Oleg I of Chernigov
- Oleg I redirects here. It can also refer to Oleg I, Prince of Novgorod-Severskiy in 1097–1115, to Oleg I Svyatoslavich, Prince of Putivl until 1164, or to Oleg I, Prince of Ryazan in 1252–1258.
|Oleg I of Chernigiv|
|Prince of Novgorod-Seversky|
|Successor||Vsevolod II of Kiev|
|Spouse||1. Theophania Myrodh (Muzalon)
2. daughter of Osaluka-Khan
|Vsevolod II of Kiev
Igor II of Kiev
Oleg Svyatoslavich (Ukrainian: Олег Святославич; c. 1052 – August 1115) was a Rurikid prince whose equivocal adventures ignited political unrest in Kievan Rus' at the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries.
Oleg was a younger son of Sviatoslav Iaroslavich, Prince of Chernigov and his first wife, Killikiya. The order of seniority of the four sons of Sviatoslav Iaroslavich by Killikiya is uncertain: he might have been either the second or the fourth among them. According to historian Martin Dimnik, Oleg was born around 1050.
Oleg was named after his grand uncle. In the 1070s, he ruled the towns of Rostov and Lutsk, whence he made a raid into Bohemia in 1076. The same year his father died in Kiev and was succeeded by his brother Vsevolod. Failing to get along with him, Oleg had to flee to a distant Chernihivian domain on the Black Sea shore, called Tmutarakan. There, in 1078, he and his brother, Roman made an alliance with the Kipchaks, and with their support returned to his father's patrimony, Chernihiv (Ukraine). It was the first time that Slavic princes, in order to achieve their ends, brought pagan hordes to the walls of Russian cities.
On October 3, 1078 Oleg's forces clashed with Vsevolod of Kiev at the Nezhatinnaya Niva (or Nezhatina Niva, today's Nizhyn). He was defeated and escaped to Tmutarakan, where the Khazars had him imprisoned and sent in chains to Constantinople. The emperor, who was a relative and ally of Vsevolod, exiled him to Rhodes. There he married a noble lady, Theophano Mouzalonissa, who bore him several children.
Four years later, we again find him active in Tmutarakan, where he adopted the title "archon of Khazaria". In 1094, he returned with the Kipchaks to Rus' and captured Chernihiv. There ensued a prolonged internecine struggle with his cousins Sviatopolk and Vladimir Monomakh. One of the most prominent princes of Kievan period who never attained the Kievan throne, he died on August 1, 1115 and was buried in Chernihiv.
The Tale of Igor's Campaign styles him Gorislavich, poetically deriving his patronymic from the Russian word for sorrow. His descendants, known as Olgovichi, were archrivals of Vladimir's descendants (known as Monomakhovichi) in their struggle for supremacy in Rus'.
His son was Igor II of Kiev.
- Dimnik, Martin (1994). The Dynasty of Chernigov, 1054–1146. Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies. ISBN 0-88844-116-9.
- Franklin, Simon; Shepard, Jonathan (1996). The Emergence of Rus 750–1200. Longman. ISBN 0-582-49091X.
- Martin, Janet (1993). Medieval Russia, 980–1584. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67636-6.
- Raffensperger, Christian (2012). Reimagining Europe: Kievan Rus' in the Medieval World. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-06384-6.
- The Russian Primary Chronicle: Laurentian Text (Translated and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor) (1953). Medieval Academy of America. ISBN 978-0-915651-32-0.
- Vernadsky, George (1948). A History of Russia, Volume II: Kievan Russia. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-01647-6.