|Oliver Christian Bosbyshell|
|4th Superintendent of the United States Mint at Philadelphia|
November 1, 1889 – March 31, 1894
|Preceded by||Daniel M. Fox|
|Succeeded by||Eugene Townsend|
|8th Chief Coiner of the United States Mint at Philadelphia|
December 15, 1876 – February 1885
|Preceded by||A. Loudon Snowden|
|Succeeded by||William S. Steel|
|Member of the United States Assay Commission for 1898|
January 3, 1839|
|Died||August 1, 1921
|Resting place||West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania|
|Spouse(s)||Martha Stem (1863–1914, died)|
|Years of service||April 16, 1861 – October 1, 1864|
|Commands||48th Pennsylvania (August–October 1864)|
|Battles/wars||Civil War: Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Campbell's Station, Battle of the Crater|
Oliver Christian Bosbyshell (January 3, 1839 – August 1, 1921) served as Superintendent of the United States Mint at Philadelphia from 1889 to 1894. He also claimed to have been the first Union soldier wounded by enemy action in the Civil War, stating that he received a bruise on the forehead from an object thrown by a Confederate sympathizer while Bosbyshell's unit was marching through Baltimore in April 1861.
Bosbyshell was born in Mississippi; his parents were of old Philadelphia stock and had moved to Vicksburg on a temporary basis. His father died before Oliver's birth, and his mother returned after he was born to live with her father in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, where the boy grew up. After briefly working on the railroad and then studying law, Bosbyshell enlisted in the Union cause on the outbreak of war.
Bosbyshell initially enlisted in the 25th Pennsylvania Volunteers; when his brief period of service expired, he was offered a commission in the regular Army, but chose to remain in a volunteer regiment, joining the 48th Pennsylvania. He remained in that regiment for three years, fighting in such battles as Second Bull Run and Antietam. He rose to the rank of major, and led his regiment, but having been refused a leave of absence, was mustered out upon the expiration of his term of service in October 1864.
After leaving the army, Bosbyshell returned to Pennsylvania and worked in two unsuccessful businesses; he also involved himself in Republican politics and in the activities of the Grand Army of the Republic, a veteran's group. He was appointed to a post at the Philadelphia Mint in 1869, and became its superintendent in 1889, serving for four years. One of Bosbyshell's underlings at the mint had stolen gold bars; as they were not all recovered when the culprit was arrested, Bosbyshell was held responsible for the loss by virtue of his office. He was absolved of this liability by act of Congress in 1899.
Early life; Civil War
Oliver Christian Bosbyshell was born in Vicksburg, Mississippi, on January 3, 1839, the son of Oliver Christian and Mary Ann (Whitney) Bosbyshell. Both of his parents were from old Philadelphia families; the couple had taken up temporary residence in Vicksburg. The senior Oliver Bosbyshell was engaged in the commission business; he contracted bronchitis while fighting the fire which destroyed his warehouse, then died shortly after a sea voyage he had taken in hopes of improving his health. The elder Bosbyshell died in Philadelphia eight weeks before his son's birth, and Mary Bosbyshell returned from Mississippi by land with her infant son to her father's house in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. Young Oliver grew up there, and attended the local public schools. At age 15, he left school to become a telegraph messenger and for the next three years took various jobs in that field before deciding to pursue a career in the law. He first studied with attorney Francis W. Hugbee, then with his uncle, William Whitney; both were in Pottsville. He was still engaged as a student in 1861, when the Civil War broke out.
On April 15, 1861, President Abraham Lincoln called for 50,000 men to volunteer to fight to preserve the Union. The following day, Bosbyshell joined the Washington Artillerists, a local militia company, which quickly set out for Washington. On the way there, the company had to march through the streets of Baltimore on April 17. A hostile crowd of Confederate sympathizers gathered; according to accounts in Bosbyshell's lifetime, he was struck by a missile variously described as a stone or a brick. Although it gave him a large bruise and momentarily stunned him, the object drew no blood; Private Bosbyshell was purportedly the first man wounded in the Union cause, while an African-American servant, hit a few minutes later by a missile which broke the skin, was deemed the first man to have shed his blood for the Union. However, official records do not list Bosbyshell among the casualties of the Baltimore riots.
In Washington, the company was quartered in the Ladies' Gallery of the Senate Chamber, in the Capitol. The 350 Pennsylvania troops who first reached Washington on April 18 became known as the First Defenders, and after the war, the survivors formed an association with that name. The Washington Artillerists were redesignated as Company H of the 25th Pennsylvania Volunteers, and were sent down the Potomac River to Fort Washington, where the company spent three months strengthening the fortifications. Bosbyshell was offered a first lieutenancy in the regular Army, which he declined, stating that he preferred volunteer service. When the company's term of enlistment expired, Bosbyshell rejoined Union forces as a second lieutenant in Company G, 48th Pennsylvania Volunteers. He joined the company for a three-year term from October 1, 1861.
For about a month after his re-enlistment, Bosbyshell served as regimental recruiting officer in Harrisburg, but on November 11, sailed with his regiment from Fortress Monroe, Virginia, to Hatteras, North Carolina. There he served as acting adjutant of his regiment, and as judge advocate for courts-martial. When General Ambrose Burnside launched an attack on New Bern, he took six companies of the 48th with him, as well as Bosbyshell, though Company G was not included among the Union forces. In April and May 1862, Bosbyshell received successive promotions to first lieutenant and captain and was assigned to command his company, which he did at such battles as Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. After Fredericksburg, he was again assigned to serve in courts-martial; when the regiment was moved west in early 1863, Bosbyshell was assigned as provost marshal of Louisville, Kentucky. While stationed at Louisville, he returned home to Pennsylvania on leave of absence to marry Martha Stem, daughter of a minister.
When the regiment was ordered to Tennessee in September 1863 to take part in Union actions there, Bosbyshell was made Acting Assistant Adjutant-General for the First Brigade of the Ninth Corps, of which the 48th was part. He fought at Blue Springs and Campbell's Station, and took part in the siege of Knoxville. In 1864, he returned to Pennsylvania again to help bring the regiment up to strength. Returning to his brigade post, he commanded African-American troops in the Wilderness Campaign.
On July 10, 1864, Bosbyshell was promoted to major and ordered to command of the 48th, though he remained at his brigade post temporarily. At this time, Union forces were besieging Petersburg, south of the Confederate capital, Richmond, Virginia. The acting commander of the 48th, Lieutenant Colonel Henry Pleasants, in civilian life a mining engineer, conceived the idea of digging under the Confederate lines and exploding a giant bomb. After weeks of preparation, the bomb was exploded on July 30, creating a huge pit in the ground and a hole in the Confederate lines. After initial shock, the Confederates rallied and repulsed the attempt to break the lines, aided by Union bungling. Bosbyshell led African-American troops into action in the Battle of the Crater; they suffered over 400 casualties. With Pleasants now on General Robert B. Potter's staff, Bosbyshell took command of the 48th on August 2, 1864.
Bosbyshell led his command at Globe Tavern and at Peebles's Farm. In September 1864, he sought leave of absence to return to Pennsylvania on personal business. When this was refused, and with his three-year term of service having expired, he was mustered out on October 1, 1864.
Return to Pennsylvania
Having returned to Pottsville, Bosbyshell entered first the banking business, and then the book and stationary trade, each time with "disastrous" results. A Republican, in 1866, he ran for prothonotary of Schuylkill County, but was defeated.
Shortly after the war, the Union veteran's group, the Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) was founded. During Bosbyshell's campaign to become prothonotary, he was asked to organize the Schuylkill County branch, but declined because of his status as a candidate. The following year, however, he joined the GAR, organizing Post 24 in Pottsville. He became Schuylkill County district commander of the GAR soon after, and in 1869 was elected Pennsylvania's GAR department commander.
In 1869, Bosbyshell was hired as Register of Deposits of the Philadelphia Mint, and moved to that city. The Chief Coiner, A. Loudon Snowden, was impressed by Bosbyshell, and promoted him to Assistant Coiner in 1872. When Snowden left Mint service to accept a position as postmaster in 1876, President Ulysses Grant promoted Bosbyshell in his place. Grant nominated Bosbyshell on December 14, 1876; he was confirmed by the Senate on December 26. According to numismatic historian Q. David Bowers, Bosbyshell, while serving as Chief Coiner, used Mint facilities and out-of-date dies to strike rare three-dollar pieces, including the 1873, 1875, and 1876 issues. During Bosbyshell's tenure, quantities of pattern coins, restrikes, and pieces struck in different metals flowed to well-connected collectors and dealers, and Bosbyshell sold a large personal collection of such pieces shortly after leaving office.
Bosbyshell served as Chief Coiner until early 1885; with the approaching advent of the first Cleveland administration, Democrats would be appointed as Mint officials, and Bosbyshell secured a position as chief clerk in the Philadelphia City Controller's office. Bosbyshell was hired despite the fact that he was a Republican in a Democratic-run municipal administration as Controller Robert Dechert was a friend of his
In Philadelphia, Bosbyshell maintained his involvement in the GAR, and was in charge of the committee on arrangements for the Tenth National Encampment of the GAR, at Philadelphia in 1876. In 1879, he was elected as commander of Post 2 in Philadelphia. He also joined the Second Regiment of the Pennsylvania National Guard, and was elected major in 1878 and lieutenant colonel in 1880.
Mint superintendent (1889–1894)
On October 17, 1889, President Benjamin Harrison commissioned Bosbyshell as superintendent of the Philadelphia Mint. As the Senate was not sitting, Bosbyshell received a recess appointment. Bosbyshell filed his oath as Philadelphia Mint superintendent on November 1, 1889. On his first day on the job, he was greeted with a bouquet of flowers and a large pile of mail from office-seekers. He gave receipts for the Mint property he was now responsible for, and found no errors in the accounts of his predecessor. On December 16, 1889, with the Senate in session, Harrison nominated Bosbyshell. The following day, Vermont Senator Justin Morrill, on behalf of the Senate Finance Committee, to which Bosbyshell's nomination had been referred, recommended that he be confirmed, and the Senate did so on December 19.
In 1890, Bosbyshell deposited $4,200 of federal funds in the Keystone National Bank, which then went bankrupt. Bosbyshell was responsible for the debt, which was only $300 less than his annual salary, and paid it off by stages, completing the payments in 1894.
Before Congress abolished the practice in 1873, the government made silver legal tender alongside gold. This led to one of the great political controversies of the late 1800s, as many called for the return to pre-1873 laws, which would require the government to take all the silver offered it and return it, struck into silver dollars. On January 3, 1891, two "free silver" advocates called at the Philadelphia Mint with a large ingot of silver, and asked for it to be coined. When the weighing clerk declined, they asked to see Bosbyshell, who received them, but refused their demand. He did, however, write at their request a letter stating that the laws forbade coinage of silver provided by the public.
In August 1890, Bosbyshell had been elected colonel of his National Guard regiment. He had been lieutenant colonel; the vote was unexpectedly close, as he was disliked by some of his fellow officers. Following the Homestead Riots in July 1892, Pennsylvania Governor Robert E. Pattison ordered militia to the strike-torn town to restore order. Bosbyshell led his guard regiment to Homestead, where they met no resistance by the strikers. In August 1893, he resigned from the regiment.
Cleveland was elected for a second non-consecutive term in November 1892. With the Democrats in power again, new Mint Director Robert Preston in late March 1894 ordered Bosbyshell to turn over the Philadelphia Mint to his successor, Dr. Eugene Townsend. This required the counting of every coin in the facility, including cents and nickels. After consulting with the sureties on his bond as superintendent, Bosbyshell objected to resigning until the count (expected to take three months) was complete, but nevertheless left office as directed on March 31, 1894.
Later years, interests, and death
Bosbyshell had been elected vice-president of the Fidelity National Life Insurance Company in February 1893; in December of that year he was elected treasurer instead, a post he still held as of 1908. President McKinley appointed him as a member of the 1898 Assay Commission.
In September 1893, a major theft at the Philadelphia Mint had been discovered. Henry Cochran, weighing clerk, had been surreptitiously extracting gold bars from a vault which had been sealed in 1887, not with a solid door, but with a latticed one which was somewhat loose. Bosbyshell, in taking custody of the Philadelphia Mint's assets from his predecessor, Daniel Fox, had not asked for the gold to be weighed. When the gold was taken out to be converted into coin in 1893, the shortage was discovered. Although some of the gold was recovered, there was still a shortage of $12,810.82, and the government brought suit against Bosbyshell after he left office in 1894, securing judgment against him and the sureties on his bond. Bosbyshell appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, which ruled against him. The district court had ruled for Bosbyshell on the matter of 733 silver dollars said to be missing, leaving only the question of the gold. Bosbyshell asked for review by the Supreme Court, but also sought legislative relief, and on February 2, 1899, Congress absolved him of the debt, making the court case moot.
With the outbreak of the Spanish-American War in 1898, Bosbyshell organized and served as colonel of the Nineteenth Pennsylvania National Guard Regiment, which was used for homeland defense. He remained in that capacity from August 1898 until November, 1899.
In addition to the GAR, Bosbyshell had many interests and activities. An Episcopalian, he was a vestryman of the Church of the Savior in Philadelphia; for many years he conducted the choir and involved himself in Sunday School work, often as superintendent. He also memorialized his regiment's wartime experiences with the book, The 48th in the War, published in 1895 and was a member of several other veterans societies. He was also chairman of the Board of Trustees of the University Lodge of Masons. He took an interest in genealogy; in 1910 he published Descendants of Christian and Elizabeth (Oliver) Bosbyshell 1782–1910. He had four sons with his wife Martha, who died in 1914; their eldest son Nathan died in Los Angeles in 1888 at age 23.
- Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, p. 29.
- Who's Who, p. 85.
- Bosbyshell Descendants, p. 3.
- Evans, pp. 110–111.
- Smith Biographies, p. 31.
- Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, pp. 29–30.
- Evans, pp. 111–112.
- Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, pp. 30–31.
- Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, p. 30.
- Bosbyshell 48th, pp. 63–78.
- Evans, pp. 113–114.
- Evans, pp. 111, 113.
- Senate journal vol. xx, pp. 335, 344.
- Bowers, p. 92.
- Evans, pp. 114, 116.
- Senate journal vol. xxvii, p. 111.
- Philadelphia Record 1889-11-02.
- Senate journal vol. xxvii, p. 197.
- Senate journal vol. xxvii, pp. 279–281.
- NY Times 1894-06-26.
- Coin World Almanac, p. 456.
- Jones, p. 7.
- NY Times 1891-01-03.
- Philadelphia Record 1890-08-09.
- Daily World 1892-07-12.
- Bosbyshell v. United States, pp. 581–586.
- NY Times 1894-03-21.
- NY Times 1894-03-25.
- NY Times 1894-03-28.
- NY Times 1893-09-17.
- House Documents, pp. 6–7.
- Encyclopedia of Pennsylvania Biography, p. 31.
- Smith November 1993, p. 1556.
- Bosbyshell Descendants, p. 22.
- Smith November 1993, p. 1555.
- Reading Eagle 1921-08-02.
- Bosbyshell, Oliver C. (1895). The 48th in the War. Philadelphia: Avil Printing Company.
- Bosbyshell, Oliver C. (1910 (?)). Descendants of Christian and Elizabeth (Oliver) Bosbyshell 1782–1910. Privately published.
- Bowers, Q. David (2001). The Harry W. Bass, Jr. Museum Sylloge. Dallas, TX: Harry W. Bass, Jr. Foundation. ISBN 0-943161-88-6.
- Coin World Almanac (8th ed.). Sidney, OH: Amos Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-944945-60-5.
- Evans, George G. (1890). Illustrated history of the United States Mint (revised ed.). Philadelphia: George G. Evans.
- Jones, Stanley L. (1964). The Presidential Election of 1896. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. OCLC 445683.
- Leonard, John W., ed. (1908). Who's Who in Pennsylvania (2nd ed.). New York: L.R. Hamersly & Company.
- United States House of Representatives (1910). House Documents 151. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
- United States Senate (1901). Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States XX. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
- United States Senate (1901). Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States. XXVII. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office.
- Encyclopaedia of Contemporary Biography of Pennsylvania III. New York: Atlantic Publishing and Engraving. 1898.
- "Troops in control". The Daily World (Lawrence, Kan.). July 12, 1892.
- "Free coinage demanded". The New York Times. January 3, 1891.
- "Stolen by a trusted clerk". The New York Times. September 17, 1893.
- "Col. Bosbyshell's debt of honor". The New York Times. June 26, 1894.
- "The Philadelphia Mint". The New York Times. March 21, 1894.
- "To take control of millions". The New York Times. March 25, 1894.
- "Bosbyshell will protest". The New York Times. March 28, 1894.
- Smith, Pete (November 1993). "Bosbyshell claimed historic first". The Numismatist (The American Numismatic Association): 1555–1556.
- Smith, Pete (2010). "American numismatic biographies". The Numismatic Bibliomania Society. Retrieved March 9, 2014.
- "In control of the mint". The Philadelphia Record. November 2, 1889.
- "Bosbyshell wins". The Philadelphia Record. August 9, 1890.
- "Gen. Oliver C. Bosbyshell". The Reading Eagle. August 4, 1921.
- Oliver Bosbyshell v. United States, 77 F. 921, (page 581 of source) (United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit December 16, 1896).