Olaine (pronunciation (help·info); German: Olai) is a town in Latvia that gained town rights in 1967. The history of Olaine is closely connected to a nearby peat bog that was first taken into use in 1940. Thereafter, more production facilities were built, the increasing numbers of workers needed accommodation and the first dwellings were built in Olaine. Previously, Olaine was the name of a village just two kilometers away. This village now has the name of Jaunolaine (New Olaine).
Olaine is home of Olainfarm, the second largest pharmaceuticals company in Latvia.