Indo-Aryan languages

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Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution:
South Asia
Linguistic classification: Indo-European
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-5: inc
Linguasphere: 59= (phylozone)
Glottolog: indo1321[1]
{{{mapalt}}}
Geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan languages. (Urdu is included under Hindi. Romani, Domari, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.)

The Indo-Aryan (or Indic) languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people. They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Indo-Aryan speakers form about one half of all Indo-European speakers (approx 1.5 of 3 billion), and more than half of all Indo-European languages recognized by Ethnologue.

The largest in terms of native speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 240 million), Bengali (about 230 million), Punjabi (about 110 million),[2] Marathi (about 70 million), Gujarati (about 45 million), Bhojpuri (about 40 million), Oriya (about 30 million), Sindhi (about 20 million), Sinhala (about 16 million), Nepali (about 14 million), and Assamese (about 13 million), with a total number of native speakers of more than 900 million.

History[edit]

Indian subcontinent[edit]

Old Indo-Aryan[edit]

The earliest evidence of the group is from Vedic Sanskrit, the proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages which is used in the ancient preserved texts of the Indian subcontinent, the foundational canon of Hinduism known as the Vedas. The Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni is of similar age to the language of the Rigveda (and almost identical), but the only evidence of it is a few proper names and specialized loanwords.

In about the 4th century BCE, the Vedic Sanskrit language was codified and standardized by the grammarian Panini, called "Classical Sanskrit" by convention.

Middle Indo-Aryan (Prakrits)[edit]

Outside the learned sphere of Sanskrit, vernacular dialects (Prakrits) continued to evolve. The oldest attested Prakrits are the Buddhist and Jain canonical languages Pali and Ardha Magadhi, respectively. By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan dialects. "Apabhramsa" is the conventional cover term for transitional dialects connecting late Middle Indo-Aryan with early Modern Indo-Aryan, spanning roughly the 6th to 13th centuries. Some of these dialects showed considerable literary production; the Sravakachar of Devasena (dated to the 930s) is now considered to be the first Hindi book.

The next major milestone occurred with the Muslim conquests on the Indian subcontinent in the 13th–16th centuries. Under the flourishing Mughal empire, Persian became very influential as the language of prestige of the Islamic courts due to adoptation of the foreign language by the Mughal emperors. However, Persian was soon displaced by Hindustani. This Indo-Aryan language is a combination with Persian elements in its vocabulary, with the grammar of the local dialects.

The two largest languages that formed from Apabhramsa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Gujarati, Oriya, Marathi, and Punjabi.

New Indo-Aryan[edit]

Dialect continuum[edit]

The Indo-Aryan languages of Northern India (that includes Assam Valley as for the language Assamese) and Pakistan form a dialect continuum. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskrit-ized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals. However, the term Hindi is also used for most of the central Indic dialects from Bihar to Rajasthan. The Indo-Aryan prakrits also gave rise to languages like Gujarati, Assamese, Bengali, Oriya, Nepali, Marathi, and Punjabi, which are not considered to be part of this dialect continuum.

Hindustani[edit]

In the Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. Hindustani was strongly influenced by Sanskrit and Persian, with these influences leading to the emergence of Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu as registers of the Hindustani language.[3][4] This state of affairs continued until the Partition of India in 1947, when Hindi became the official language in India and Urdu became official in Pakistan. In contemporary times, there is a continuum of Hindi–Urdu, with heavily-Persianised Urdu at one end and Sanskritised Hindi at the other, although the basic grammar remains identical. Most speakers of Hindustani speak something in between these extremes.

Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni[edit]

Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni, the deities Mitra, Varuna, Indra, and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. Kikkuli's horse training text includes technical terms such as aika (eka, one), tera (tri, three), panza (pancha, five), satta (sapta, seven), na (nava, nine), vartana (vartana, turn, round in the horse race). The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general [5]

Another text has babru (babhru, brown), parita (palita, grey), and pinkara (pingala, red). Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. The Mitanni warriors were called marya, the term for warrior in Sanskrit as well; note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha, ≈ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg, 1986–2000; Vol. II:358).

Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni royal names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780), Biridashva (biridašṷa, biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182), Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189, II378), Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553), Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134), Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540, 696), Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine, Mayrhofer II 209, 735), Tushratta (tṷišeratta, tušratta, etc.) as *tṷaiašaratha, Vedic Tvastr "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer, Etym. Wb., I 686, I 736).

Romani language[edit]

Main article: Romani language

The Romani language is usually included in the Central Indo-Aryan languages.[6] Romani is conservative in maintaining almost intact the Middle Indo-Aryan present-tense person concord markers, and in maintaining consonantal endings for nominal case – both features that have been eroded in most other modern languages of Central India. It shares an innovative pattern of past-tense person concord with the languages of the Northwest, such as Kashmiri and Shina. This is believed to be further proof that Romani originated in the Central region, then migrated to the Northwest.

There are no known historical documents about the early phases of the Romani language.

Linguistic evaluation carried out in the nineteenth century by Pott (1845) and Miklosich (1882–1888) showed that the Romani language is to be a New Indo-Aryan language (NIA), not a Middle Indo-Aryan (MIA), establishing that the ancestors of the Romani could not have left India significantly earlier than AD 1000.

The principal argument favouring a migration during or after the transition period to NIA is the loss of the old system of nominal case, and its reduction to just a two-way case system, nominative vs. oblique. A secondary argument concerns the system of gender differentiation. Romani has only two genders (masculine and feminine). Middle Indo-Aryan languages (named MIA) generally had three genders (masculine, feminine and neuter), and some modern Indo-Aryan languages retain this old system even today.

It is argued that loss of the neuter gender did not occur until the transition to NIA. Most of the neuter nouns became masculine while a few feminine, like the neuter अग्नि (agni) in the Prakrit became the feminine आग (āg) in Hindi and jag in Romani. The parallels in grammatical gender evolution between Romani and other NIA languages have been cited as evidence that the forerunner of Romani remained on the Indian subcontinent until a later period, perhaps even as late as the tenth century.

Classification[edit]

There can be no definitive enumeration of Indic languages, as their dialects merge into one another. Named languages are therefore social constructs as much as objective ones. The major ones are illustrated here; for the details, see the dedicated articles.

The classification follows Masica (1991) and Kausen (2006).

Dardic[edit]

Main article: Dardic languages

The representative languages are:

Pashayi, Khowar, Kohistani, Shina, Kashmiri

Northern Zone[edit]

Central Pahari
Garhwali, Kumauni
Eastern Pahari
Nepali (Gurkhali), etc.

North-Western Zone[edit]

Dogri–Kangri region
Dogri–Kangri (Western Pahari)
Dogri, Kangri, Mandeali, etc.
Punjabi (Eastern Punjabi)
Lahnda (Western Punjabi)
Sindhi

Western Zone[edit]

Rajasthani
Marwari, Rajasthani
Gujarati
Bhil
Khandeshi

Central Zone (Madhya or Hindi)[edit]

Indic, Central Zone
Main article: Hindi languages
Western Hindi
Hindustani, Haryanvi, etc.
Eastern Hindi
Fijian Hindi, Chhattisgarhi, etc.
DomariRomani[7]

Eastern Zone (Magadhan)[edit]

These languages evolved circa 1000–1200 CE from eastern Middle Indo-Aryan dialects of Madhesh, Nepal such as the Magadhi Prakrit, Pali (the language of Gautama Buddha of Nepal and the major language of Buddhism), and Ardhamagadhi ("Half-Magadhi") from a dialect or group of dialects that were close, but not identical to, Vedic and Classical Sanskrit.[8]

Bihari
Halbic
Bengali–Assamese
Oriya

Bhojpuri (incl. Caribbean Hindustani), though it is an eastern Indo Aryan language, it is more similar to Central group.

NepalMadhesi

Maithili
Tharu

Southern Zone languages[edit]

These group of languages developed from Maharashtri. It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.

Marathi

Konkani

Insular Indic
Sinhalese, Maldivian

The insular languages share several characteristics that set them apart significantly from the continental languages.

Unclassified[edit]

The following languages are related to each other, but otherwise unclassified within Indic:

Kuswaric[9]

Dhanwar (Rai), Bote and Darai

Chinali–Lahul Lohar[10]

Chinali, Lahul Lohar

The following other poorly attested languages are listed as unclassified within the Indo-Aryan family by Ethnologue 17:

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Stop positions[11][edit]

The normative system of New Indo-Aryan stops consists of five points of articulation: labial, dental, "retroflex", palatal, and velar, which is the same as that of Sanskrit. The "retroflex" position may involve retroflexion, or curling the tongue to make the contact with the underside of the tip, or merely retraction. The point of contact may be alveolar or postalveolar, and the distinctive quality may arise more from the shaping than from the position of the tongue. Palatals stops have affricated release and are traditionally included as involving a distinctive tongue position (blade in contact with hard palate). Widely transcribed as [tʃ], Masica (1991:94) claims [cʃ] to be a more accurate rendering.

Moving away from the normative system, some languages and dialects have alveolar affricates [ts] instead of palatal, though some among them retain [tʃ] in certain positions: before front vowels (esp. /i/), before /j/, or when geminated. Alveolar as an additional point of articulation occurs in Marathi and Konkani where dialect mixture and others factors upset the aforementioned complementation to produce minimal environments, in some West Pahari dialects through internal developments (*t̪ɾ, > /tʃ/), and in Kashmiri. The addition of a retroflex affricate to this in some Dardic languages maxes out the number of stop positions at seven (barring borrowed /q/), while a reduction to the inventory involves *ts > /s/, which has happened in Assamese, Chittagonian, Sinhala (though there have been other sources of a secondary /ts/), and Southern Mewari.

Further reductions in the number of stop articulations are in Assamese and Romany, which have lost the characteristic dental/retroflex contrast, and in Chittagonian, which may lose its labial and velar articulations through spirantization in many positions (> [f, x]).

Stop series Language(s)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, //, /k/ Hindi, Punjabi, Dogri, Sindhi, Gujarati, Bihari, Maithili, Sinhala, Oriya, Standard Bengali, dialects of Rajasthani (except Lamani, NW. Marwari, S. Mewari)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, /k/ Nepali, E. and N. dialects of Bengali (Dacca, Maimansing, Rajshahi), dialects of Rajasthani (Lamani and NW. Marwari), Northern Lahnda's Kagani, Kumauni, many West Pahari dialects (not Chamba Mandeali, Jaunsari, or Sirmauri)
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, /k/ Marathi, Konkani, certain W. Pahari dialects (Bhadrawahi, Bhalesi, Padari, Simla, Satlej, maybe Kulu), Kashmiri
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /ts/, //, //, /k/ Shina, Bashkarik, Gawarbati, Phalura, Kalasha, Khowar, Shumashti, Kanyawali, Pashai
/p/, //, /ʈ/, /k/ Rajasthani's S. Mewari
/p/, /t/, /k/ Assamese
/p/, /t/, //, /k/ Romani
//, /ʈ/ Chittagonian

Nasals[12][edit]

Sanskrit was noted as having five nasal-stop articulations corresponding to its oral stops, and among modern languages and dialects Dogri, Kacchi, Kalasha, Rudhari, Shina, Saurasthtri, and Sindhi have been analyzed as having this full complement of phonemic nasals /m/ /n/ /ɳ/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/, with the last two generally as the result of the loss of the stop from a homorganic nasal + stop cluster ([ɲj] > [ɲ] and [ŋɡ] > [ŋ]), though there are other sources as well.

Charts[edit]

The following are consonant systems of major and representative New Indo-Aryan languages, as presented in Masica (1991:106–107), though here they are in IPA. Parentheses indicate those consonants found only in loanwords: square brackets indicate those with "very low functional load". The arrangement is roughly geographical.

Romani
p t (ts) k
b d (dz) ɡ ɡʲ
tʃʰ
m n
(f) s ʃ x ()
v (z) ʒ ɦ
ɾ l
j
Shina
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ ɖʐ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ tʂʰ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
(f) s ɽ
w j
Kashmiri
p ʈ ts k t̪ʲ ʈʲ tsʲ
b ɖ ɡ d̪ʲ ɖʲ ɡʲ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ tʃʰ pʲʰ t̪ʲʰ ʈʲʰ tsʲʰ kʲʰ
m n ɲ
s ʃ
z ɦ ɦʲ
ɾ l ɾʲ lʲ
w j
Saraiki
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ
m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
ɳʱ
s (ʃ) (x)
(z) (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Punjabi
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
m n ɳ ŋ
(f) s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
[w] [j]
Nepali
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tsʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s (ɣ) ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɾʱ lʱ ɽʱ
w j
Marwari
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
ɓ ɗ̪ ɗ ɠ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ ɭ
w j
Hindustani
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
(f) s ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
ɽʱ
([w]) ([j])
Assamese
p t k
b d g
ɡʱ
m n ŋ
s x
z ɦ
ɾ l
[w]
Bengali
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n
ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɽ
[w] [j]
Gujarati
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
ɳʱ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Marathi
p ʈ ts k
b ɖ dz ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dzʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ʃ ɦ
ɾ l ɭ
ɾʱ lʱ
w j
Oriya
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ
d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ
m n ɳ
s ɦ
ɾ l [ɽ] ɭ
[ɽʱ]
[w] [j]
Sinhala
p ʈ k
b ɖ ɡ
ᵐb ⁿ̪d̪ ᶯɖ ᵑɡ
m n ɲ ŋ
s ɦ
ɾ l
w j

Language comparison chart[edit]

English Vedic Sanskrit Gujarati Marathi Hindi Punjabi Bengali Kashmiri Bhojpuri Oriya Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)
beautiful sundara sundar sundar sundar sohnā shundor sondar suhnar/khapsoorat sundara dhuniya, xundôr sundar sonduru,sundara sundar sundaro shukar sohnra
blood rakta, loha lohi, khoon, rakt rakta khūn, rakta, lahū lahū, khūn rôkto, lohit, lohu ratth khūn, lahū rakta tez shonit le,rudiraya,ruhiru ragat rat laho, rat
bread rotika paũ, roṭlā chapāti, poli chapātī, roṭī roṭi (pau-)ruṭi tçhot roṭī pauruṭi pauruti roṭi paan paũroṭi manro roti, ma(n)ri, dhodha
bring anayati lā- ān- lā- lyā ano ann lāv- nai an- an- anaah ghenna lyaunu anel ghin aa, Lai aa
brother bhatar, bandhu bhāi bhau, bandhu bhāī prā, pāi, vīr bhai boéy bhāī, bhaīyā bhai, bhaina bhaiti sahodaraya, beeya bhaai, dai, daju phral bhrā, vīr, lala
come āgatah āv- ā- ā, āo, ājā asho, ai vall āv- ās-, ā- ānha, ānhok ā- enna āunu āgachcha āvel āo
cry rodana, rava raḍ- raḍ- rō- rō- kãd, kando-, rodan wódun ro- kanda kand- adanawa,handanawa runu rodanam rovel rovanra
dark andhakara andhārũ andhār andhera hanerā ôndhokar, ãdhar anyí-got anhār, anhera andhāra andhar, ôndhôkar anduru,andhakara andhyaro andhakaaro kalo andhara
daughter putrī, duhitṛ chhokḍi lek, mulagī beṭi tī, kuri me-lok koor dhiyā, beṭi, chhori jhiya ziyari, ziyek duva,du chhori chhai Dhee
day divasa, dina divas divas, din,dina din din, dihara din, dibôsh dóh din dina din dinaya,dawasa din dives denh, jehara
do karoti kar- kar- kar- kar- koro kar kar- kara- kôr- kar- karanna garnu kerel karo
door dvāra, kapāṭa kerel dār, darvāzā darvāzā, kavad būha, dar, darvāza dôrja, dur darwaaz, dār, daer ("window") darvājā, kevadi daraja, kabata duar, dôrza dora,duwaraya dhoka vudar buha, dar
die marana, glah mar- mar- mar-, mar jā- mar-, mar ja- môr, more ja-, mara ja- marun mu, mar ja mar- môr- maranaya,maruna marnu merel marna
egg aṇḍa iṇḍũ aṇḍa anḍā aṇḍā ḍim thool anḍā anḍā, ḍimba koni bitharaya,biju andaa anro anda, aana
salt kshar mithu lavan/meeth namak lūn/nūn namak lobon/noon noon noon/namak labana labon nimak/noon lunu nun khar/lavan lon loon/noon
earth prithvi, mahi, bhuvana pruthvi pruthvi, dharani prithvī, dhartī, zamīn jag, jahān, tarti, zamīn prithibi, duniya daertī (voiced-aspirated /dh/ > /d/) jamīn, pirthvi pruthibi prithibi pruthuvi,polova,bhoomi,bima prithivi phuv zameen, dharti
eye netra, lochna āñkh netra, ḍoḷā āñkh akh chokh aéchh āñkh ākhi soku ainkh asa,akshi,neth,nuwan aankha yakh akh
father pitra, janaka bāp pitā, vaḍil, bāba bāp piyō, abba bābā, abbā, bap mol, bab bāp, bābuji, pitāji bāpa, bābā dêuta piya,thatha buwā, pitā dad abbā, piyoo
fear bhaya, bhi bik, ḍar bhītī, bhaya, ghābra ḍar, ghabrāhat ḍar bhôe, ḍôr dar ḍar ḍara bhoi bhay baya,biya dar dar, trash darr
finger aguli, aguliyaka āñgḷi bōt anguli, ungli ungal, ungli ang-gul ungij anguri ānguthi anguli āngur angili aunla angusht ungil
fire agni, bhujyu agni, jvaḷa āg, agni, jāl āg agg agun agénn, nār āgh agni, nia zui agni,gini āgo manta yag bhaa
fish matsya māchhli māsa machhlī machhī machh gāda machhri mācha mas masun,mathasya,malu māchā machho machhey
food bhojana, khadati anna, khorāk, poshaṇ jēvana, bhojan khānā, bhojan khānā khabar khyann khana, ann-roti khādya, bhojana ahar, khaiddyô, khuwa bostu āhāra,kema,bojun,bhojana khānā, anna, āhār xal roti-tukkur, khanra
go gachati jā- jā- jā- jā- ja-, jao-, gê- gatçh ja- zu-, za- yanna janu jal vanj
god deva, ishwara, parmeshwara, devata parmeshvar, dev, bhagvān dev, parmeshwar, ishwar bhagvān, parmeshvar, ishvar, khudā pagvān, rab, waheguru, khudā bhôgoban, rab, ishshor, khoda dai, divta, bagvān, parmeeshar bhagvān, mālik, iswar, daiva, daiya bhagabāna, ṭhākura, diyan debôta, bhôgôwan devi,devathava bhagawaan, dewataa, ishwor devel rab, mālik
good shobhna, uttama sārũ changla achhā changa, wadia, palā bhalo rut (moral "good"), jān (physical "good") badhiya, changa, achha bhāla bhal neek, neeman hondhai raamro lachho, mishto changa
grass truna, kusha ghāsthāro gavata ghās kāh ghash dramunn ghās ghāsa ghã thana,thruna ghaas char ghā
hand hasta hāth hāt hāth hath hat atth hāth hāta hat atha,hasthaya hāt vast hat
head shira, mastaka, kapāla māthũ ḍoke sir, shīsh sir, sīs matha kalla sīr munḍa mur oluwa,sirasa tauko, seer shero ser
heart hrdaya hruday rudaya dil dil hridôe ryeda dil, hivara, jiyara hrudaya hridai, hiyan hada,herdaya hridaya, mutu ilo Dil
horse ashva, ghotaka, hayi ghoḍũ ghoda ghoṛa koṛa ghoṛa gur ghoṛa ghoda ghůra ashvaya,thuranga ghoda khoro, grast ghora
house graha, alaya ghar ghar kār ghôr gar (voiced-aspirate /gh/ > /g/) ghar ghara ghôr gedhara,gruha ghar kher ghar
hunger bubuksha, kshudhā bhukh bhūkh bhūkh pukh khide bo'tchh bhūkh bhoka bhuk kusagini,badagini bhok bokh bhuk
language bhasha, vaani bhāshā bhāshā bhāshā, zabān boli, zabān, pasha bhasha booyl, zabān bhākhā, boli, jubaan bhāsā bhaxa bhāshā bhashawa,basa bhaashaa chhib boli, zaban
laugh (v.) hāsa, smera has- hās- hãs- has- hãsh- assun hãs- hās- hã- hina,sinaha,sina hasnu asal khill
life jivana, jani jivan, jindagi jīvan, jīv jīvan, zindagī jindrī, jīvan, zindagi jibon zoo, zindagayn jinigi jibana, prāna zibôn jiban jeevithe jeewan, jindagi jivipen zindgey
moon chandramā, soma, māsa chandra, chāndo chandra chandramā, chandā, chānd chann, chānd chãd, chôndro tçandram channa, channarma, mah chandra zunbai chandra,sandu,handa chandramā, juun chhon chandr
mother janani, martr mā, bā āi, māi mā, bebe, amma ma, amma, mao maeyj matāri, māi, amma mā, bou ai, ma myay mawa,amma,matha aamaa, maataa dai amma, maa
mouth moḍhũ, mukh tond, mukha mūñh mūñh, mukh aaes mūñh mukh mukh moonh mukha, kata mui mukh
name nāma nām nāv nām nam naav nā, nām nāma, nā nam nām nama nām nav
night raatri, rajani rāt, rātri, nishā rātra rāt, rātri, nishā rāt rat, ratri, ratro raath rāt rāti rati rat rāthriya,rae raat, raatri raat
open uttana, udhatita khullũ khol, ughad khulā khulla, khol khola khol khullā kholā khula harinna khulla rat khulla
peace shānti shānti, shāntatā shānti shānti, aman shānti, aman, sakūn shanti aman, shaenti sānti-sakoon, aman sānti xanti shaanti, aman samaya,shāntiya shaanti kotor aman, sakoon
place stapana, sthala, bhu jagyā, sthaļ sthān, sthal, jāga sthān, jagah jagā, thāñ, asthān jaega, sthan, jomin jaay jagah jāgā thai sthanaya thaaun, sthal than jaga
queen rāni, rājpatni rāṇi, madhurāṇi rāni, rājmātā rāni, malkā rāni, malka rāni māhraeny (also used for "newly-wed bride") rāni, begam rāṇi rani rajina,devi,bisawa rāni rani, thagarni ranri, malka
read pathati, vachana vānch- vāch- paṛh- paṛh- pôṛ- parun paṛh- paḍh- pôṛh- kiyawanna padh- chaduvu parhnra, parh
rest vishrama ārām vishrām ārām arām aram, bishrom araam rām ārām, visrām zirani vishrāma shalawa,thanayama ārām, bishrām Araam
say vadati, vadanti bōl- bōl-, sāng- bōl-, keh- bōl, ākh, keh bôl- vann bōl- kah- kũ- baiju pawasanna,kiyanna bhannu phenel bol, aakh
sister svasr, bhagini bêhn bhagini, baheen behn pēn, didi bon, apa, didi baeynn bahin, didi, didiya bhauṇi bhonti bahin bhaen,bhaengi sohouri,souri phen bheinr
small alpa, laghu, kanishtha nāhnũ lahān, laghu chhoṭā nikka, chhoṭā chhoṭo lokutt, nyika, pyoonth chhoṭ, nanhi choṭa, sana xoru chhoit chuti,podi saano tikno, xurdo nikka, chauta
son sunu, putra chhokḍo mulgā bēṭā put, puttar, munḍa chhele, pola nyechu, pothur putt/chhora pua putek puthra,putha,puthu chhora chhavo putr
soul ātmā, atasa ātmā ātmā ātmā, rūh ātmā, rūh attã, ãtta āthmā rūh ātmā ātmā ātmā ātmā di rooh
sun sūrya sūraj, sūrya sūrya sūrya, sūraj sūraj shūrjo, roud siri sūraj sūrjya xuirzyô, baeli sūraj ira,hiru,sūrya sūrya kham sijh
ten dasha das dahā das das, daha dôsh duh das dasa dôh dahaya,dasa dus desh dah
three trī, trayah traṇ tīn tīn tin tin t're tīn tini tini thuna tin trin trai
village grāma gāñḍu gāv, khēda gāoñ pinḍ, gāñ gram, gaon gām gāoñ-dehāt, jageer gān, grāma gaon gama,gramaya gaun gav dehat, jhoauk, vasti
want ichhati, kankshati, amati, apekshita joi- pāhijē, havē chāh- chāh- chāh- yatshun, kan'tchun chāh- darakara lôg- oone,awashyayi chaahanaa kamel, mangel chah
water pāniya, jala pāṇi pāṇi pāni, jal pāni, jal pāni, jôl poyn, zal (used for "urine" only) pāni pāṇi, jala pani jalaya,wathura,paen pāni, jal pani panri
when kada, ched kyahre kēvhā, kadhee kab kad, kadoñ kôkhon, kôbe karr kab kebe ketiyan kakhan, kahiya kawadhada,kedinada kahile kana kadanr
wind pavan, vāyu, vātā havā, pavan vāra havā, pavan havā, paun batash, haoa tshath, hava hāvā pabana bôtãh hulan, sulan, pavana, vathaya huri, batas balval hava, phook
wolf vrka, shvaka shiyāl kōlha bhēṛhiyā pēṛhiyā, baghiyār sheal vrukh bhērhiyā gadhiyā xiyal siyār vurkaya shyaal, bwanso ruv baghiyaar
woman nāri, vanitā, strī, mahilā, lalanā mahilā, nāri bāi, mahilā, stree aurat, strī, mahilā, nāri aurat, zanāni, tīvīn mohila, nari, shtri zanaan mehraru, aurat, janaani stree, nāri mohila, maiki manuh kanthawa,gahaniya,sthriya,

mahilawa,lalanawa,liya,landa,vanithawa

mahilaa, naari, stree juvli aurat, treimat, zaal, zanaani
year varsh, shārad varash varsh sāl, varsh sāl, varah bôchhor váreeh sāl barsa bôsôr barxa varshaya barsha bersh saal
yes / no hyah, kam / na, ma hā / nā hōy, hō, hā / nāhi, nā hāñ / nā, nahīñ hāñ, āho / nā, nahīñ hê, hoi, ho, oi / na aa / ná, ma hāñ / nā han / hoi / nohoi ow / nā ho / hoina, la / nai va / na ha / na
yesterday hyah, gatdinam, gatkale (gai-)kāl(-e) kāl kal kal (gôto-)kal(-ke) kāla, rāth kālh (gata-)kāli (zuwa-)kali ēyeh hijo ij kal
English Vedic Sanskrit Gujarati Marathi Hindi Punjabi Bengali Kashmiri Bhojpuri Oriya Assamese Maithili Sinhala Nepali Pali Romani Saraiki (Southern Punjabi)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Indo-Aryan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ "världens-100-största-språk-2010". Nationalencyclopedin. Govt. of Sweden publication. Retrieved 30 August 2013. 
  3. ^ Kulshreshtha, Manisha; Mathur, Ramkumar (24 March 2012). Dialect Accent Features for Establishing Speaker Identity: A Case Study. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4614-1137-6. 
  4. ^ Robert E. Nunley, Severin M. Roberts, George W. Wubrick, Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ... 
  5. ^ Paul Thieme, The 'Aryan' Gods of the Mitanni Treaties. JAOS 80, 1960, 301–17
  6. ^ "Romani (subgroup)". SIL International. n.d. Retrieved September 15, 2013. 
  7. ^ treated as a separate group by Kausen
  8. ^ Oberlies, Thomas Pali: A Grammar of the Language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka, Walter de Gruyter, 2001.
  9. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kuswaric". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  10. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Chinali–Lahul Lohar". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  11. ^ Masica (1991:94–95)
  12. ^ Masica (1991:95–96)
  • John Beames, A comparative grammar of the modern Aryan languages of India: to wit, Hindi, Panjabi, Sindhi, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, and Bangali. Londinii: Trübner, 1872–1879. 3 vols.
  • Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, eds. (2003), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 .
  • Madhav Deshpande (1979). Sociolinguistic attitudes in India: An historical reconstruction. Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers. ISBN 0-89720-007-1, ISBN 0-89720-008-X (pbk).
  • Chakrabarti, Byomkes (1994). A comparative study of Santali and Bengali. Calcutta: K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-128-9
  • Erdosy, George. (1995). The Indo-Aryans of ancient South Asia: Language, material culture and ethnicity. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-014447-6.
  • Kobayashi, Masato.; & George Cardona (2004). Historical phonology of old Indo-Aryan consonants. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. ISBN 4-87297-894-3.
  • Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 .
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1980). Fresh light on Indo-European classification and chronology. Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Misra, Satya Swarup. (1991–1993). The Old-Indo-Aryan, a historical & comparative grammar (Vols. 1–2). Varanasi: Ashutosh Prakashan Sansthan.
  • Sen, Sukumar. (1995). Syntactic studies of Indo-Aryan languages. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Foreign Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.
  • Vacek, Jaroslav. (1976). The sibilants in Old Indo-Aryan: A contribution to the history of a linguistic area. Prague: Charles University.

External links[edit]