The church congregation was founded in 1706 as St. Paul's Church and was established by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. The church building was constructed in 1707. The church contains box pews, a balcony, and an organ built in 1680 by Bernard Smith, which is among the oldest organs still used in services in the United States. The Episcopal Diocese of Rhode Island currently owns the building, and it is administered by a trust which has representatives of the modern Saint Paul's Church in Wickford. A more modern church building, known as St. Paul's Church, is located nearby and currently the congregation meets there. The portraitist, Gilbert Stuart, was baptized in Old Narragansett Church in 1756. The church was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973 and has a small churchyard cemetery.