux-Montagnes, Lorraine, Mirabel (Saint-Augustin, Saint-Benoît, Sainte-Scholastique et secteur du Domaine-Vert), Oka, Pointe-Calumet, Rosemère, Sainte-Anne-des-Plaines, Sainte-Marthe-sur-le-Lac, Sainte-Thérèse, Saint-Eustache, Saint-Joseph-du-Lac, Saint-Placide et Terrebonne Ouest."
  9. ^ "secondaire d'Oka." Commission scolaire de la Seigneurie-des-Mille-Iles. Retrieved on December 7, 2014.
  10. ^ "Mountainview Elementary Zone." Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board. Retrieved on December 8, 2014.
  11. ^ "Saint Jude Elementary School Zone Map." Sir Wilfrid Laurier School Board. Retrieved on December 8, 2014.
  12. ^ Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000, accessed 14 July 2010

External links[edit]