List of the oldest buildings in the United States
This article attempts to list the oldest extant freestanding buildings constructed in the United States and its territories. The list also includes sites in current states and territories that were not part of the original Thirteen Colonies when the United States of America was founded in 1776. Sites on the list are generally from the First Period of American architecture or earlier.
|Ancestral Puebloan communities||New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah||NM
|750 – Pueblo construction begins in CE 750 and continues to present||Villages||Majority of settlements abandoned, but some very well preserved. Buildings have been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed.|
|Taos Pueblo||north of the modern city of Taos||NM||1000 – Built between 1000 and 1450 CE||Residential||Said to be the oldest continuously inhabited houses still occupied. Buildings have been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed.|
|Acoma Pueblo||on top of a 367-foot (112 m) sandstone mesa in Cibola County||NM||1000 – Built between 1000 and 1200 CE||Residential||Said to be the oldest continuously inhabited site in the U.S.. Buildings have been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed.|
|Cathedral of San Juan Bautista||Old San Juan||PR||1521||Religious||Part of the San Juan National Historic Site. Oldest church building in the US and its territories, originally built in its current location (extensive additions and renovations). The Cathedral has been on U.S. territory since Puerto Rico was annexed in 1898.|
|San José Church||Old San Juan||PR||1532||Religious||Part of the San Juan National Historic Site. Additions and renovations over the centuries. The church has been on U.S. territory since Puerto Rico was annexed in 1898.|
|La Fortaleza||Old San Juan||PR||1533||Government||Part of the San Juan National Historic Site. Oldest executive mansion in the New World. Extensive reconstructions took place. Building has been within the U.S. since 1898 when Puerto Rico was annexed.|
|Castillo San Felipe del Morro||Old San Juan||PR||1539||Government||Part of the San Juan National Historic Site. Construction started in 1539, with extensive additions over the centuries. Building has been within the U.S. since 1898 when Puerto Rico was annexed.|
|Porta Coeli||San Germán||PR||1609||Religious||The church has been on U.S. territory since Puerto Rico was annexed in 1898.|
|Palace of the Governors||Santa Fe||NM||1610||Government||Oldest seat of colonial government (Spanish). Building has been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed.|
|San Miguel Mission||Santa Fe||NM||1610||Government/religious||Said to be the oldest church structure built in the US. The original adobe walls and altar were built by the Tlaxcalan Indians from Mexico, but much of the structure was rebuilt in 1710. Building has been within the U.S. since 1848 when New Mexico was annexed.|
|Broad Bay Manor||Virginia Beach||VA||1636 c.||Residential||Purportedly the oldest house built by Europeans in the continental United States (needs reference). Built by the English colonist Thomas Allen in 1636 on land granted to him by Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr. The house is primarily constructed from Flemish bond brick. Corroborative dating efforts have not been performed due to the building's relative obscurity and the fact that it is to this day a private residence, walled off from passers-by. It is located in the exclusive Broad Bay Colony residential neighborhood in northeastern Virginia Beach.|
|Fairbanks House||Dedham||MA||1637||Residential||Oldest house in the United States of timber-frame with date verified using dendrochronology.|
|John Humphreys House||Swampscott||MA||1637 c.||Residential||Oldest house in Swampscott; moved in 1891 to present site (99 Paradise Road) from Elmwood Road.|
|C. A. Nothnagle Log House||Gibbstown||NJ||1638–43 c.||Residential||Purportedly the oldest surviving log house in the U.S. and the oldest house in New Jersey.|
|Henry Whitfield House||Guilford||CT||1639||Residential||Oldest stone American Colonial house; oldest house in Connecticut.|
|Jamestown Church||Jamestown||VA||1639–43||Religious||Oldest church building in the eastern US (though only the church tower and foundations remain from the original building.)|
|Loomis Homestead||Windsor||CT||1640||Residential||One of the oldest timber-frame houses in America. The oldest part of the house was built in 1640 by Joseph Loomis, who came to America from England in 1638. Later additions to the Loomis house were made around the turn of the eighteenth century.|
|Richard Sparrow House||Plymouth||MA||1640||Residential||Oldest house in Plymouth, Massachusetts.|
|Lower Swedish Cabin||Drexel Hill||PA||ca. 1640–50||Residential||One of the earliest extant examples of Swedish log construction in the United States.|
|Comfort Starr House||Guilford||CT||1645–6||Residential||The house, still in its primitive state, is named after its second owner, Comfort Starr.|
|De Vargas Street House||Santa Fe||NM||1646||Residential||Previously alleged to be oldest house in the US and Santa Fe.|
|General Israel Putnam House||Danvers||MA||1648 c.||Residential||Recorded in the National Register of Historic Places. The house is now operated by the Danvers Historical Society and open by appointment.|
|Old House||Cutchogue||NY||1649||Residential||One of the oldest houses in the state; moved in 1661 to present site from Southold.|
|Pickering House||Salem||MA||1651||Residential||Located in the Chestnut Street District.|
|Wyckoff House||Brooklyn||NY||1652||Residential||Oldest house in New York City.|
|Macy-Colby House||Amesbury||MA||pre-1654||Residential||Built by Thomas Macy, and owned by Anthony Colby and his descendants for 245 years. Now owned by the Bartlett Cemetery Association, and maintained by the Friends of the Macy-Colby House Association.|
|Block House||Claymont||DE||1654||Residential||One of the oldest structures in Delaware, built by the Swedish.|
|Ryves Holt House||Lewes||DE||1655||Residential||Purportedly the oldest house in Delaware.|
|Newman-Fiske-Dodge House||Wenham||MA||1658||Residential||Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.|
|Old Halsey House||Southampton||NY||1660||Residential||Built by Thomas Halsey, an English pioneer, the house is now a museum.|
|Thomas Lee House||East Lyme||CT||1660–4||Residential||One of the oldest wood frame houses in Connecticut still in its primitive state.|
|James Blake House||Boston||MA||1661 c.||Residential||Oldest house in the city of Boston.|
|John Bowne House||Flushing, Queens||NY||1661 c.||Residential||Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1977.|
|Reverend James Keith Parsonage||West Bridgewater||MA||1662||Residential||Preserved and maintained by the Old Bridgewater Historical Society.|
|Bray House||Kittery Point||ME||1662 c.||Residential||Oldest house in Maine.|
|Bronck House||Coxsackie||NY||1663||Residential||Oldest house in upstate New York.|
|Richard Jackson House||Portsmouth||NH||1664||Residential||Oldest house in New Hampshire.|
|Pickman House||Salem||MA||1664||Residential||Located on Charter Street behind the Peabody Essex Museum, the oldest continually operated museum in America. The house abuts the Witch Memorial and is also next to the second oldest burying ground in America. The house is private, owned by the Peabody Essex Museum and not open for tours.|
|Gedney House||Salem||MA||1665||Residential||Allegedly the second oldest house in the City of Salem, located in the Chestnut Street District and operated as a non-profit museum by Historic New England. The house is rarely open to the public, though private tours can be arranged.|
|Bacon's Castle||Surry||VA||1665||Residential||Located at 465 Bacon's Castle Trail in Surry, VA, this is perhaps the oldest building with satisfactorily credible age authentication and which is not a ruin or partial building still standing in the Commonwealth of Virginia (needs reference); also one of the oldest brick buildings still standing in the United States. If Broad Bay Manor's (Virginia Beach, VA) age is ever authenticated, it may predate Bacon's Castle by 29 years or more.|
|Billiou-Stillwell-Perine House||Staten Island||NY||1665 c.||Residential||Built by Pierre Billiou, a French Heugenot pioneer, the house is now a museum.|
|Alexander Standish House||Duxbury||MA||1666||Residential||Home of the son of Pilgrim Capt. Miles Standish.|
|Jabez Howland House||Plymouth||MA||1667||Residential||Only extant house in Plymouth occupied by Pilgrims. John Howland and his wife, Elizabeth Tilley Howland, who both came over on the Mayflower, spent their winters here with their son, Jabez, one of their 10 children. Also a National Historic Landmark.|
|House of the Seven Gables||Salem||MA||1668||Residential||National Historic Landmark, setting of the Nathaniel Hawthorne novel.|
|Chaplin-Clarke House||Rowley||MA||1670||Residential||Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.|
|Stanton-Davis Homestead Museum||Stonington||CT||1670–1700||Farmhouse||The farm has been worked every year since 1654.|
|Ephraim Hawley House||Trumbull||CT||1670–90||Residential||Oldest house in the historic area of Nichols.|
|Newport Tower||Newport||RI||1670 c. (disputed to be older)||Commercial||Colonial windmill. No roof or floors since the mid-18th century.|
|Nehemiah Royce House||Wallingford||CT||1672||Residential||A typical saltbox, this house was visited by George Washington in 1775.|
|Castillo de San Marcos||St. Augustine||FL||1672–95||Government||Oldest masonry fortification in the United States.|
|White Horse Tavern||Newport||RI||1673||Tavern||Oldest tavern in America.|
|Old Trinity Church, Maryland||Church Creek, Maryland||MD||1675||Religious||Church building in continuous use; as such, oldest in the US.|
|Narbonne House||Salem||MA||1675||Residential||On the Waterfront in Salem and owned by the National Park Service.|
|Conference House||Staten Island||NY||1675 c.||Residential||Only pre-Revolutionary manor house still surviving in New York City.|
|Hoxie House||Sandwich||MA||1675 c.||Residential||One of the oldest houses on Cape Cod.|
|The Witch House||Salem||MA||1675 c.||Residential||Also called the Jonathan Corwin House, this was the home of Judge Jonathan Corwin  and is the only structure still standing in Salem, Massachusetts with direct ties to the Salem witch trials of 1692. Even though Jonathan Corwin's descendants claim the house was built in 1642, most historians now believe the house was built c.1675. The house, located in the Chestnut Street District, is now a museum operated by the City of Salem and is open seasonally.|
|Harlow Old Fort House||Plymouth||MA||1677||Residential||Built in 1677 by Sergeant William Harlow, using timbers from the Pilgrims' original fort on Burial Hill.|
|Edward Searle House||Cranston||RI||1677||Residential||The house was rebuilt in 1677 on the site of the original 1670 structure, destroyed by Native Americans during King Philip's War.|
|John Whipple House||Ipswich||MA||1677||Residential||In 2005 a dendrochronology test determined that the earliest surviving part of the house was actually built in 1677. A major addition of roughly equal size was built in 1690, and there are various later additions.|
|Smith's Castle||Wickford||RI||1678||Residential||One of the oldest houses in Rhode Island, now a museum.|
|Rebecca Nurse Homestead||Danvers||MA||1678 c.||Residential||Rebecca Nurse, executed in the Salem witch trials of 1692, was the most notable resident.|
|Clement Weaver House||East Greenwich||RI||1679||Residential||Oldest privately owned house in Rhode Island.|
|John Balch House||Beverly||MA||1679 c.||Residential||John Balch received the deed to the land on which the house sits in 1635; the building was constructed by Balch's son and grandson in 1678/1679, and is one of the oldest continuously privately deeded properties in the United States. The original structure in the front dates to 1679, while the back half addition is dated to 1721; these data have been verified using dendrochronology.|
|Peak House||Medfield, Massachusetts||MA||1680||Residential||One of the earliest surviving examples of Post-medieval English (Elizabethan) architecture in the United States. Was originally built in 1651 but was reconstructed after it was burned down during King Philip's War.|
|Paul Revere House||Boston||MA||1680 c.||Residential||Oldest building in downtown Boston.|
|William Penn Guest House||New Castle||DE||1680 c.||Residential||Oldest buildings in New Castle. Purportedly where William Penn lodged after first arrival in America.|
|Old Ship Church||Hingham||MA||1681||Religious||Oldest church in continuous ecclesiastical use in the United States; only remaining 17th century Puritan meeting house in America.|
|St. Luke's Church||Smithfield||VA||1682||Religious||Recent dendrochronology studies confirm the 1682 date of this National Historic Landmark.|
|Wall House||Cheltenham Township||PA||1682||Residential||Possibly the oldest stone house in Pennsylvania. Built for Richard Wall, the founder of Cheltenham Township.|
|Third Haven Meeting House||Talbot County||MD||1682||Religious||Oldest Quaker meeting house in the United States.|
|Parson Capen House||Topsfield||MA||1683||Residential||The house was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1960. The Topsfield Historical Society currently operates it as a historic house museum.|
|Caleb Pusey House||Upland||PA||1683||Residential||Only extant building known to have been visited by William Penn. Completed in 1696.|
|Old Indian Meeting House||Mashpee||MA||1684||Religious||Oldest Native American church.|
|John Ward House||Salem||MA||1684||Residential||The John Ward House is a National Historic Landmark at 132 Essex Street in Salem, Massachusetts, located in the Downtown Salem District and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1968.|
|Old Dutch Church of Sleepy Hollow||Sleepy Hollow||NY||1685||Religious||Oldest church in the State of New York.|
|Sign of the Bird in Hand||Newtown Borough||PA||1686||Tavern||Originally a residence, then tavern with other uses. Oldest frame house still standing in Pennsylvania. Famous as the site of the 1778 Newtown Skirmish during which Loyalists killed 5 and captured 16 to acquire cloth being manufactured for use by Washington's troops at Valley Forge. Now a private residence.|
|Jethro Coffin House||Nantucket||MA||1686||Residential||Oldest house on Nantucket. It was declared a National Historic Landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1968.|
|William Murray House||Salem||MA||1688||Residential||A historic house at 39 Essex Street.|
|Wilbor House||Little Compton||RI||1690||Residential||Added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2007, the house serves as the headquarters of the Little Compton Historical Society.|
|Acadian House||Guilford||CT||1690 c.||Residential||The house gets its name after the Acadians who resided there following the 1755 Great Expulsion.|
|Farmar Mill||Fort Washington||PA||1690 c.||Mill||Oldest surviving mill in Pennsylvania.|
|Spencer-Peirce-Little Farm||Newbury||MA||1690 c.||Residential||One of the oldest stone buildings in New England, now a nonprofit museum.|
|Hyland-Wildman House||Guilford||CT||1690–1710 c.||Residential||Open to the public since 1918. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.|
|Old Quaker Meeting House||Flushing, Queens||NY||1694||Religious||The only surviving example in New York State of a typical 17th century ecclesiastical frame structure of medieval design.|
|Pink House||Charleston||SC||1694–1712||Residential||Built by John Breton in the city's French Quarter, the house is one of the oldest buildings in South Carolina and the oldest building in Charleston.|
|Wren Building||Williamsburg||VA||1695||School||Oldest school building in America, original The College of William & Mary structure.|
|Merion Friends Meeting House||Merion Station||PA||1695||Religious||One of the oldest Quaker meeting houses in America.|
|Holy Trinity Church||Wilmington||DE||1698–9||Religious||Oldest Swedish church in the United States. The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961.|
|Great Friends Meeting House||Newport||RI||1699||Religious||Expanded in 1730, 1807, 1857, and 1867 to accommodate the New England Yearly Meeting of Friends.|
|Hoyt-Barnum House||Stamford||CT||1699 c.||Residential||The builder was a descendant of one of the original founders of Stamford. The structure is owned and maintained as a museum by the Stamford Historical Society.|
|Gloria Dei (Old Swedes') Church||Philadelphia||PA||1700||Religious||Oldest surviving church in Philadelphia.|
|Edward Morgan Log House||Towamencin||PA||1700||Residential||Home to the maternal grandfather of Daniel Boone.|
|Buttolph-Williams House||Wethersfield||CT||1711||Residential||One of the oldest surviving homes in Wethersfield, declared a National Historic Landmark in 1968.|
|The Powder Magazine||Charleston||SC||1713||Government||Oldest public building in South Carolina. The Powder Magazine Museum.|
|Old State House||Boston||MA||1713||Government||Oldest surviving public building in Boston. The Bostonian Society Museum.|
|Perth Amboy City Hall||Perth Amboy||NJ||1714–7||Government||Oldest city hall in USA.|
|Massachusetts Hall||Cambridge||MA||1718–20||School||Oldest extant building at Harvard University.|
|Garretson Forge and Farm||Fair Lawn||NJ||1720||Residential||One of the oldest homes in Bergen County, New Jersey.|
|Wayside Cottage||Scarsdale||NY||1720 c.||Residential||One of the oldest houses in Westchester County, NY. Owned and operated by the Junior League of Central Westchester.|
|Gonzalez-Alvarez House||St. Augustine||FL||1723 c.||Residential||Oldest house in St. Augustine, the oldest continuously occupied European-established city in the continental United States.|
|Alamo Mission Long Barracks||San Antonio||TX||1724 c.||Religious||The Alamo Chapel and Priests quarters and convent (Long Barracks) in San Antonio. In the center of the surrounding area are the remains of the "Long Barracks" which were constructed 20 years before the Chapel. Founded in 1718 and moved to present site 1724.|
|Reuben Brown House||Concord||MA||1725||Residential||Built in 1725 by the town saddler, Reuben Brown. There is also a strong tradition that the house was the home of Peter Bulkeley, which is why the house is often referred to as the Peter Bulkeley / Reuben Brown House. The evidence is still unclear whether or not the Bulkeleys did build the house some 300 years ago. What historians can conclude, however, is that the house was either completely updated or built by Reuben Brown in 1725, since most of the house's present features are typical of houses from 1700 to 1730.|
|Fort Niagara||Youngstown||NY||1726||Fortification||Built in 1726 by the French as a "house of peace". Taken by the British in 1759, the fledgling United States regained control by treaty in 1796. It was lost to the British in 1813, but was relinquished as a result of the Treaty of Ghent, and has remained in the hands of the United States ever since.|
|48 Hudson Avenue||Albany||NY||1728||Residential||Oldest stand-alone structure in Albany.|
|Findowrie||Albemarle County||VA||1730||Residential||Claimed as the oldest unaltered residence in Virginia.|
|Ephrata Cloister||Lancaster County||PA||1732||Religious||Last surviving resident of the Ephrata Cloister religious community died on July 27, 2008, at the age of 98.|
|Quackenbush House||Albany||NY||1736||Residential||Until recently considered the oldest house and structure in the city of Albany and listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Currently the location of the The Olde English Pub & Pantry.|
|Oxford Furnace||Oxford Township||NJ||1741||Furnace||First hot blast furnace in the United States.|
|Fort Matanzas||St. Johns County||FL||1740–2||Presidio||Designated a United States National Monument on October 15, 1924.|
|Old Ursuline Convent||New Orleans||LA||1748 (or 1752)||Religious||Considered the oldest building in Louisiana.|
|Presidio La Bahía||Goliad||TX||1749||Presidio||The best preserved Spanish presidio in the United States.|
|Mount Holly Firehouse||Mount Holly||NJ||1752||Firehouse||Oldest firehouse in the USA, established by what is now the oldest continuously operating volunteer fire department in the USA.|
|Fort de Chartres Powder Magazine||Prairie du Rocher||IL||1753–1756||Government||Oldest building in Illinois.|
|Proprietary House||Perth Amboy||NJ||1762||Government||Oldest remaining colonial proprietary governor's residence in the original Thirteen States.|
|Touro Synagogue||Newport||RI||1763||Religious||Oldest synagogue building in the United States.|
|Fort Pitt Blockhouse||Pittsburgh||PA||1764||Defense||Oldest structure in Pittsburgh. One of the oldest colonial structures west of the Allegheny mountains.|
|Sandy Hook Light||Sandy Hook||NJ||1764||Lighthouse||Oldest original lighthouse in USA.|
|Maryland State House||Annapolis||MD||1772||Government||Oldest state house in continuous use in the United States.|
|Mission San Juan Capistrano||San Juan Capistrano||CA||1776||Mission||Oldest surviving building in California.|
|Officer's Stone Quarters||Fort Mackinac||MI||1780||Military||Oldest building in Michigan.|
|Mission San Xavier del Bac||Tohono O’odham San Xavier Indian Reservation||AZ||1797||Mission||Oldest European structure in Arizona.|
|Joel Eddins House||Huntsville||AL||1808||Residential||Possibly the oldest surviving building in Alabama.|
|Burlington County Prison||Mount Holly||NJ||1811||Prison||Possibly oldest prison building, which operated from 1811 to 1965.|
|Jeremiah Gates Home||Old Brooklyn||OH||1820||Residential||Possibly the country's oldest private residence west of the Cuyahoga River.|
|Cataldo Mission||Cataldo||ID||1848||Mission||Oldest standing building in Idaho.|
|Louisville Water Tower||Louisville||KY||1856||Public Utility||Oldest ornamental water tower in the world.|
|Fort Misery||Prescott||AZ||1865 c.||Cabin/Fort|
- List of the oldest buildings in Alabama
- List of the oldest buildings in Connecticut
- List of the oldest buildings in Delaware
- List of the oldest buildings in Florida
- List of the oldest buildings in Georgia
- List of the oldest buildings in Maryland
- List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts
- List of the oldest buildings in New Jersey
- List of the oldest buildings in New York
- List of the oldest buildings in North Carolina
- List of the oldest buildings in Pennsylvania
- List of the oldest buildings in Rhode Island
- List of the oldest buildings in South Carolina
- List of the oldest buildings in Virginia
- List of the oldest buildings in the world
- List of burial mounds in the United States
- Oldest churches in the United States
- Oldest synagogues in the United States
- "About – taospueblo.com". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "Old Santa Fe: A Brief Review of History, 1536-1912" by James J. Raciti (2003) pg. 38
- "San Miguel Mission". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "Old Donation Church Old Homes". Retrieved 2014-06-25.
- Lathrop, Elsie (2006). Historic Houses of Early America. New York: Kessinger. p. 218.
- Lathrop, Elsie (2006). Historic Houses of Early America. New York: Kessinger. p. 305.
- "Historic Churches of America" - Page 8 by Nellie Urner Wallington (1907)
- "National Park Service – Explorers and Settlers (Pennsylvania)". Nps.gov. 2005-03-22. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- "Guide to New York City Landmarks" - Page 270 by Andrew Dolkart, Matthew A. Postal (2003)
- "Directory of Historic House Museums in the United States" Page 209 by Patricia Chambers Walker, Thomas Graham (1999)
- "The Pilgrim John Howland Society – The Jabez Howland House". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- William F. McNeil, "Visitors to Ancient America" (McFarland: 2004), 78.
- Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial North America – Page 1036 by James D. Kornwolf, Georgiana Wallis Kornwolf (2002)
- "Old Trinity Church HABS MD No. 201". Historic American Buildings Survey. US National Park Service. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "The Jonathan Corwin House (1675) | Historic Buildings of Massachusetts". Mass.historicbuildingsct.com. 2008-11-26. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- "The Witch House (Jonathan Corwin House), Salem, Massachusetts". Salemweb.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
- "City of Salem, MA – The Witch House". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "Home". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "The Salem News". Retrieved on December 31, 2011.
- "The Paul Revere House". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- National Park Service description of Old Ship Church
- "Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology – Page 315 by W. Eugene Kleinbauer, Medieval Academy of America – 1989
- "Parson Capen House". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
- "Parson Capen House". Topsfield Historical Society. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- Oldest House of the Nantucket Historical Association
- Patricia Heintzelman and Charles Snell (January 23, 1975). " PDF (32 KB)". National Park Service. and PDF (32 KB)
- Acadians-Guilford, Albert Lafreniere website retrieved on 2009-05-13
- Hyland House website retrieved on 2009-05-11 Hyland House
- National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, 1970
- "The Wren Building". College of William & Mary. Retrieved 19 December 2011.
- "Buttolph-Williams House". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. Retrieved 2007-10-03.
- "Oldest House Museum". Florida Heritage Tourism Interactive Catalog. Florida's Office of Cultural and Historical Programs. 2007-09-23.
- Luis R. Arana; Jean Parker Waterbury (1999). Defenses and Defenders at St. Augustine: A Collection of Writings. St. Augustine Historial Society. p. 145. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
- "Mount Holly Fire Department". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- "Oldest Operating Department | FireHistory.org". Retrieved 2013-06-15.
- Pencak, William (2005). Jews & Gentiles in Early America: 1654–1800. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press., pg. 92, 95 ISBN 0-472-11454-9.