Old Church Slavonic grammar

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Old Church Slavonic is an inflectional language with moderately complex verbal and nominal systems.

Nouns[edit]

o-stems[edit]

jo-stems[edit]

a-stems[edit]

ja-stems[edit]

i-stems[edit]

u-stems[edit]

ū-stems[edit]

n-stems[edit]

s-stems[edit]

t-stems[edit]

r-stems[edit]

Pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns[edit]

Relative pronoun[edit]

Interrogative pronoun and adjective[edit]

Indefinite pronouns and adjectives[edit]

The interrogative pronouns kъto, čьto can also have the indefinite meanings of 'anybody', 'anything' respectively.

The prefix ně- imparts an indefinite meaning to the word to which it is attached: thus kъto ('who?') becomes někъto ('someone'), and čьto ('what?') becomes něčьto ('something'). Similarly, the prefix ni- imparts a negative meaning: nikъto ('no one'), ničьto ('nothing'). A prepositions may come between prefix and base word:

ně u kogo — with someone
ni o komьže nerodiši — you care for no one

Adjectives[edit]

OCS adjectives can be in two forms: short and long, corresponding to indefinite and definite meaning respectively. The long form is generally used only attributively, whereas the short form is predicative in nature. So, e.g., člověkъ dobrъ "a good man, man is good" whilst člověkъ dobryi "the good man, the man who is good".

Indefinite adjectives are inflected as the corresponding nouns of the primary declension, e.g., novъ as rabъ, nova as žena, novo as selo, ništь as vračь, ništa as duša, nište as polje.

Definite adjectives (also known as compound, long, or pronominal forms of adjective) are formed by suffixing to the indefinite form the anaphoric third-person pronoun (spelled as i in OCS orthography), ja, je as shown in the table.

N novъ + i (jь) = novъjь > novyi nova + ja = novaja
G nova + jego = novajego novy + jeję = novyję
D novu + jemu = novujemu nově + jei = nověi
A novъ + i (jь) = novъjь > novyi novǫ + = novǫjǫ
L nově + jemь = novějemь nově + jei = nověi
I novomь + imь = novъimь > novyimь novojǫ + jejǫ = novojǫ, novǫjǫ
N, A nova + ja = novaja nově + i = nověi
G, L novu + jeju = novuju novu + jeju = novuju
D, I novoma + ima = novyima novoma + ima = novyima
N novi + (j)i = novii novy + ję = novyję
G novъ + ixъ = novyixъ novъ + ixъ = novyixъ
D novomъ + imъ = novyimъ novamъ + imъ = novyimъ
A novy + ję = novyję novy + ję = novyję
L nověxъ + ixъ = novyixъ novaxъ + ixъ = novyixъ
I novy + imi = novyimi novami + imi = novyimi

Adjective gradation[edit]

There are three levels of adjective gradation in OCS:

  • positive, stating an absolute property of an object;
  • comparative, stating a relative property of an object;
  • superlative, stating a property of an object in relation to any other object it may be compared to.

Comparative[edit]

  1. Adjectives with falling tone on the root syllable:
    dragъ − draž-ii (m), draž-e (n), draž-ьši (f);
    tęžьkъ − tęžii, tęže, tęžьši;
    grǫbъ − grǫblii, grǫble, grǫblьši.
  2. Adjectives with rising tone on the root syllable:
    novъ − nov-ěi, nov-ěje, nov-ěiši;
    starъ − star-ěi, star-ěje, star-ěiši;
    junъ − jun-ěi, jun-ěje, jun-ěiši.

Declension of the comparative[edit]

N dražii draže dražьši juněi juněje juněiši
G dražьša dražьša dražьšę juněiša juněiša juněišę
D dražьšu dražьšu dražьši juněišu juněišu juněiši
A dražьšii draže dražьšǫ juněi juněje juněišǫ
L dražьši dražьši dražьši juněiši junějiši juněiši
I dražьšemь dražьšemь dražьšejǫ juněišemь juněišemь juněišejǫ
N, A dražьša dražьši dražьši juněiša juněiši juněiši
G, L dražьšu dražьšu dražьšu juněišu juněišu juněišu
D, I dražьšema dražьšema dražьšama juněišema juněišema juněišama
N dražьše dražьša dražьšę juněiše juněiša juněišę
G dražьšь dražьšь dražьšь juněišь juněišь juněišь
D dražьšemъ dražьšemъ dražьšamъ juněišemъ juněišemъ juněišamъ
A dražьšę dražьša dražьšę juněišę juněiša juněišę
L dražьšixь dražьšixь dražьšaxь juněišixь juněišixь juněišaxь
I dražьši dražьši dražьšami juněiši juněiši juněišami

Superlative[edit]

The superlative is formed:

  1. by adding the prefix nai- to the comparative base: naidražii, naitęžьši, naigrǫble;
  2. by combining the comparative form with the pronoun vьsego/vьsěxъ: nověi vьsego, dražii vьsěxъ.

The absolute superlative is formed:

  1. by adding the prefix prě- to the positive: prědragъ, prěnova, prěstaro;
  2. by using the adverb Ʒělo with the positive: Ʒělo dragъ, Ʒělo nova, Ʒělo staro.

Numerals[edit]

Cardinals[edit]

1 jedinъ (m), jedina (f), jedino (n)
2 dъva (m), dъvě (f and n)
3 tri (m), trьje (f and n)
4 četyri (m), četyre (f and n)
5 pętь
6 šestь
7 sedmь
8 osmь
9 devętь
10 desętь
11 jedin-ъ/a/o na desęte
12 dъv-a/ě na desęte
20 dъva desęti
21 dъva desęti i jedin-ъ/a/o
22 dъva desęti i dъv-a/ě
30 trije desęte
40 četyre desęte
50 pętь desętь
60 šestь desętь
70 sedmь desętь
80 osmь desętь
90 devętь desętь
100 sъto
200 dъvě sъtě
300 tri sъta
400 četyre sъta
500 pętь sъtъ
1 000 tysęšti, tysǫšti
2 000 dъvě tysǫšti
5 000 pętь tysǫštь
10 000 desętь tysǫštь or tьma
20 000 dъvadesęti tysǫštь or dъvě tьmě
100 000 sъto tysǫštь or leĝeonъ

Declension of cardinal numbers[edit]

1 pronominal declension jedinъ − jedinogo, jedina − jedinoję
2 pronominal declension, only in dual
3 undergoes i-stem declension, plural forms only
4 exactly like trьje, tri, except for the nominative and genitive which undergo consonant-stem declension
5−10 undergoes i-stem declension, only in singular, except for desętь which also has dual and plural forms
11−19 only the first component is inflected, e.g., jedinomu na desęte
20, 30, 40 both components are inflected, e.g., dъvěma desętьma, trьmь desętьmь
50−90 only the first component is inflected, e.g., pętijǫ desętь
sъto is declined as selo, tysęšti as bogyni, tьma as žena, leĝeonъ as rabъ

Ordinals[edit]

1 prъvyi, prъvaja, prъvoje
2 vъtoryi, vъtoraja, vъtoroje
3 tretii, tretijaja, tretijeje
4 četvrъyi, četvrъaja, četvrъoje
5 pętyi, pętaja, pętoje
11 prъvyi / prъvaja / prъvoje na desęte
20 dъvadesętьn-yi/aja/oje
21 dъvadesętьn-yi/aja/oje prъv-yi/aja/oje
60 šestьdesętьn-yi/aja/oje
100 sъtъn-yi/aja/oje
1 000 tysǫčьn-yi/aja/oje

All ordinals are inflected like the corresponding adjectives.

Verbs[edit]

Present[edit]

The present tense is formed by adding present-tense endings onto the present tense stem, which itself is sometimes hidden due to sound changes that have occurred in the past (more common verbs are listed):

  • bosti (bod-), vesti (ved- or vez-), krasti (krad-), iti (id-)
  • plesti (plet-), mesti (met-), greti (greb-), krasti (krad-)
  • rešti (rek-), pešti (pek-), mošti (mog-), tešti (tek-)

There are several classes of verbs:

1. e-type verbs add the interfix -e- to the present stem (except in front of ) and the endings:

Verb Singular Plural Dual
bosti (bod-)
  • 1. bod -ǫ
  • 2. bod -e + -ši
  • 3. bod -e + -
  • 1. bod -e + -
  • 2. bod -e + -te
  • 3. bod -ǫtъ
  • 1. bod -e + -
  • 2. bod -e + -ta
  • 3. bod -e + -te
rešti (rek-)
  • 1. rek -ǫ
  • 2. reč -e + -ši
  • 3. reč -e + -
  • 1. reč -e + -
  • 2. reč -e + -te
  • 3. rek -ǫtъ
  • 1. reč -e + -
  • 2. reč -e + -ta
  • 3. reč -e + -te

2. i-type verbs exhibit the same set of endings, but this time the interfix is -i- (except in front of and ). In the first person singular one finds the processes of iotation (k/c + j > č, g/z + j > ž, x/s + j > š, l + j > lj, n + j > nj, t + j > št, d + j > žd) and epenthesis (bj > blj, pj > plj, mj > mlj, vj > vlj):

Verb Singular Plural Dual
xvaliti (xval-)
  • 1. xval + -j + -ǫ
  • 2. xval -i + -ši
  • 3. xval -i + -
  • 1. xval -i + -
  • 2. xval -i + -te
  • 3. xval -ętъ
  • 1. xval -i + -
  • 2. xval -i + -ta
  • 3. xval -i + -te
ljubiti (ljub-)
  • 1. ljub + -lj + -ǫ
  • 2. ljub -i + -ši
  • 3. ljub -i + -
  • 1. ljub -i + -
  • 2. ljub -i + -te
  • 3. ljub -ętъ
  • 1. ljub -i + -
  • 2. ljub -i + -ta
  • 3. ljub -i + -te

3. The athematic verbs byti, dati, věděti, iměti and jasti form the present tense irregularly:

Verb Singular Plural Dual
byti
  • 1. jesmь
  • 2. jesi
  • 3. jestъ
  • 1. jesmъ
  • 2. jeste
  • 3. sǫtъ
  • 1. jesvě
  • 2. jesta
  • 3. jeste
věděti
  • 1. věmь
  • 2. věsi
  • 3. věstъ
  • 1. věmъ
  • 2. věste
  • 3. vědętъ
  • 1. věvě
  • 2. věsta
  • 3. věste
iměti
  • 1. imamь
  • 2. imaši
  • 3. imatъ
  • 1. imamъ
  • 2. imate
  • 3. imǫtъ
  • 1. imavě
  • 2. imata
  • 3. imate
jasti
  • 1. jamь
  • 2. jasi
  • 3. jastъ
  • 1. jamъ
  • 2. jaste
  • 3. jadętъ
  • 1. javě
  • 2. jasta
  • 3. jaste

One should distinguish the verbs iměti (imamь, imaši, imatъ), imati (jemljǫ, jemleši, jemletъ) and jęti (imǫ, imeši, imetъ). Exceptional is also the verb xotěti which exhibits iotation even though it's not an i-type verb (xoštǫ, xošteši, xoštetъ).

Asigmatic aorist[edit]

The asigmatic aorist (also called root or simple aorist) was named after the loss of the phoneme /s/ in the inflection (AGr. sigma), i.e. there is no VsV > VxV change (intervocalic /s/ yielding /x/). Over time, the asigmatic aorist became increasingly marked as an archaic language feature and was eventually replaced by the other two aorist formations.

The asigmatic aorist was formed by adding to the infinitive stem of e-type verbs with stem ending in a consonant (i.e. verbs with the infix -nǫ-, which is dropped before the aorist endings, and verbs with the null infix) the following endings: -ъ, -e, -e; -omъ, -ete, ; -ově, -eta, -ete.

Verb Singular Plural Dual
pasti (pad-) 1. pad -ъ

2. pad -e
3. pad -e

1. pad -omъ

2. pad -ete
3. pad -ǫ

1. pad -ově

2. pad -eta
3. pad -ete

tešti (tek-) 1. tek -ъ

2. teč -e
3. teč -e

1. tek -omъ

2. teč -ete
3. tek -ǫ

1. tek -ově

2. teč -eta
3. teč -ete

mošti (mog-) 1. mog -ъ

2. mož -e
3. mož -e

1. mog -omъ

2. mož -ete
3. mog -ǫ

1. mog -ově

2. mož -eta
3. mož -ete

dvignǫti (dvig-) 1. dvig -ъ

2. dviž -e
3. dviž -e

1. dvig -omъ

2. dviž -ete
3. dvig -ǫ

1. dvig -ově

2. dviž -eta
3. dviž -ete

Sigmatic aorist[edit]

The sigmatic or s-aorist was formed in the following ways:

  • Verbs whose stem ends in b, p, d, t, z, s form this aorist by dropping the final consonant and adding the interfix -s- plus the endings -ъ, -, -; -omъ, -te, -ę; -ově, -ta, -te. Intervocalic sigma (s) exhibits no change. As a side effect, e is lengthened to ě, and o to a.
  • Verbs whose stem ends in r or k form this aorist in the same way as previously mentioned, except that intervocalic sigma (s) changes into x, the same set of endings being suffixed to the interfix. As a side effect, e is lengthened to ě, and o to a.
The 2nd and 3rd person singular forms of these verbs are not attested, so the sigmatic aorist forms are used as a replacement.
  • Verbs whose stem ends in a vowel form this aorist by suffixing exactly the same set of endings to the infinitive stem, and intervocalic -s- changes into -x-.
The 2nd and 3rd person singular forms of these verbs match the infinitive stem due to the elision of word-final sigma.
Verb Singular Plural Dual
xvaliti (xvali-) 1. xvali -x -ъ

2. xvali
3. xvali

1. xvali -x -omъ

2. xvali -s -te
3. xvali -š -ę

1. xvali -x -ově

2. xvali -s -ta
3. xvali -s -te

tešti (tek-) 1. těxъ (tek -s -ъ)

2. teče
3. teče

1. těxomъ (tek -s -omъ)

2. těste
3. těšę

1. těxově (tek -s -ově)

2. těsta
3. těste

greti (greb-) 1. grěsъ

2. grebe
3. grebe

1. grěsomъ

2. grěste
3. grěsę

1. grěsově

2. grěsta
3. grěste

bosti (bod-) 1. basъ

2. bode
3. bode

1. basomъ

2. baste
3. basę

1. basově

2. basta
3. baste

New aorist[edit]

The new aorist (also known as ox-aorist) is formed by suffixing to the infinitive stem of e-type verbs ending in a consonant (verbs with the interfix -nǫ- and verbs with the null interfix) the interfix -os- (-ox) and onto it the endings -ъ, -, -; -omъ, -te, -ę; -ově, -ta, -te. Intervocalic sigma s changes into x.

The 2nd and the 3rd person singular forms are not attested and thus the asigmatic aorist forms are taken as a replacement.

Verb Singular Plural Dual
krasti (krad-) 1. krad -ox -ъ

2. (krad -e)
3. (krad -e)

1. krad -ox -omъ

2. krad -os -te
3. krad - -ę

1. krad -ox -ově

2. krad -os -ta
3. krad -os -te

rešti (rek-) 1. rek -ox -ъ

2. (reč -e)
3. (reč -e)

1. rek -ox -omъ

2. rek -os -te
3. rek - -ę

1. rek -ox -ově

2. rek -os -ta
3. rek -os -te

iti (id-) 1. id -ox -ъ

2. (id -e)
3. (id -e)

1. id -ox -omъ

2. id -os -te
3. id - -ę

1. id -ox -ově

2. id -os -ta
3. id -os -te

Imperfect[edit]

There are two ways of forming the imperfect:

1. If the infinitive stems ends in -a or , the interfix -ax- is appended (which changes to -aš- according to the first palatalization in front of e) and onto it, the endings of the asigmatic aorist: -ъ, -e, -e; -omъ, -ete, ; -ově, -eta, -ete.

Verb Singular Plural Dual
glagolati (glagola-) 1. glagola -ax -ъ

2. glagola - -e
3. glagola - -e

1. glagola -ax -omъ

2. glagola - -ete
3. glagola -ax -ǫ

1. glagola -ax -ově

2. glagola - -eta
3. glagola - -ete

viděti (vidě-) 1. vidě -ax -ъ

2. vidě - -e
3. vidě - -e

1. vidě -ax -omъ

2. vidě - -ete
3. vidě -ax -ǫ

1. vidě -ax -ově

2. vidě - -eta
3. vidě - -ete

2. The other way of forming the imperfect, applying to all other verbal stems, is by adding onto the present stem the interfix -ěax- (which, in accordance with the first palatalization, is changed to -ěaš- in front of e) and onto it the endings of asigmatic aorist: -ъ, -e, -e; -omъ, -ete, ; -ově, -eta, -ete.

Verb Singular Plural Dual
zъvati (zov-) 1. zov -ě -ax -ъ

2. zov -ě - -e
3. zov -ě - -e

1. zov -ě -ax -omъ

2. zov -ě - -ete
3. zov -ě -ax -ǫ

1. zov -ě -ax -ově

2. zov -ě - -eta
3. zov -ě - -ete

bosti (bod-) 1. bod -ě -ax -ъ

2. bod -ě - -e
3. bod -ě - -e

1. bod -ě -ax -omъ

2. bod -ě - -ete
3. bod -ě -ax -ǫ

1. bod -ě -ax -ově

2. bod -ě - -eta
3. bod -ě - -ete

Both of these imperfect formations often occur side by side in verbs with stem alternation:

  • bъrati (bъra-; ber-) > bъraaxъ or berěaxъ
  • gъnati (gъna-; žen-) > gъnaaxъ or ženěaxъ
  • plьvati (plьva-; pljuj-) > plьvaaxъ or pljujěaxъ
  • zъvati (zъva-; zov-) > zъvaaxъ or zověaxъ

In the texts of the OCS canon the forms are often contracted, so that ěax becomes ěx and aax becomes ax. An illustrating example is in Chernorizets Hrabar's famous work O pismenex "An Account of Letters":

Prěžde ubo slověne ne iměxǫ knigъ, črъtami i rězami čьtěxǫ i gataaxǫ, pogani sǫšte.

Some forms exhibit sound changes, namely palatalization or iotation in front of ě, yat thus turning into a. The same applies if the stem ends in j which is then reduced in front of yat and yat again changes into a:

  • xvaliti (xval-) > xval + ě + axъ > xvaljaaxъ
  • nositi (nos-) > nos + ě + axъ > nošaaxъ
  • pešti (pek-) > pek + ě + axъ > pečaaxъ
  • čuti (čuj-) > čuj + ě + axъ > čujaaxъ

That the second form and not the first is the original one (the first being formed by the change of yat to a) is confirmed by the imperfect paradigm of the verb byti:

Verb Singular Plural Dual
byti 1. běaxъ

2. běaše
3. běaše

1. běaxomъ

2. běašete
3. běaxǫ

1. běaxově

2. běašeta
3. běašete

Participles[edit]

Present active participle[edit]

The present active participle is formed by adding the following endings to the present stem:

1. e-type verbs and athematic verbs:

  • present stem + -y (masculine and neuter) and -ǫšti (feminine)
(e.g., greti (greb-) > greby; grebǫšti)

2. e-type verbs whose present stem ends in a palatal:

  • present stem + (masculine and neuter) and -ǫšti (feminine)
(e.g., kupovati (kupuj-) > kupuję, kupujǫšti)

3. i-type verbs:

  • present stem + (masculine and neuter) and -ęšti (feminine)
(e.g., ljubiti (ljub-) > ljubę, ljubęšti)

Present passive participle[edit]

The present passive participle is formed by suffixing to the present stem the endings -o/e/i + m + ъ/a/o (masculine, feminine, neuter):

1. e-type verbs and athematic verbs:

  • present stem + o + m + ъ/a/o
(e.g., pešti (pek-) > pekomъ, pekoma, pekomo)

2. e-type verbs whose stem ends in a palatal:

  • present stem + e + m + ъ/a/o
(e.g., želeti (želj-) > željemъ, željema, željemo)

3. i-type verbs:

  • present stem + i + m + ъ/a/o
(e.g., xvaliti (xval-) > xvalimъ, xvalima, xvalimo)

Past active participle[edit]

The past active participle is formed by suffixing to the infinitive stem the following endings:

1. e-type verbs and athematic verbs:

  • infinitive stem + (masculine and neuter) or -ъši (feminine)
(e.g., bosti (bod-) > bodъ, bodъši)

2. i-type verbs exhibit epenthetic v, which eliminates hiatus:

  • infinitive stem + -vъ (masculine and neuter) or -vъši (feminine)
(e.g., xvaliti (xvali-) > xvalъ, xvalъši)

The latter i-type verbs have twofold forms of this participle - the mentioned one of older origin, and a newer one which arose due to analogical leveling:

  • nositi (nosi-) > nošъ, nošъši (by iotation from + jъ, jъši) or nosivъ, nosivъši
  • roditi (rod-) > roždъ, roždъši (by iotation from + jъ, jъši) or rodivъ, rodivъši

3. Verbs with liquid metathesis form this participle from its older stem form:

  • mrěti (< *merti) > mьrъ, mьrъši (and not mrěvъ, mrěvъši)
  • prostrěti (< *prosterti) > prostьrъ, prostьrъši (and not prostrěvъ, prostrěvъši)

4. Irregular participles:

  • iti > šьdъ, šьdъši
  • jaxati > javъ, javъši

l-participle[edit]

The l-participle (also known as the resultative participle or second past active participle) is formed by adding to the infinitive stem the interfix -l- and the endings ъ/a/o. If the stem ends in -t or -d, this consonant is dropped.

  • xvaliti (xvali) > xvalilъ, xvalila, xvalilo
  • plesti (plet-) > plelъ, plela, plelo

Past passive participle[edit]

The past passive participle is formed by suffixing to the infinitive stem the following endings:

1. Verbs with stem ending in a consonant, -y or -i:

  • infinitive stem + en + ъ/a/o
(e.g., bosti (bod-) > bodenъ, bodena, bodeno)
(e.g., nositi (nosi-) > nošenъ, nošena, nošeno - by iotation from nosi + enъ > nosjenъ > nošenъ)
(e.g., umyti with interfix -ъv- > umъvenъ, umъvena, umъveno)

2. Verbs with stem ending in -a or :

  • infinitive stem + n + ъ/a/o
(e.g., glagolati (glagola-) > glagolanъ, glagolana, glagolano)
(e.g., viděti (vidě-) > vižden, viždena, viždeno - by iotation from viděn, viděna, viděno)

3. Verbs with stem ending in , -u, -i and (obtained by liquid metathesis):

  • infinitive stem + t + ъ/a/o
(e.g., klęti (klę-) > klętъ, klęta, klęto)
(e.g., obuti (obu-) > obutъ, obuta, obuto)
(e.g., mrěti (mrě-) > mrětъ, mrěta, mrěto)
(e.g., viti (vi-) > vitъ, vita, vito)

Of the latter verbs, those with stem ending in -i (viti, biti etc.) can also form the past passive participle like the verbs in the first group: bitъ or bijenъ, vitъ or vijenъ etc.).

Compound tenses[edit]

Perfect[edit]

The perfect is formed by combining the l-participle with the imperfective present forms of the auxiliary verb byti.

  • nosilъ/a/o jesmь, jesi, jestъ
  • nosili/y/a jesmъ, jeste, sǫtь
  • nosila/ě/ě jesvě, jesta, jeste

Pluperfect[edit]

The pluperfect can be formed in multiple ways, by combining the l-participle with the perfect, imperfect or aorist formation of the auxiliary verb byti.

  • nosilъ/a/o bylъ/a/o jesmь or běaxъ or běxъ
  • nosili/y/a byli/y/a jesmъ or běaxomъ or běxomъ
  • nosila/ě/ě byla/ě/ě jesvě or běaxově or běxově

Future[edit]

The future tense is usually expressed using the present tense form of the perfective verb. Imperfective verbs form the future tense by combining the auxiliary verb (byti, xotěti, načęti, iměti) and the infinitive.

  • bǫdǫ / xoštǫ / načьnǫ / imamь xvaliti

Future perfect[edit]

The future perfect is formed by combining the l-participle with the perfective present of the auxiliary verb byti.

  • nosilъ/a/o bǫdǫ, bǫdeši, bǫdetъ
  • nosili/y/a bǫdemъ, bǫdete, bǫdǫtъ
  • nosila/ě/ě bǫdevě, bǫdeta, bǫdete

Conditional[edit]

The conditional (or conditional-optative) modal formation is formed by combining the l-participle with special modal forms of the auxiliary verb byti (with unattested dual forms).

  • nosilъ/a/o bimь, bi, bi
  • nosili/y/a bimъ (bixomъ), biste, (byšę)

The alternate forms in the plural are formed by analogy with the aorist.

Adverbs[edit]

Primary adverbs[edit]

These are original adverbs with difficult to guess etymology and origin.

  • abьje (abije) = right away
  • jedъva = hardly, barely
  • ješte = yet, still
  • nyně = now, today
  • paky = again, back
  • (j)uže = already

Derived adverbs[edit]

Pronominal adverbs[edit]

Pronominal adverbs are derived by suffixing pronouns (e.g., ov + amo = ovamo, + de = kъde):

  • -amo = direction of movement (tamo, kamo, onamo)
  • -ako / -ače = way, mode, manner (tako, inako, inače)
  • -de = place (sьde, onude, vьsьde)
  • -gda = time (tъgda, kъgda, egda)
  • -lь / -li / / -lě / -lьma / -lьmi = measure, amount (kolь, kolě, kolьmi)

Nominal adverbs[edit]

Nominal adverbs are derived from nominals or turn by conversion to adverbs which are in fact inflective lexemes with adverbial semantics.

Modal adverbs are created with the suffixes -o or (the endings of accusative and locative singular neuter gender respectively), with no difference in meanings between suffixes, although some adverbs have only the forms in -o (veselo), and some in (javě).

Modal adverbs could also be formed deadjectivally by means of the interfix -ьsk- and the ending -y (by origin, the instrumental plural ending; e.g., slověnьsky).

Adverbs could also be formed with the suffix (pravь, različь) and are by origin probably inherited Proto-Slavic accusative forms.

Frequently occurring are the adverbialized a-stem instrumentals such as jednьnojǫ and also adverbially used oblique cases.

Locative adverbs are by origin mostly petrified locative case forms of nouns: gorě, dolě, nizu, and the same can be said for temporal adverbs: zimě, polu dьne.

Prepositions[edit]

Primary prepositions[edit]

The primary and non-derived prepositions are of PIE and PSl. heritage:

  • bez "without" + G
  • iz or is "from, out" + G
    izdrǫky < iz rǫky — from the hand
  • "to, for, unto" + D
    ..reče že Marθa kъ Iisusu.. — and Martha said unto Jesus
  • na "on, to, upon" + A (denoting direction) or L (denoting place)
    zlijašę ognь na zemьjǫ — they poured fire on earth
  • nadъ "on, upon, over" + A (denoting direction) or I (denoting place)
    nadъ glavǫ — over the head
  • o or ob "over, round, about" + A (denoting direction) or L (denoting place)
    ob noštь vьsǫ — the whole night through
  • otъ "from, away" + G
    otъ nebese — from heaven
  • po originally "under, below" + D (extension in space), A (extension in space or time) or L (temporal and local)
    po vьsę grady — through all towns
    po tomь že — after that
    po morjǫ xodę — walking over the sea
  • podъ "under, beneath" + A (denoting direction) or I (denoting situation, location)
    podъ nogy, podъ nogama — under the feet
  • pri "at, at the time" + L
    pri vraƷěxъ — among the heathen
  • prědъ "in front of, before" + A (denoting direction) or I (denoting situation)
    prědъ gradomь — in the vicinity of the city
  • "for the extent of" + A, "from, off, away" + G, "with" + I (denoting association, not instrument)
    sъ lakъtь — a cubit long
    sъ nebese — down from heaven
    sъ nimь — with him
  • u "at, in" + G
    u dvьrьcь — at the doors
  • "in" + A (denoting direction) or L (denoting place)
    vъ tъ dьnь — that day
    vъ kupě — together
  • vъz or vъs "for, in exchange for" + A
    vъs kǫjǫ — why?
  • za "for, after, behind" + A (denoting direction), I (denoting place) or G (in the sense "because")
    ęti za vlasy — to seize by the hair

Secondary prepositions[edit]

The secondary prepositions are derived from adverbial expressions: vьslědъ from vь slědъ, prěžde is a comparative form of prědъ etc.

Conjunctions and particles[edit]

Conjunctions and particles are not easily separable because they sometimes function as an intensifier, and sometimes as a conjunction.

  • a, ali "but" - (proclitic), setting two parts of a statement in opposition
  • ako, jako, ěko "that, so that, how, when, as" - (proclitic) introducing indirect or direct speech; highly context-dependent
  • ašte "if, whether" - (proclitic) a conditional particle, also used to generalize relative pronouns
  • bo "for, because" - (enclitic) denoting caustive relationships (i + bo = ibo, u + bo = ubo)
  • da "in order that" - (proclitic) introducing final result
  • i "and; even, too" - (proclitic) connecting clauses or used as an adverb within a clause
  • ide "for, since" - (proclitic)
  • jegda, jegdaže "when, if" - (proclitic)
  • jeda "surely not" - (proclitic), introducing a question expecting a negative answer
  • li "or", li...li "either... or" - (proclitic or enclitic) generally when forming a question; when enclitic, usually a direct question, when proclitic, taking the meaning "or"
  • ne "not", ne...ni "neither... nor" - ne generally occurs before the negated item, occurring usually once in the main clause, but ni may occur several times in the same clause
  • "but" - (proclitic) connecting two clauses
  • to "then, so" - (proclitic) correlative to ašte
  • že "on the other hand, or, and" - (enclitic) the commonest particle functioning both as an intensifier and a conjunction; often bound to pronouns and adverbs (jakože, nikъto že)

Syntax[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]