|Born||Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska
2 January 1968
Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russian SFSR
|Alma mater||Moscow State University, Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics|
|Occupation||Chairman of Supervisory Board of Basic Element Company|
|Net worth||US$8.8 billion (2012)|
|Spouse(s)||Polina Deripaska (née Yumasheva); 2 children|
|Basic Element, Oleg Deripaska|
Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska (Russian: Оле́г Влади́мирович Дерипа́ска; born 2 January 1968) is the Russian Chairman of Supervisory Board of Basic Element company, a member of the Board of Directors and CEO of United Company RUSAL, the largest aluminium company in the world and a President of Enplus Group.
Education and early career 
Deripaska was born in Dzerzhinsk, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, but grew up in Ust-Labinsk, Krasnodar Krai. He graduated with honors in physics from Moscow State University in 1993, and in 1996, he earned an economics degree from the Plekhanov Russian Academy of Economics. He was general manager of the Sayanogorsk Smelter (1994–97) and held the post of president of Sibirsky Aluminium Investment Industrial Group (1997–2001), which later became a core of Basic Element.
The Soviet Union had just collapsed, the country was in turmoil and "decay"; Deripaska worked on building sites across Russia to prevent himself from starving. "We had no money. It was a very practical question every day. How do I get money to buy food and keep studying?" he recalls. There was little future in his university subject, theoretical physics. He abandoned his studies and started business as a small-time metals trader. Between 1993 and 1994 he accumulated a 20% stake in the Siberian aluminium factory – to the annoyance of the plant's communist-era bosses. "I was expecting they would treat me as a shareholder. But they said, 'No, you have the shares, but we run our business. And it's separate.'" Deripaska persuaded the workforce not to go on strike, boosted production, and – it's not entirely clear how – crushed the local mafia.
Later career 
Net worth 
In 2005, he was included in the Sunday Times Rich List with an estimated wealth of £4,375m, but was not listed in 2006; however, according to an August 2006 article in the New York Times, the Russian business newspaper Vedomosti estimated Deripaska's total wealth at US$14 billion, which, if true, would either have made him Russia's richest man or possibly tied for the spot with Roman Abramovich.
Deripaska's estimated fortune was US$16.8 billion in 2011, according to the Forbes wealthiest list. In 2008, his wealth had been estimated by Forbes at US$28 billion, making him then the ninth richest man in the world. In 2009, Deripaska's ranking fell to a ranking of No. 164, with Forbes stating: "[H]e may not withstand collapsing markets and heavy debts". However, in 2010 his estimated US$10.7 billion fortune allowed him to rise to No. 57 of the World's Billionaires list. According to Forbes magazine, he removed the heads of his two largest companies and personally negotiated with the Russian government, banks and other creditors to restructure his loan obligations. Deripaska himself in 2007 was reported to have consistently said that the estimate of his wealth was exaggerated, that it did not completely account for the amount of debt he incurred, and that he should be ranked far below the top ten on the list of the Russian billionaires. In the 2009 Forbes report his net worth was calculated as US$3.5 billion – a drop of US$24.5 billion. In 2012 Forbes Russia reported that Deripaska's wealth was US$ 8.8 billion, although Forbes International reported that it was US$ 16.8 billion.
In 2006, GAZ Group, purchased all the shares of LDV Holdings (producer of light commercial vehicles, the city of Birmingham, Great Britain) from an American fund Sun Capital. The main product of LDV is the light commercial vehicle Maxus. In May 2009 GAZ Group signed an agreement to sell its UK/LDV van business to the Malaysian automobile manufacturer and distributor Weststar.
In April 2007, Deripaska acquired 25 percent (€1.05 billion) of the Austrian construction company Strabag SE, owned by Hans-Peter Haselsteiner. Strabag is the sixth largest construction company in Europe. In May 2007, Magna International chairman Frank Stronach announced that Deripaska was becoming a strategic partner in Magna.
On 25 July 2008, GAZ Group launched the serial production of Volga Siber sedan, which is based on a platform acquired from the American corporation Chrysler and was designed by the British studio UltraMotive. Engineers and specialists from Magna International played an active role in the installation and fine tuning of the cars assembly line, as well as in the training of the Group's employees. On 14 June 2011, Volkswagen Group Rus and GAZ Group agreed to manufacture Volkswagen and Škoda cars at GAZ plant in Nizhny Novgorod. Under the agreement, full-cycle production of the new Volkswagen Jetta, Škoda Octavia, and Škoda Yeti will be organized at GAZ. Start of full-cycle production of the first car which is to be assembled at GAZ, Škoda Yeti, is planned for the fourth quarter 2012. The agreement is valid until 2019, however the parties do not rule out the possibility that cooperation could be continued beyond this date.
On 3 October 2008 Magna International announced that Russian Machines terminated its participation as a shareholder of the Canadian auto parts maker. However the companies said that development of autocomponents business in Russia, as well as other joint projects, would continue.
On 30 April 2009 Basic Element announced that it has transferred its 25% stake in Strabag to other shareholders of the company. It will also hold a call option to buy back the stake until 20 December 2009 with an opportunity of its extension to October 2010. Basic Element also retains one registered share of Strabag and keeps two places on Strabag nine-seat supervisory board. On 30 November 2010 Basic Element bought back 17% stake in Strabag from other shareholders of the company for € 373 mln. Deripaska was also provided with an extension of the call option for the remaining 8% until 15 July 2014.
In 2011, Forbes Russia conducted a poll with the help of Russia based Profi Online Research Company of the country's "most beloved billionaire oligarchs". Deripaska, with 15.7% of the vote, came in third after Roman Abramovich (27.1%) and Mikhail Prokhorov (23.8%). In June 2012, Basic Element, Sberbank of Russia and Changi Airports signed a joint venture agreement to invest in and develop Russian airports.
Basic Element 
Deripaska is the sole owner and Chairman of Supervisory Board of Basic Element, a diversified investment group established in 1997. Basic Element's assets are concentrated in five sectors: energy, manufacturing, financial services, agriculture, construction and aviation. The major assets include United Company RUSAL the world's largest aluminium and alumina producer; GAZ Group, an automotive company; Ingosstrakh, the country's oldest insurance company; Bank SOYUZ (Банк «СОЮЗ»); Aviakor aircraft manufacturer; EuroSibEnergo (ЕвроСибЭнерго), an investment and energy supply company; Glavmosstroy (Главмосстрой), a construction company; Kuban Agroholding, an agricultural company; and Basel Aero, an aviation business comprising the four largest airports in the Krasnodar territory (in joint venture with Changi Airports International).
RUSAL went public in January 2010. Hong Kong regulators were criticized for allowing RUSAL, whose debt was nearly US$15 billion, to list its shares. The Hong Kong exchange responded by warning investors of the risks and setting a minimum investment amount of US$129,000. Rusal raised US$2.24 billion through its dual initial public offering in Hong Kong and Paris. The company sold 1.61 billion shares, or 11% of its market capitalisation, at HK$10.80 each.
Other affiliations 
In 2004, Deripaska was appointed by the President of Russia to represent the country in the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Business Advisory Council (ABAC). He has held the position of Chairman of ABAC Russia since 2007. Deripaska is Vice President of the Russian Union of Industrialists and Entrepreneurs, Chairman of the Executive Board of the Russian National Committee of the International Chamber of Commerce and a member of the Competitiveness and Entrepreneurship Council, an agency of the Russian Government.
He sits on the board of trustees of the Bolshoi Theatre, the School of Business Administration, the School of Public Administration, and the School of Economics at Moscow State University and the School of Business Administration at St. Petersburg State University. Deripaska is a co-founder of the National Science Support Foundation and the National Medicine Fund. In 1999, he was awarded the Order of Friendship, a state award of the Russian Federation. He was named businessman of the year in 1999, 2006 & 2007 by Vedomosti, a leading business daily published in partnership with The Wall Street Journal and The Financial Times.
Deripaska is one of 16 global business leaders who drafted CEO Climate Policy Recommendations to G8 Leaders, a document outlining international business community's proposals to tackle global warming. The proposals were signed by more than 100 of the world's leading corporations and handed to Japanese Prime Minister Yasuo Fukuda on 20 June 2008. The G8 leaders discussed the recommendations during the summit in Japan on 7–9 July 2008. The process was coordinated by the World Economic Forum in collaboration with the World Business Council for Sustainable Development.
In 1998, Deripaska established Volnoe Delo, Russia's largest private charity foundation. The fund supports over 400 initiatives across Russia aimed at developing education and science, preserving spiritual and cultural heritage, and improving standards in public health. It helps children, old people, talented youths, teachers, eminent scientists and other participants of the programs. For the last seven years the total budget of more than 400 charitable programs has been increased 17 times to over 6.8 billion rubles (US$230 million).
Deripaska made the following comments following the meeting of APEC Leaders in Lima, Peru, where he accompanied Russian President Dmitry Medvedev and led the Russian delegation to the APEC Business Advisory Council:
Today we have a huge stock of exchange goods, which are still being produced, because you can't shut the production capacity at once.... [And] until the world uses up the stock, there won't be a phase of growth in the real economy. Now it's important to come through the period before the supply meets the demand. In March–April we'll touch the bottom and we'll have a clear understanding of the demand and supply proportions.
We have to live modestly for the next two years, helping the state to use resources in a more efficient way. Our task is waste reduction. The crisis won't last long. There is a crisis of overcapacity in production that each country will have to deal with. We can expect a decrease in production capacity by between 20 and 50 percent globally and I am afraid Russia will see some of it too.
A new partnership between the state and the business community is needed. We can bet on investment in housing and infrastructure. Investment in housing, roads, schools and utility services will help to keep afloat a chain of other sectors such as construction materials, machine-building, metallurgy. Such projects will also help to employ people who will lose jobs in other sectors. There will be losses from the crisis indeed; the task is to make them minimal. Businesspeople should trim their businesses, leaving only structures that will be needed in the next 15 years, while the government should attract new resources. The state should help those who suffered most. We (businessmen) will survive one way or another, while the crisis may ruin many ordinary people. Some of them (other entrepreneurs) are trying to save production capacities and keep prices high, waiting for a (recovery). This makes it difficult for others to restructure. For instance, high domestic prices for metals do not allow the production of cheaper cars. The hand of the state should become visible and solid. It is the government's responsibility to find the right balance between supply and demand, to find a price balance. This requires manual control. We are a lucky country in a way. As opposed to the West, where most basic consumer demands are already met, Russians tend to spend rather than to save once they get money in their hands. For instance, in more than 12 million families more than one generation live under the same roof. There is a huge objective demand for housing, and people will buy apartments if they are offered them at reasonable prices. The same goes for cars and many other things.
Deripaska's interview on prospects of Eastern Siberia and Russian Far East development:
Today we are given the rare and truly historic opportunity of taking a giant leap forward in the development of Eastern Siberia and the Far East, to create a modern infrastructure with comfort in mind, to dramatically improve the quality of life. In the coming decades Asia – particularly China, Japan, Korea and then India – will become the center of the world's demand for key manufacturing resources. China is already consuming approximately 40% of the world production of aluminum, nickel and copper, and half of all the coal mined – and it's demand will only grow. And Eastern Siberia has enormous production and scientific potential, which, if developed in hand with the creation of the necessary logistic and energy infrastructure, and if built to meet the demands of a growing Asia – will allow us to turn the region into one of the powerhouses of the Russian economy in the coming decades.
I think we can benefit the region tremendously by doing what we do best – by developing business. We have some grasp of the economic trends in the region and can therefore anticipate the directions of growth and the areas in which we should invest. For example, the region requires an adequate transport and logistic infrastructure – an obvious thing, just like internet in schools and cellular communications. The region needs a unified Siberian transport company centered on Irkutsk – in order to better connect cities in the area. It's currently easier to get from Australia to Moscow, then to get from Moscow to one of the northern cities in Irkutsk Oblast, and that needs to change.
On the Russian economy:
"What is important to understand is that we [Russia] have a very healthy budget. Almost no deficit – we have public debt to GDP around 12pc, total debt to GDP of 27pc, unique numbers. We have more than $580bn [in] reserves.”
"If you look at the Russian market we are hungry, for everything. Look at cars – car production this year is up 26pc or more. If you look at the housing market it is a tragedy all around the world, in the US, in Europe. In Russia, occupancy is more than 95pc – you do not have enough free apartments."
«Generating and exporting energy needs new dams and transmission capacity. But a lack of modern power lines prevents energy being exported. Less than 20 per cent of the hydro-electric potential of the rivers of Siberia and the Far East is being utilised. It is not just roads, rail links, airports, power and IT infrastructure that must be transformed. We need to accelerate the modernization of the region’s industries, invest in technology, renew communities and improve quality of life. For too long, the needs of Russia’s Eastern regions and its people have been overlooked».
«Russia and the wider Asian region cannot afford to leave Siberia and Eastern Russia behind. The demand for infrastructure in Russia must now be met with investment».
On 24 November 2006, Michael Cherney brought legal action against Deripaska in the Commercial Court of the High Court in London. Cherney sought a declaration that he was the beneficial owner of 20% of RUSAL stock which, he claimed, Deripaska held in trust for him. The claim was denied. On 3 May 2007, Mr Justice Langley ruled that Deripaska had not been properly served and that the court had no jurisdiction to try the claim as Deripaska was not domiciled in England or Wales.
On 3 July 2008, Mr Justice Christopher Clarke ruled that the case should be tried in England, although "the natural forum for this litigation is Russia", because, he held, "risks inherent in a trial in Russia ... are sufficient to make England the forum in which the case can most suitably be tried in the interest of both parties and the ends of justice". On 22 July 2008, he granted Deripaska leave to appeal. The Court of Appeal of England and Wales refused the appeal on 31 July 2009.
At a June 2011 case management conference, the judge deferred a decision on whether Cherney would be allowed to give evidence by video link from Israel rather than appear in person as an outstanding Interpol arrest warrant meant he would be detained if he traveled to the UK.  In late July 2011, the High Court ruled that Cherney may give evidence at the trial by video link from Israel and set trial for April 2012.
In September 2012, Cherney terminated his UK lawsuit against Deripaska.
Legal investigations in England and Spain 
In July 2006, whilst Deripaska was involved in a bid to buy the Daimler Chrysler Group, it was reported that the United States canceled his entry visa; the unnamed official declined to give a reason for the revoking of the visa. The Wall Street Journal reported that it could have been because Deripaska has been accused of having links to organized crime in Russia and cited as their sources two unnamed U.S. law enforcement officials. Deripaska had received a multiple-entry visa in 2005; a U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation spokesman refused to comment. Lobbying on his behalf had been done by former Senate Republican leader and 1996 presidential candidate Bob Dole and his Alston & Bird law partners, Senate records show. Alston & Bird was paid about US$260,000 in 2005 for work on "Department of State visa policies and procedures" tied to Deripaska.
In 2009 Deripaska was again allowed entry and visited the USA twice; The Wall Street Journal reported that according to two unnamed FBI administration officials Deripaska had met with agents regarding a continuing criminal probe, the details of the probe were not known or reported. During Deripaska's visits he visited leading management figures from investment banks Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley . The Aluminum company that Deripaska heads, United Company RUSAL, was in preparations for an initial public offering. The easing of Deripaska's visa issues which were an issue for possible investors helped to reassure bankers. The State Department has never said why it revoked his visa and refused to comment on his 2009 visits. The visits were arranged outside of the usual process as the US continues to have concerns about Deripaska's business associations. Deripaska has repeatedly denied a connection to any organized crime and said business rivals have caused the visa to be revoked by smearing him. When interviewed by the BBC in July 2009, Deripaska said that the authorities in America had been attempting to blackmail him by revoking his visa and thus affecting possible investors in a negative way and thereby hoping to push Deripaska into cooperating with them.
According to an article in El Mundo, Deripaska and Iskander Makhmudov (head of UGMK) were asked by Spanish police to answer questions in relation to a money-laundering enquiry. The Spanish state prosecutor's office subsequently confirmed Deripaska's interrogation.
On 25 January 2010, the Financial Times published a story "Rusal: A lingering heat" exploring Deripaska's business relations with Sergei Popov and Anton Malevsky, alleged heads of Russian organized crime groups. Deripaska has accused Michael Chernoy of using Malevsky and the Izmailovskaya syndicate to extort US$250 million from him as part of a protection racket. However Deripaska has himself been accused of having similar links to Malevsky, who, with his brother Andrei, owned a 10% stake in Deripaska's company. Deripaska denies the claims.
In November 2011, Spain's High Court sent the criminal cases against Deripaska to the Russian General Prosecutor's office because the root of the cases is Russian.
Relationship with Peter Mandelson 
Deripaska, who is a friend of Nathaniel Rothschild (a major investor in both United Company RUSAL and Glencore), together with Rothschild, hosted George Osborne, the Chancellor of the Exchequer of the United Kingdom and a friend of Rothschild's from school and university, and Peter Mandelson on Deripaska's yacht in Corfu in the summer of 2008. There was considerable controversy over the relationship between Mandelson and Deripaska after it emerged that Mandelson had spent time on Deripaska's yacht.
Mandelson, then EU Trade Commissioner, had presided over the reduction of EU aluminium tariffs, which benefitted Deripaska and led many to suggest there was a conflict of interest and even that Mandelson had intervened in EU policy on the aluminium tycoon's behalf. Mandelson denied this. In response to the allegations, David O'Sullivan, Director-General for Trade, European Commission, wrote a letter to The Sunday Times in which he stated:
I am very surprised by the allegations in the British press about Peter Mandelson, Oleg Deripaska and aluminium. The claims hint at Mandelson's personal intervention, in his capacity of European commissioner for trade, in favour of the Russian aluminium company Rusal. I would like to clarify that no such intervention took place. One allegation relates to a nine-year debate in the EU over tariffs on raw aluminium. The other relates to anti-dumping duties on Russian aluminium. In both instances, decisions were made after the usual consultation procedures.
Personal life 
See also 
- Rapoza, Kenneth (13 February 2012). "Russia's Most Respected Billionaires". Forbes. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- "Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska" (in Russian). deripaska.ru. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "RUSAL: Board of directors". Rusal.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Basic Element – History[dead link]
- Harding, Luke (24 February 2007). "How metals and a ruthless streak put Russian patriot at top of the rich list". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Kramer, Andrew E. "Out of Siberia, A Russian Way to Wealth", The New York Times, 20 August 2006
- "#9 Oleg Deripaska Forbes". Forbes. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "#164 Oleg Deripaska – The World's Billionaires 2009". Forbes. 11 March 2009.
- "The World's Billionaires 2010, Forbes". Forbes. 12 February 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Harding, Luke (24 February 2007). "How metals and a ruthless streak put Russian patriot at top of the rich list". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "GAZ Group signs agreement to sell UK LDV business to Weststar of Malaysia". Basel.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Basic Element: Construction Sector". Basel.ru. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Keenan, Greg (10 May 2007). "Russian billionaire buying Magna stake". The Globe and Mail (Canada). Retrieved 10 May 2007.
- The Launch of Volga Siber Production. Eng.gazgroup.ru (25 July 2008). Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Volkswagen Group Rus and GAZ Group sign a long term agreement on contract manufacturing of 110.000 cars per year at GAZ plant. Eng.gazgroup.ru (14 June 2011). Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- Magna Announces that Russian Machines' participation in arrangements with the Stronach Trust has terminated. Magna.com. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "'Basic Element': Basic Element and Strabag shareholders agreed on further strategic cooperation". Basel.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Basic Element group exercises the call option for 17% stake in Strabag". Basel.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "RUSAL company website". Rusal.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Bank "SOYUZ" website". Banksoyuz.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- EuroSibEnergo company website
- "Glavmosstroy website". Glavmosstroy.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Agroholding Kuban website". ahkuban.ru. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Basel Aero website". basel.aero. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- "Basic Element website". Basel.ru. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Rusal stock jumps on analyst 'buy' recommendations". Bloomberg Businessweek (Moscow). Associated Press. 4 March 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- "WSJ Online: Rusal Prices IPO at Premium". The Wall Street Journal. 22 January 2010. Retrieved 13 May 2011.
- Oleg Deripaska biodata. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "World Economic Forum; Climate Change; CEO Climate Policy Recommendations to G8 Leaders". Weforum.org. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Expert magazine; "Zero Waste"; interview[dead link]
- (20 April 2009): The Volnoye Delo Fund acknowledged as the largest contributor (Russian)
- Volnoye Delo Fund website (Russian)
- "An Overproductive Meeting, 'Kommersant'". Kommersant.com. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Pronina, Lyubov (24 November 2008). "Deripaska Urges Russia to Buy Metals, Revive Demand". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "It comes down to how intelligent, active and honest people really are", Vostochno-Sibirskaya Pravda, 21 April 2011
- "Deripaska: 'wealthy time' has ended for the eurozone", The Sunday Telegraph
- , Russia must wake the sleeping Siberian tiger | FT
- Osborn, Andrew (25 February 2007). "The world's richest Russian is sued for $3bn in London". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Cherney v Deripaska, 2007 EWHC 965 (Comm)". Bailii.org. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Cherney v Deripaska, 2008 EWHC 1530 (Comm)". Bailii.org. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- "Deripaska v Cherney, 2009 EWCA Civ 849". Bailii.org. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Paul, Jonny. (23 June 2011) "British High Court to decide: Can Cherney testify by video?" The Jerusalem Post. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Wanted: Cherney, Michael". Interpol, (14 October 2010)
- Cheston, Paul (28 July 2011). standard/article-23973334-the-gangster-a-billionaire-friend-of-mandelson-and-a-pound-23bn-row.do "The 'gangster', a billionaire friend of Mandelson and a £2.3bn row". Evening Standard. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "ACTUAL ARTICLE TITLE BELONGS HERE!". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 November 2012.
- Wolf, Jim (11 May 2007). "U.S. revoked Deripaska visa – State Dep't official". Reuters.
- "Deripaska Accused U.S. of Blackmail". The Wall Street Journal. 30 October 2009.
- "Quiosco , El Mundo en ORBYT". El Mundo. Spain. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Lewis, Jason (30 May 2010). "Oligarch friend of Mandelson faces cash launder quiz". Daily Mail (London).
- Perez, Evan; White, Gregory L. (30 October 2009). "FBI Lets Barred Tycoon Visit U.S". The Wall Street Journal.
- "/ Comment / Analysis – Rusal: A lingering heat". Financial Times. 25 January 2010. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- MacIntyre, Donald (20 July 2009). "Clash of the oligarchs". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Swinford, Steven, "Peter Mandelson oligarch Oleg Deripaska linked to mafia boss", The Sunday Times (London), 26 October 2008.
- Ispolnova, Darya (25 November 2011). "Russian Tycoon Deripaska's case given to Russia's court by Spain". gazeta.ru. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- "Leading article: The flawed judgement of a shadow Chancellor". The Independent (UK). 22 October 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2009.
- "Peter Mandelson joins richest Russian on his superyacht", The Times, 12 October 2008
- "Mandelson: No favours for Deripaska", Evening Standard (London), 28 October 2008
- "A final favour? How Mandelson's last act in Brussels boosted Russian oligarch", The Independent, 26 October 2008
- Mandelson defended over billionaire claims, The Independent, 17 October 2008
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