Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe

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ORCCE coat of arms.jpg
Classification Episcopi Vagantes
Polity Episcopal
Leader Jerome Lloyd OSJV
Region Europe
Founder Arnold Harris Mathew
Origin 29 December 1910
Separated from Old Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church[according to whom?]

The Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite in Europe (ORCCLRE), also known as the Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite, is a Episcopi Vagantes church operating as a communion of local churches in the Old Roman Catholic/Ultrajectine tradition in Europe, headquartered in the United Kingdom.

The ORCCE regards itself as a Catholic church of the Western tradition following the Roman Rite.[1] It has fellowship with other ecclesiastical bodies internationally through inter-communion agreements and international ecumenical bodies;[2] the World Council of Churches through the International Council of Community Churches).[not verified in body]

Its apostolic succession is through Arnold Harris Mathew's lineage and traced back to Roman Catholic bishops. Roman Catholic commentators and the 1983 Code of Canon Law have stated that sacraments administered by Old Catholics are sacramentally valid[a] and Roman Catholics may fulfill their Holy Day of Obligation by attending Mass celebrated by an Old Roman Catholic priest if unable to attend a Roman Catholic Mass.[12][disputed (for: RCC 1983 CIC canon 1248 §1)  ] The RCC teaches, "The Churches which, while not existing in perfect communion with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true particular Churches" in the 2000 declaration, Dominus Iesus, of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. This speaks primarily to the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, but also to "separated churches in the West", which is understood to be a reference to Old Catholics.[13][clarify]

Beliefs[edit]

Old Catholic theology views the Eucharist as the core of the Church. From that perspective the Church is a community of believers. All are in communion with one another around the sacrifice of Jesus Christ as the highest expression of the love of God. Therefore, the celebration of the Eucharist is considered the experience of Christ's triumph over sin and that the defeat of sin consists in bringing together that which is divided.[14]

It is believed that, through communion, differences between people are reconciled and that which was scattered is brought together. In Old Catholic theology "Church" means reconciliation. "Church" means the restoration of broken relations between God and humanity and humanity with each other. The ORCCE holds exactly the same understanding of ecclesiology as the Eastern Orthodox; from the Orthodox perspective, the Church is one even though it is manifested in many places. Orthodox ecclesiology operates with a plurality in unity and a unity in plurality. For Orthodoxy there is no "either / or" between the one and the many. No attempt is made to subordinate the many to the one (the RCC model), nor the one to the many (the Protestant model). It is considered as both canonically and theologically correct to speak of the Church and the churches, and vice versa.[15] Thus, within the ORCCE individual local churches retain their autonomy in self-governance, but subscribe to the same basic understanding of the Church and of the faith as a communion expressing "one Church".[clarify]

The ORCCLR believes in unity in diversity.[buzzword] As a result, different beliefs and practices are found in its churches than in the RCC or the Eastern Orthodox churches. For example, some churches hold to the Roman dogmatic definition of the Immaculate Conception, others regard it as a doctrine worthy of pious belief but not necessary to believe for salvation and may hold to an Orthodox understanding of the nature of Mary; but all member churches commemorate the Feast of the Conception whether as a holy day of obligation or not.[clarify] Old Roman Catholics often refer to an excerpt from Vincent of Lérins' Commonitorium: "... all possible care must be taken, that we hold that faith which has been believed everywhere, always, by all."[16](p132) as a basis for discerning and as an arbitrary tool in defining, faith and praxis.[clarify] For this reason the ORCCE is different from the Utrecht Union (UU) and it neither ordains women nor condones same-gender marriage.

Mission[edit]

The mission of the church:[17]

  1. Theological reform: to preserve and continue the orthodox Catholic Faith according to the principles found in Scripture, Tradition and Reason. "Real theological reform should consist in communicating to all men the teachings of Jesus Christ, as they are collected in the Scriptures and recorded in the universal tradition of the Church - a tradition, which also belongs to all the members of the Church. It is the duty of pastors and scholars to explain them, and it is the duty of each member to study the explanation, which appear to them wisest and most useful."
  2. Ecclesiastical reform: Old Roman Catholics are engaged in restoring the true conceptions of pastor, bishop, synod, council, ecclesiastical authority, and even infallibility according to ancient traditions. "The Church has been called from its very beginning a simple 'church' and it has been regarded in its universality, since the time when the question of universality arose, as a Christian 'republic'. The episcopal see of Rome was not long in attaining a certain priority. Rome being the capital of the empire; but it was merely a priority of honour, and not of jurisdiction."
  3. Union of the Christian Churches: A better understanding generally has already been reached as to the respects in which the Christian Churches ought to be one, and those in which they ought to remain distinct and all. "When all are one in loving one another, in working together for the social well-being, in banishing from their theology every trace of anthropomorphism and politics, in becoming more spiritually-minded after the pattern of Christ, and in establishing the reign of God in every individual conscience, then the union in question will be very near being declared."

History[edit]

Arnold Mathew[edit]

For more details on the founding, see Arnold Mathew.

The Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite was founded by Mathew, Old Catholic Church bishop for England, on 29 December 1910. Mathew was ordained as a priest in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in and left the RCC in 1889. Later in 1891 he was persuaded to "trial" the Anglican ministry and went to assist the rector of Holy Trinity, Sloane St, London.

In 1897, Mathew had met Father Richard O'Halloran[18][not in citation given] and became curious about the suggestion of an Old Catholic Church in Great Britain. O'Halloran had been corresponding with the Old Catholic bishops in the Netherlands and Germany and believed that such a movement would interest a large number of disaffected Roman Catholics and Anglo-Catholics. In June 1906 the Royal Commission appointed in 1904 to inquire into "ecclesiastical disorders", afterwards known as the Ritual Commission,[19] presented its report and this was followed by the issue of Letters of Business. It was expected that the Catholic-minded Anglican clergy,[20] with their congregations, might, by Act of Parliament, be forced out of the Anglican Communion. Mathew joined O'Halloran's movement and was elected its first bishop and in 1908 the Old Catholic Church of the Netherlands (OKKN) Archbishop Gerardus Gul of Utrecht, was petitioned to consecrate him.

Mathew was consecrated in St. Gertrude's Cathedral, Utrecht, on 28 April 1908, by Gul, assisted by two OKKN bishops, Jacobus Johannes van Thiel of Haarlem and Nicolaus Bartholomeus Petrus Spit of Deventer, and one Catholic Diocese of the Old Catholics in Germany bishop, Josef Demmel of Bonn.[21](p12)

Mathew published The Old Catholic Missal & Ritual in 1909, for Old Catholics using the English language.[22] In September 1909, Mathew attended the Old Catholic Congress in Vienna, where he expressed his sympathy with the conservative position of the Dutch Old Catholics opposing the innovations introduced among the German and Swiss Old Catholics to accept the decrees of the 1672 Synod of Jerusalem and to renounce the Sacrament of Penance (auricular confession), the Intercession of saints and alterations in the liturgy, including the omission of the Pope's name from the Canon of the Mass. Mathew expressed fears that the trend of Continental Old Catholicism was towards Modernism, perhaps because of the growing association with Anglicans and Lutherans, and hoped for a return to the orthodox principles of the Church of Utrecht. At Utrecht, Mathew assisted Gul at the consecration of Polish Mariavite Church Archbishop Jan Maria Michał Kowalski, in October 1909.

Eventually, with the support of his clergy, on 29 December 1910, Mathew issued A Declaration of Autonomy And Independence from the UU. On 7 January 1911, Mathew consecrated four men to the episcopate: Francis Herbert Bacon, Cuthbert Francis Hinton, William Edmond Scott-Hall, and Frederick Clement Christie Egerton. An episcopal synod then followed and Mathew was unanimously elected Old Roman Catholic Archbishop of Great Britain and Ireland. In February 1911 Pope Pius X formally excommunicated Beale, Howarth, and Mathew.

Mathew was in contact with people[who?] interested in expanding the Eastern Orthodox Churchs' presence in Western Europe. On 5 August 1911, at Bredon's Norton, Worcestershire, Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch Archbishop Gerassimos Messara, of Beirut, legate of the Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch, received Mathew into the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch.[disputed (for: repudiated by Gregory IV)  ] After a long and full discussion the faith of the Old Roman Catholic Church under Mathew was considered in full accord with that of the Eastern Orthodox Church.[citation needed] Messara also received the Old Roman Catholic Church into union with the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch as an autocephalous jurisdiction of the Holy Synod;[disputed (for: repudiated by Gregory IV)  ] and, on 26 February 1912, Patriarch Photius of Alexandria also accepted this union.[1] As this status has never been formally withdrawn or repudiated,[contradictory] it may be reasonably argued that Old Roman Catholic bishops are not in fact episcopi vagantes[according to whom?] but bishops of a canonically autocephalous church in communion with two historical patriarchal sees of the ancient undivided Church.[disputed (for: repudiated by Gregory IV)  ] The Mathew v. "The Times" Publishing Co., Ltd. trial revealed that although Mathew "was originally informed that all were welcome, he was not ultimately admitted" as a cleric into the Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch.[23]

By 1913 all six bishops which Mathew consecrated had separated from him, so he consecrated Rudolph de Landas Berghes to continue his succession and initially to establish the ministry of the Old Roman Catholic Church in Scotland and then later in the United States. After Berghes emigrated to the United States, Mathew consecrated Bernard Mary Williams, in 1916, and on 25 March 1917, Mathew appointed Williams as his successor.

Shortly thereafter, Father Carmel Henry Carfora, an Italian Franciscan friar, who had been excommunicated from the RCC, was elected[by whom?] to succeed Berghes as Archbishop of the Old Roman Catholic Diocese of America.

Mathew died in 1919.

Bernard Williams[edit]

After Mathew's death, Williams was the only bishop in Being now the only active Old Catholic in Great Britain, Williams considered safeguarding the succession. Being unwilling to see any repetition of the scandals of the past (the consecrations of undisclosed Theosophists resulting in the Liberal Catholic Church), he arrived at a mutual understanding with Carfora, that, should either die without leaving a successor, the survivor would consecrate a duly elected person to fill the vacancy.[24]

In 1925, Williams issued a new constitution which repudiated the whole historical and doctrinal position of Old Roman Catholicism, the very position upon which Mathew had stood firm. By this constitution, he repudiated the objections[25] of the Church of Utrecht to the Roman Church and renewed his acceptance of the canons and decrees of the council of Trent, all with the aim of creating a pro-Roman rite and eventual reconciliation with the Church of Rome. Williams died on 9 June 1952 leaving no successor.

Following Carfora's death in 1958, the North American Old Roman Catholic Church separated into five autonomous but cooperating ecclesiastic bodies, one of which is the Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite (ORCCLR).

Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain[edit]

Three priests remained loyal to Williams and continued the Old Roman Catholic Church. They chose Gerard George Shelley, a former Mathew priest, who emigrated to America where he was consecrated by Richard Arthur Marchenna to succeed Williams. Shelley resided in Rome and succeeded Williams as third Archbishop of the Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain (ORCCGB). In 1960, Shelley consecrated Geoffrey Peter Paget King, as coadjutor bishop for England of the Old Roman Catholic Church, and he succeeded as fourth archbishop upon Shelley's death. King retired in 1982 and was succeeded by Archbishop James Charles Hedley Thatcher as fifth Archbishop. Upon his retirement he was succeeded by Archbishop Denis St Pierre as sixth archbishop and, following his death in 1993, Douglas Titus Lewins succeeded as seventh Archbishop and Metropolitan of the ORCCGB.[24] However, in 1998, Lewins reconciled with the RCC and served for a time as an assistant in a Roman Catholic Diocese of Brentwood parish.[b]

Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite in Europe[edit]

In the late 1990s a new group of mainly disaffected Anglo-Catholic clergy and laity, disappointed with the then small growth of the Continuing Anglican movement in Great Britain and ignorant of pre-existing orthodox Old Roman Catholic presence in the United Kingdom, approached the Old Catholic Church of the United States (OCCUSA) under the primacy of Archbishop Robert Gubala, petitioning for the creation of a missionary province to re-establish an orthodox Old Catholic presence in the United Kingdom. In 2000, after its first bishop was consecrated, the English Catholic Church (ECC) became autonomous and in communion with the OCCUSA. In 2006, the ECC changed its name to the Old Catholic Church in Europe (OCCE). OCCE was incorporated in 2006 in the United Kingdom and dissolved in 2009.[26] In 2009 the dissolved OCCE changed its name to Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe (ORCCE). ORCCE was incorporated in 2011 in the United Kingdom.[27] ORCCE and in 2011 was received into full communion with the ORCCLR.

Present[edit]

On 14 August 2012, two prelates, representing two groups of canonical Old Roman Catholicism in the United Kingdom, the ORCCGB's Lewins and the ORCCLR's Jerome Lloyd, met and discussed how to effect a more structured and united presentation of the Old Roman Catholic faith and tradition. They agreed to mutually recognize their common inheritance and cooperate between the two groups.

On 29 November 2012, Lewins and Lloyd signed the "Walsingham Declaration" intercommunion agreement and the foundation document of the Old Roman Catholic Council of Europe.

Sacramental validity[edit]

For more details on the validity of Mathew's consecration and the IBC's annulment declaration, see Arnold Mathew § Validity.

There are instances where Old Roman Catholic orders derived from Mathew have been affirmed by theologians, canonists and even representatives of the Holy See.

In 1915, Berghes participated in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America (PECUSA) consecration of Hiram Richard Hulse. According to supporters,[who?] Hulse's consecration indicated that the PECUSA regarded the Mathew line as being not only valid but even desirable.[citation needed] This indicates that there were no apparent perceived problems in relation to valid holy orders in the early 20th century. Berghes orders were apparently viewed by his contemporaries as valid despite being consecrated after Mathew left the UU which adversely commented on the validity of his orders.[citation needed] Anglican Communion bishops stated in 1920 Lambeth Conference resolution 27 and 1958 Lambeth Conference resolution 54 that they do not regard the Old Catholic Church in Great Britain, its extensions overseas, and "'episcopi vagantes' who call themselves either 'Old Catholic' or 'Orthodox,' in combination with other names" "as properly constituted Churches, or recognise the orders of their ministers."[28][29]

Archbishop Frederick Gilbert Linale of the ORCCGB,[30] third in succession from Carfora (via Marchenna and Shelley) obtained a declaration from Rome confirming the validity of his orders in 1962.[31][better source needed][disputed (for: Linale was ordained in 1966)  ] Then in January 1982, Archbishop Romolo Carboni, Apostolic Nuncio to Italy, wrote to the Cardinal Prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church, asking him to look into the Apostolic succession of Linale.[32] This task was given to Monsignor Annibale Ilari, who had access to the Vatican Archives. In his 1983 report to the Cardinal Prefect, Ilari ended with the conclusion:

I have attached a brief scheme of succession which ties Mgr Linale to the Supreme Pontiffs Benedict XIII, Benedict XIV and Pius IX, with the aim of assuring him that his lineage truly links him to the See of Peter.[33]

The Old Catholic Church of British Columbia (OCCBC), whose orders are derived from Mathew through Ernest W. Jackson like the ORCCLR, was, c. 2006 – c. 2007, a probationary member of the UU's International Old Catholic Bishops' Conference (IBC);[34] the union accepted the validity of their orders.[contradictory] The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec, in a public statement, which included an apology made for miscategorizing Father Claude Lacroix, acknowledged the validity of Lacroix's holy orders[clarify] and stated that OCCBC's certificates of baptism "may be accepted for the inscription of children to First Communion and Confirmation program" in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. It also stated that when "Roman Catholics marry before an ordained minister belonging to another religious denomination, as in the case of the [... OCCBC], their marriage is invalid from a religious point of view."[35]

In 2002, Cardinal Édouard Gagnon investigated the documentation of Bishop André Letellier's episcopal orders and consecration.[third-party source needed] Letellier was consecrated on 23 May 1968 by Archbishop André Leon Zotique Barbeau of the Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada.[d] Gagnon commented that, "nothing allows me to doubt the validity of episcopal ordination of Mgr André Letellier by Archbishop André Barbeau and that of Archbishop Barbeau by Archbishop Ignatius Charles Brearley, Primate of the Church of the 'Old Catholics' having its seat in England. The ordinations of the 'Old Catholics' are generally considered to be the same as those of Orthodox bishops."[36]

Despite critics,[who?] there is incontrovertible evidence that the apostolic succession of Mathew originating from the OKKN, has been consistently considered "valid" by Vatican officials and Roman Catholic canon lawyers and theologians,[a] irrespective of the excommunication of Mathew by Pius X. But in all such cases it has been assumed that orthodox praxis and intention has been concurrent with each ordination/consecration and the cases of particular affirmation have only been of individuals known to be conservative in Catholic doctrine. In all above cases too, only the Roman Pontifical was used for the Rite of Consecration, other liturgies are not therefore affirmed.[why?] It certainly cannot be assumed that the arguments and affirmations detailed here are in any way applicable across the board to other groups "outside" the Old Roman Catholic tradition, most especially those whose teachings are not consistent with orthodox and conservative Catholic doctrine.[according to whom?] Similarly, though the canonical principles[which?] above may be applied to other scenarios,[how?] the conclusions rely inherently on orthodox Catholic praxis and would not apply to those demonstrably apostate or heretical by comparison to traditional Catholic doctrine.[according to whom?]

It is generally suggested[according to whom?] that Roman Catholics may fulfill their Holy Day of Obligation by attending Mass celebrated by an Old Roman Catholic priest if unable to attend a Roman Catholic Mass.[12][disputed (for: RCC 1983 CIC canon 1248 §1)  ] The Roman Catholic Church teaches, "The Churches which, while not existing in perfect communion with the Catholic Church, remain united to her by means of the closest bonds, that is, by apostolic succession and a valid Eucharist, are true particular Churches" in the 2000 declaration, Dominus Iesus, of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. This speaks primarily to the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, but also to "separated churches in the West", which is understood to be a reference to Old Roman Catholics.[13][clarify]

Ecumenical relations[edit]

The ORCCE does not regard itself as the sole expression of traditional Old Roman Catholicism in Western Europe and has relations and dialogue with similar traditionalist Old Catholic and Independent Catholic jurisdictions internationally. The ORCCE is in full communion with the ORCCLR which has a presence in North and South America, Africa and Asia and is regarded as the representative presence of that church in Europe.[citation needed]

Remaining true to the Declaration of Utrecht, the ORCCE feels that the possibility of reunion with the Holy See would require discussion and agreement on the understanding and practice of the Petrine Ministry necessarily different from that promulgated as dogma by the Roman Church during the First Vatican Council. Since August 2008, through the International College of CANC Bishops, the ORCCE has been in dialogue with the RCC's Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity.[citation needed]

The ORCCLR has followed with interest the 2008 establishment of the Union of Scranton by the Polish National Catholic Church (PNCC), currently consisting of the PNCC and the Nordic Catholic Church for Old Catholic churches disaffected with the Utrecht Union. The theological framework of the Union of Scranton is being reviewed by the ORCCE hierarchy. However, the historical theological differences that developed between Old Catholicism (Utrecht Union) and Old Roman Catholicism (Mathew) which became visible in 1910 may provide some issues.

The ORCCE hierarchy hopes, after achieving a wider and more cohesive consensus of feeling and desire amongst other Old Roman Catholic jurisdictions, to approach the Orthodox Patriarchates of Antioch and Alexandria for clarification and praxis regarding the existing intercommunion agreement extant since 1911 that has never been formally retracted by either party.[2][disputed (for: repudiated by Gregory IV)  ]

The ORCCLR prays for the day when such discussions and agreements can be made that Christ's Church may be united once more on earth and actively encourages member congregations to participate in ecumenical activities and partnerships. At the international level the ORCCE enjoys membership of the World Council of Churches through the International Council of Community Churches.[citation needed]

Current state[edit]

Members of the ORCCE clergy believe that there is a role for a "niche chaplaincy"[jargon] which meets the needs of smaller groups of people who are neglected in their churches of origin. Those who wish for the Latin Mass, i.e. the Tridentine Mass in Latin or in the vernacular, may be accommodated without problem.[promotional language]

Beauty in worship[discuss photo]

A lack of funding means that the ORCCE has few church buildings[clarify] and makes arrangements with other Christian groups and community organizations. The positive feature of such innovative partnerships is that resources are not wasted and clergy assert that sharing resources creates a linkage of people with ministry.

Religious services are often held in private homes reflecting the house churches of ancient Rome. However, wherever possible, public spaces e.g. places of worship belonging to other denominations, may often be used. The ORCCE mission in Brighton, UK broadcasts Masses daily over the internet for those unable to attend a service physically.[37] The ORCCE predominantly uses the Gregorian Rite, often referred to as the Tridentine Rite, for the occasional offices as well as the 1570 Breviary and Mass with pre-1955 rubrics e.g. the traditional Rites of Holy Week without the alterations instituted by Pius XII.

ORCCE clergy sometimes travel considerable distances to small congregations.[examples needed] Whilst time consuming and personally exhausting for individual clergy, this ministry demonstrates a real need for a responsive chaplaincy and reflects needs that are not being met by mainstream denominations.

Despite a lack of state funding[clarify] and prejudice from the more established denominations, ORCCE missions continue to grow slowly.[quantify] The ORCCE missions bring the Gospel to people from very different backgrounds.[examples needed]

ORCCE clergy express their commitment to a real ministry and a ministry working with real people. Clergy have collectively asserted that they will not have relations with those who believe that a solely Internet church is adequate or appropriate as a means of knowing the Risen Christ.

The ORCCE is in full communion with the ORCCLR. There is an intercommunion agreement in place between the Catholic Apostolic National Churches in the United States, Columbia, Philippines, Argentina and Zambia.[citation needed]

Hierarchy[edit]

College of Bishops[edit]

Europe

  • The Mt Revd Msgr Jerome Lloyd OSJV, Metropolitan of Europe (UK) Archidioecesis Britannia
  • The Mt Revd Msgr Martin Charlesworth, Auxiliary (UK) Provincia Europa
  • The Mt Revd Msgr Jonas Maria Röggla, Auxiliary (Italy) Provincia Europa
  • The Rt Revd Msgr Pio Dilsen Guven VG, Bishop-Elect (Turkey) Dioecesis Anatolia

International

  • The Mt Revd Boniface Grosvold, ORCC-LR Primate
  • The Mt Revd Omar Rojas Gonzalez, South America
  • The Mt Revd John Marochi, South Eastern USA
  • The Mt Revd Denis Waterbury, American Midwest
  • The Mt Revd Jean Marie Denis Ngodobo, Cameroon
  • The Mt Revd Pius Corley OSB, South Central USA
  • The Mt Revd Patrick F. Dunleavy, Canada
  • The Mt Revd Hector M. Rojas, Auxiliary Colombia
  • The Mt Revd Martin W. Obam Amvella, Auxiliary Cameroon
  • The Mt Revd Mario Champagne, Canada
  • The Mt Revd Terrence Herrera-LaFavre, California, USA
  • The Mt Revd Michael Parrish VG, Auxiliary Diocese of California, USA
  • The Mt Revd David Fucci OFM Conv. Ordinary Military Vicariate USA
  • The Mt Revd Dr John SDR Nakka, Arch Bishop

Consultors[edit]

  • The Rt Revd Msgr Stephen Porter
  • The Rt Revd Msgr Joseph (Ericjon) Thomas VG

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Arnold's 1928, p. 16. The RCC had affirmed its recognition of the validity of the orders and sacraments of the Old Roman Catholic Church throughout the world.
    The 1917 9th edition of William Addis and Thomas Arnold's A Catholic Dictionary states that "Dutch Jansenists [...] have retained valid orders, the celibacy of the clergy, the Mass and other services in Latin. They are known in Holland as old-Roman (oud-Roomsch), for they profess to be not only Catholics but Roman Catholics, and they acknowledge the Pope as the visible head of the Church," and also stated that, after reading their prayer-book, popular catechism, hymn-book, and Ordinary of the Mass, the author was "unable to discover any trace of heresy in these books".[3] By the 1957 16th edition, A Catholic Dictionary was revised and did not retain these statements. The 1957 16th edition contains the preface from the 1948 15th edition which stated that the 1917 Code of Canon Law, "which came into force in 1918, has demanded a revision or rewriting of a very large number of articles. Since that date there have been new regulations for Papal elections, the settlement of the Roman Question, many important Encyclical letters, [...] all of which have involved alterations and corrections in the text."[4](vi)
    The 1931 1st edition of Donald Attwater's The Catholic Encyclopaedic Dictionary, states that Old Catholic churches "are now to all intents and purposes a Protestant and Modernist body. [...] The Jansenist Church of Holland is now reckoned an Old Catholic church. There orders and sacraments are valid."[5]
    Konrad Algermissen wrote, in Christian Denominations, that "As a fundamentally pantheistic movement it cannot be reckoned among the Christian faiths. Nevertheless the Liberal Catholic Church has received valid orders from the Old Catholic Church and performs its ordination ceremony with the greatest ritual exactness. This fact shows with what ease the Old Catholic Church dispenses its valid consecration. In America, for instance. The American Catholic Church, The Old Catholic Church in America, The North American Old Roman Catholic Church, have all received valid episcopal consecration from the Old Catholic Church."[6](p363)
    In 1928, The Far East magazine, answered an inquiry concerning the validity of orders conferred in the NAORCC. The magazine article mentions Carfora favorably and states that: "these orders are valid...".[7]
    William Whalen wrote, in the 1958 1st edition and 1966 2nd edition of Separated Brethren:

    While no official pronouncement has been made by the Vatican concerning the validity of Old Catholic orders, we have no reason to doubt that they are valid. The apostolic succession does not depend on obedience to the see of Peter but rather on the objective line of succession from apostolic sources, the proper matter and form, and the proper intention. This means that Old Catholic priests are probably true priests with the full powers of the priesthood although they would be exercising these powers unlawfully. Likewise Old Catholic bishops are bishops in the apostolic succession. [...] Rationalism infected the movement from the beginning and together with nationalism turned Old Catholicism into a brand of liberal Protestantism, though closer to Anglicanism than to evangelical Protestantism.[8](p204)[9](p204)

    He also wrote, in the 1958 edition, that those Old Catholic Church segments "which have withstood modernist infiltration may also find their way back to the Mother Church. The Old Catholics, like the Orthodox, possess a valid priesthood; therefore, corporate reunion is a possibility."[8](p248) The 1972 revision of Separated Brethren did not retain any of these statements.[10]

    "Catholics may receive the Eucharist, penance, or anointing from sacred ministers of Catholic denominations whose Holy Orders are considered valid by the Roman Catholic Church. This includes all Eastern Orthodox priests, as well as priests of the Old Catholic or Polish National Church."[11]

  2. ^ Prior to his reconciliation with the RCC Lewins appointed Mgr James Philips as Administrator of the ORCCGB. Following Lewins' return to the ORCCGB in 2006, Philips relinquished his administration and restored Lewins as archbishop. To further the unity of the Old Roman Catholic Church, Lewins brought the ORCCGB into communion with Shelley's successor, John J. Humphreys, Chairman of the Council of Old Roman Catholic Bishops. There is a developing relationship between the ORCCGB and the ORCCE/ORCCLR.
  3. ^ a b This person is not found in Brandreth.[21]
  4. ^ André Barbeau had had been consecrated by Charles Brearley,[c] who had been consecrated by Matthew Cooper,[c] who had been consecrated by James Bartholomew Banks, who had been consecrated by Frederick Samuel Willoughby,[21](p23) who had been consecrated by Mathew.[21](p19)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Williams, Bernard Mary (1922). A summary of the history, faith, discipline and aims of the Old Roman Catholic Church in Great Britain. [s.l.]: [s.n.] (published 1924?). p. 23. OCLC 315302080. 
  2. ^ a b "Antioch & Alexandria". orcce.webs.com. Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite. Archived from the original on 2012-11-14. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  3. ^ Addis, William E; Arnold, Thomas (1917) [first published 1803]. "Jansenist Church of Holland". In Scannell, T. B. A Catholic dictionary: containing some account of the doctrine, discipline, rites, ceremonies, councils, and religious orders of the Catholic Church (9th ed.). London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner. p. 482. OCLC 4372765. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  4. ^ Addis, William E; Arnold, Thomas (1957) [first published 1803]. "Jansenist Church of Holland". In Scannell, T. B et al. A Catholic dictionary: containing some account of the doctrine, discipline, rites, ceremonies, councils, and religious orders of the Catholic Church (Rev. 16th ed.). St. Louis: Herder. vi, pp. 471–472. OCLC 5024753. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  5. ^ Attwater, Donald, ed. (1931). "Jansenist Church of Holland, The". The Catholic encyclopaedic dictionary. New York: Macmillan. p. 279. OCLC 3266961. "There orders and sacraments are valid."  Also "Old Catholics, The". The Catholic encyclopaedic dictionary. p. 373. "[...] they are now to all intents and purposes a Protestant and Modernist body. [...] The Jansenist Church of Holland is now reckoned an Old Catholic church. There orders and sacraments are valid."  Please note there are several later revisions of this work.
  6. ^ Algermissen, Konrad (1945). "Opposition to rationalist and nationalist tendencies". Christian Denominations. Translated by Joseph W Grundner. St. Louis, MO; London: Herder Book. pp. 345–368. LCCN 45005798. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  7. ^ The Far East (American ed.) (Omaha: St. Columban's Foreign Mission Society): 16. Jan 1928. 
  8. ^ a b Whalen, William J (1958). Separated brethren: a survey of non-Catholic Christian denominations in the United States (1st. ed.). Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. LCCN 57013118. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  9. ^ Whalen, William J (1966) [first published 1958]. Separated brethren: a survey of non-Catholic Christian denominations in the United States (2nd rev. ed.). Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  10. ^ Whalen, William J (1972) [first published 1958]. Separated Brethren: a survey of Protestant, Anglican, Orthodox, Old Catholic, and other denominations in the United States (Rev. and enl. ed.). Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor. ISBN 0879738413. Retrieved 2 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Doyle, Thomas P (1983). Rights and Responsibilities: a Catholic's guide to the new code of canon law. New York: Pueblo Publ. p. 44. ISBN 091613458X. 
  12. ^ a b Huels, John M. (1997). The Pastoral Companion: a canon law handbook for Catholic ministry (3rd ed.). p. 335. "The principal condition is that these sacraments can be received only from validly ordained ministers. These are ministers who belong to 'churches that have preserved the substance of the Eucharistic teaching, the sacraments of orders, and apostolic succession'. This would include all Eastern non-Catholic churches, the Polish National Church, Old Catholic, and Old Roman Catholic. Occasionally, a bishop in apostolic succession may validly ordain a priest, even if his church is not recognized in this category." 
  13. ^ a b Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith; Ratzinger, Joseph; Bertone, Tarcisio (2000-08-06). Dominus Iesus. Vatican City. n.17 and fn.59. Archived from the original on 2000-11-09. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  14. ^ Arx, Urs von. "The Nature of the Church and its Mission". written at Bern. utrechter-union.org. Utrecht: Utrechter Union der Altkatholischen Kirchen. Archived from the original on 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2014-05-25. 
  15. ^ White, James F. (1979) [1962]. The Cambridge movement : the ecclesiologists and the gothic revival (reissue ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0521067812. 
  16. ^ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Vincent of Lérins; Heurtley, Charles A., trans. (1955) [1894 by various publishers]. "The Commonitory of Vincent of Lérins, for the antiquity and universality of the catholic faith against the profane novelties of all heresies". In Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry. Sulpitius Severus, Vincent of Lerins, John Cassian. A select library of the Nicene and post-Nicene fathers of the Christian Church. Second series 11 (Reprint ed.). Grand Rapids: B. Eerdmans. pp. 127–130. OCLC 16266414 – via Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 
  17. ^ Brusca, Charles T. "Old Roman Catholic Church : in the history Of the One True Catholic and Apostolic Church". orcclatinrite.org. London, ON: Old Roman Catholic Church Latin Rite Archdiocese of Canada and the United States. Archived from the original on 2009-07-31. Retrieved 2014-05-26. 
  18. ^ The London Gazette: no. 33652. p. 6280. 14 October 1930. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  19. ^ Great Britain. Royal Commission on Ecclesiastical Discipline (1906). "Historical survey". Report of the Royal Commission on ecclesiastical discipline : with Minutes of evidence : presented to both houses of Parliament by command of His Majesty. Parliament. Papers by command. Cd. 3040, 3069–3072. London: Wyman and Sons. OCLC 676721689. Archived from the original on 2007-01-12. Retrieved 2014-06-04 – via Project Canterbury. 
  20. ^ Embry, James (1931). "Strivings about the law". The Catholic Movement and the Society of the Holy Cross. London: The Faith Press. OCLC 12799438. Archived from the original on 2007-12-24. Retrieved 2014-06-04 – via Project Canterbury. 
  21. ^ a b c d Brandreth, Henry R. T (1987) [First published in 1947]. Episcopi vagantes and the Anglican Church. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press. ISBN 0893705586. 
  22. ^ Mathew, Arnold H, ed. (1909). The Old Catholic missal and ritual: prepared for the use of English-speaking congregations of Old Catholic, in communion with the ancient Catholic archiepiscopal see of Utrecht. London: Cope and Fenwick. OCLC 635998436.  Note that Mathew provided his own nihil obstat with Gul's imprimatur.
  23. ^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Alleged libel in 'The Times'". The Times (40187) (London). 16 April 1913. pp. 3–4. ISSN 0140-0460. 
  24. ^ a b http://web.me.com/dlewins/Old_Roman_Catholic_Church_in_GB/[dead link]
  25. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainBaumgarten, Paul M. (1911). "Old Catholics". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia 11. Robert Appleton Company. 
  26. ^ "Old Catholic Church in Europe Limited". companieshouse.gov.uk (database record). London: United Kingdom. Companies House. Company number: 05953534. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  27. ^ "Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe Limited". companieshouse.gov.uk (database record). London: United Kingdom. Companies House. Company number: 07872020. Retrieved 2014-06-05. 
  28. ^ Conference of bishops of the Anglican Communion (1920). "Encyclical letter from the bishops, with the resolutions and reports". 6th Lambeth Conference, 5 July – 7 August 1920. London: Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge. pp. 34, 154–156. OCLC 729498943. 
  29. ^ "Resolution 54". 9th Lambeth Conference, 1958. London: Anglican Communion Office. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 25 March 2014. 
  30. ^ "Episcopal succession of the Old Roman Catholic Church in GB". oldromancatholic.org.uk. Archived from the original on 2014-04-16. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  31. ^ Platt, K (16 May 2006). "Schism, Apostasy, Anglican Orders and Ecumenism". Archived from the original on 26 August 2006. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  32. ^ Carboni, Romolo (1982-01-09). [to Cardinal Prefect of the Council for the Public Affairs of the Church] (letter). 1490/82. [non-primary source needed]
  33. ^ Ilari, Annibale (1983-08-02). [to ] (letter). [non-primary source needed]
  34. ^ "The Old Catholic Church of British Columbia & The Union of Utrecht of the Old Catholic Churches (Utrecht Union)". oldcatholicbc.com. Vancouver, BC: The Old Catholic Church of BC. Archived from the original on 2014-06-04. Retrieved 2014-06-04. 
  35. ^ Pelletier, Jean (2010). Rectification with respect to the communiqué by the Chancery Office on the Old Catholic Church of B.C. and the Reverend Claude Lacroix, a priest of this Church. Québec, QC: Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Quebec. Archived from the original on 2014-03-29. Retrieved 2013-08-20. 
  36. ^ Gagnon, Édouard (2002-05-06). À qui de droit (letter) (in French). Montreal. [non-primary source needed] Translated in Gagnon, Édouard. "To whom it may concern". "After having studied the documentation about Mgr André Letellier and his predecessors in episcopal succession, I am convinced that he has been validly consecrated a bishop. It is not my intention to rule on the reports of the organization, incorporated under the name of Catholic Charismatic Church of Canada with the Conference of Catholic Bishops of Canada and of Québec. But nothing allows me to doubt the validity of episcopal ordination of Mgr André Letellier by Archbishop André Barbeau and that of Archbishop Barbeau by Archbishop Ignatius Charles Brearley, Primate of the Church of the 'Old Catholics' having its seat in England. The ordinations of the 'Old Catholics' are generally considered to be the same as those of Orthodox bishops. I have known Archbishop Barbeau for more than 60 years since our time at the Grand Seminary of Montreal. I have had little contact with him thereafter, having exercised my ministry far from here. But he has always been known to me as a man of prayer, a mystic. And I think that his disciples are also, above all, men of prayer." [dead link][third-party source needed]
  37. ^ "Daily Mass Online apostolate". dailymass.co.uk. Brighton: The Old Roman Catholic Church in Europe. 

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