Old Crow, Yukon

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Old Crow
Teechik
Old Crow, Yukon1.jpg
Old Crow is located in Yukon
Old Crow
Old Crow
Coordinates: 67°34′N 139°48′W / 67.567°N 139.800°W / 67.567; -139.800Coordinates: 67°34′N 139°48′W / 67.567°N 139.800°W / 67.567; -139.800
Country Canada
Territory Yukon
Area[1]
 • Land 14.17 km2 (5.47 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 245
 • Density 17.3/km2 (45/sq mi)
 • Change 2006-11 Decrease-3.2%
Time zone Pacific (PST) (UTC-8)
 • Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)

Old Crow (Teechik[2] in Gwich’in) is a dry community in the Canadian Territory of Yukon and is a periglacial environment. It had 267 inhabitants as of 2008, most of them belonging to the Gwichʼin-speaking Aboriginal Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation. The community is situated on the Porcupine River in the far north of the territory. Old Crow is the only Yukon community that cannot be reached by car so one must fly in to the Old Crow Airport in order to reach it.

History[edit]

A large number of apparently human modified animal bones have been discovered in the Old Crow area, notably at Bluefish Caves, located near the shores of the Arctic Ocean, that have been dated to 25,000-40,000 years ago by carbon dating, several thousand years earlier than generally accepted human habitation of North America.[3]

A Native American chief named Deetru` K`avihdik, literally "Crow-May-I-Walk", helped settle a community here around the 1870s. The town was named after him.[4] The village was founded around muskrat trapping, which continues to provide basic income.

The people of Old Crow are dependent on the Porcupine caribou herd for food and clothing.[5] The Porcupine caribou herd migrates to the coastal plain in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska to give birth to their young. Many citizens of Old Crow believe the herd is being seriously threatened by oil-drilling in the ANWR and have been heavily involved in lobbying to prevent it.

Transportation[edit]

Old Crow Airport provides year-round transportation to other communities. During winter time, a temporary winter road is built to transport freight into Old Crow.[6]

Climate[edit]

View from the river bank

Old Crow has a cold subarctic climate. Average annual temperature is −8.3 °C (17.1 °F).[7] Old Crow experiences annual temperature average daily highs of 20.2 °C (68.4 °F) in July and average daily lows of −33.5 °C (−28.3 °F) in January.[7] Record high temperature was 32.8 °C (91.0 °F) on August 30, 1976 and the lowest was −59.4 °C (−74.9 °F) on January 5, 1975.[7] Old Crow has little precipitation with an average annual snowfall of 141.4 centimetres (55.67 in) and 154.8 millimetres (6.09 in) of rainfall.[7]

As Old Crow is located north of the Arctic Circle, it experiences polar day or midnight sun in summer and polar night in winter. The midnight sun is typically between May 5 and August 8 inclusive, while the polar night usually starts around December 14 and end by December 29.[8]

Climate data for Old Crow Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex 1.6 1.5 4.8 14.3 27.5 33.5 32.5 38.4 23.0 15.7 0.4 0.5 38.4
Record high °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
3.0
(37.4)
6.7
(44.1)
13.5
(56.3)
26.0
(78.8)
32.0
(89.6)
31.0
(87.8)
32.8
(91)
23.9
(75)
17.5
(63.5)
6.1
(43)
1.7
(35.1)
32.8
(91)
Average high °C (°F) −25.2
(−13.4)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−14.8
(5.4)
−3.7
(25.3)
8.4
(47.1)
19.1
(66.4)
20.2
(68.4)
16.2
(61.2)
7.9
(46.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
−19.0
(−2.2)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−3.2
(26.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −29.2
(−20.6)
−26.5
(−15.7)
−21.2
(−6.2)
−10.1
(13.8)
2.7
(36.9)
12.9
(55.2)
14.6
(58.3)
10.9
(51.6)
3.5
(38.3)
−8.8
(16.2)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−25.1
(−13.2)
−8.3
(17.1)
Average low °C (°F) −33.5
(−28.3)
−31.1
(−24)
−27.6
(−17.7)
−16.5
(2.3)
−3.0
(26.6)
6.6
(43.9)
8.9
(48)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.9
(30.4)
−12.2
(10)
−27.1
(−16.8)
−29.6
(−21.3)
−13.4
(7.9)
Record low °C (°F) −59.4
(−74.9)
−54.4
(−65.9)
−48.3
(−54.9)
−39.5
(−39.1)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−8.3
(17.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
−9.5
(14.9)
−22.5
(−8.5)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−47.0
(−52.6)
−56.7
(−70.1)
−59.4
(−74.9)
Wind chill −59.6 −55.8 −53.3 −44.5 −31.2 −12.2 0.0 −11.5 −20.3 −43.7 −53.2 −57.3 −59.6
Precipitation mm (inches) 13.1
(0.516)
13.8
(0.543)
14.4
(0.567)
9.5
(0.374)
14.4
(0.567)
37.2
(1.465)
43.5
(1.713)
46.7
(1.839)
29.0
(1.142)
22.1
(0.87)
18.1
(0.713)
16.7
(0.657)
278.6
(10.969)
Rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.1
(0.004)
0.0
(0)
0.7
(0.028)
8.3
(0.327)
34.5
(1.358)
43.5
(1.713)
45.8
(1.803)
20.0
(0.787)
2.0
(0.079)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
154.8
(6.094)
Snowfall cm (inches) 15.5
(6.1)
16.4
(6.46)
16.6
(6.54)
9.7
(3.82)
6.6
(2.6)
2.8
(1.1)
0.0
(0)
1.0
(0.39)
9.3
(3.66)
23.0
(9.06)
21.6
(8.5)
18.9
(7.44)
141.4
(55.67)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 9.2 9.6 9.4 6.6 6.3 10.8 13.6 14.4 12.6 13.6 11.9 11.4 129.3
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 3.6 10.5 13.6 14.3 9.3 1.0 0.0 0.0 53.0
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 10.0 9.9 9.5 6.2 3.1 0.8 0.0 0.4 3.9 13.2 12.6 11.8 81.5
 % humidity 78.7 76.5 77.0 70.4 54.6 47.0 53.3 60.2 66.5 80.3 79.5 78.9 68.6
Source: Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010[7]

Population data[edit]

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1991 256 —    
1996 278 +8.6%
2001 299 +7.6%
2006 253 −15.4%
2011 245 −3.2%

Notable residents[edit]

Edith Josie, journalist

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses
  2. ^ ANLC : Alaska Native Place Names
  3. ^ Morlan, R.E. (1986), Pleistocene archaeology in Old Crow Basin: a critical reappraisal. In Bryan, A.L.,ed. New Evidence for the Pleistocene Peopling of the Americas. Orono, Maine,Center for the study of Early Man, pp.27-48. 
  4. ^ http://www.oldcrow.ca/history.htm
  5. ^ Fralic, Shelley (5 November 2009). "Olympic celebration and survival in Old Crow". National Post. Retrieved 4 February 2011. 
  6. ^ "Old Crow winter road challenges truckers". CBC News. 2014-03-03. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "Old Crow A" (CSV (2874 KB)). Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2100800. Retrieved 2014-02-20. 
  8. ^ Sunrise Sunset Old Crow 2012
  9. ^ "2011 Community Profiles". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. July 5, 2013. Retrieved 2012-05-14. 
  10. ^ "2006 Community Profiles". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Josie, Edith. Old Crow News: The Best of Edith Josie, 1964. Whitehorse, Yukon: Whitehorse Star, 1964.
  • McSkimming, Robert James. Territory, Territoriality and Cultural Change in an Indigenous Society: Old Crow, Yukon Territory. [S.l: s.n.], 1975.

External links[edit]