Oliver O. Howard
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2011)|
|Oliver Otis Howard|
Portrait of Oliver O. Howard by Mathew Brady, during the Civil War
|Nickname||The Christian General|
November 8, 1830|
|Died||October 26, 1909
|Place of burial||Lake View Cemetery, Burlington, Vermont|
|Allegiance|| United States of America
|Service/branch|| United States Army
|Years of service||1854–94|
|Commands held||XI Corps
Army of the Tennessee
United States Military Academy
|Awards||Thanks of Congress
Medal of Honor
|Other work||President, Howard University|
Oliver Otis Howard (November 8, 1830 – October 26, 1909) was a career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. As a brigade commander in the Army of the Potomac, Howard lost his right arm while leading his men against Confederate forces at Fair Oaks in June 1862, an action which later earned him the Medal of Honor. As a corps commander, he suffered two humiliating defeats at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg in May and July 1863, but recovered from the setbacks as a successful corps and later army commander in the Western Theater.
Known as the "Christian general" because he tried to base his policy decisions on his deep religious piety, he was given charge of the Freedmen's Bureau in mid-1865, with the mission of integrating the freed slaves into Southern society and politics during the second phase of the Reconstruction Era. Howard took charge of labor policy, setting up a system that required free slaves to work on former plantation land under pay scales fixed by the Bureau, on terms negotiated by the Bureau with white land owners. Howard's Bureau was primarily responsible for the legal affairs of the freedmen. He attempted to protect the Negros from hostile conditions, but lacked adequate power, and was repeatedly frustrated by President Andrew Johnson. Howard's allies, the Radical Republicans, won control of Congress in the 1866 elections and imposed Radical Reconstruction, with the result that freedmen were given the vote. With the help and advice of the Bureau, they joined Republican coalitions along with "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags" to take political control of most of the southern states. Howard was also a leader in promoting higher education for freedmen, most notably in founding of Howard University in Washington and serving as its president 1867–73.
After 1874, Howard commanded troops in the West, conducting a famous campaign against the Nez Perce tribe. Utley (1987) concludes that his leadership against the Apaches in 1872, against the Nez Perce in 1877, the Bannocks and Paiutes in 1878, and against the Sheepeaters in 1879 all add up to an lengthy record, although he did not fight as much as George Custer and Nelson Miles.
Howard was born in Leeds, Maine, the son of Rowland Bailey Howard and Eliza Otis Howard. Rowland, a farmer, died when Oliver was 9 years old. Oliver attended Monmouth Academy in Monmouth, North Yarmouth Academy in Yarmouth, Kents Hill School in Readfield, and graduated from Bowdoin College in 1850 at the age of 19. He then attended the United States Military Academy, graduating in 1854, fourth in his class of 46 cadets, as a brevet second lieutenant of ordnance. He served at the Watervliet Arsenal near Troy, New York, and was the temporary commander of the Kennebec Arsenal in Augusta, Maine. In 1855, he married Elizabeth Anne Waite, with whom he would have seven children. In 1857 he was transferred to Florida for the Seminole Wars. It was in Florida that he experienced a conversion to evangelical Christianity and considered resigning from the Army to become a minister. His religious proclivities would later earn him the nickname "the Christian general." Howard was promoted first lieutenant in July 1857, to returned to West Point the following September to become an instructor of mathematics. As the Civil War began with the surrender of Fort Sumter, thoughts of the ministry were put aside and he decided to remain in the service of his country.
Howard was appointed colonel of the 3rd Maine Infantry regiment and temporarily commanded a brigade at the First Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to brigadier general effective September 3, 1861, and given permanent command of his brigade. He then joined Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac for the Peninsula Campaign.
On June 1, 1862, while commanding a Union brigade in the Fair Oaks, Howard was wounded twice in his right arm, which was subsequently amputated. (He received the Medal of Honor in 1893 for his heroism at Fair Oaks) Brig. Gen. Philip Kearny, who had lost his left arm, visited Howard and joked that they would be able to shop for gloves together. Howard recovered quickly enough to rejoin the army for the Battle of Antietam, in which he rose to division command in the II Corps. He was promoted to major general in November 1862 and assumed command of the XI Corps the following April. In that role, he replaced Maj. Gen. Franz Sigel. Since the corps was composed largely of German immigrants, many of whom spoke no English, the soldiers were resentful of their new leader and openly called for Sigel's reinstatement.
At the Battle of Chancellorsville, Howard suffered the first of two significant military setbacks, which together led to his occasional nickname, "Uh-Oh Howard". On May 2, 1863, his corps was on the right flank of the Union line, northwest of the crossroads of Chancellorsville. Robert E. Lee and Lt. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson created an audacious plan in which Jackson's entire corps would march secretly around the Union flank and attack it. Howard was warned by Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, now commanding the Army of the Potomac, that his flank was "in the air", not anchored by a natural obstacle, such as a river, and that Confederate forces might be on the move in his direction. Howard failed to heed the warning and Jackson struck before dark, routing the XI Corps and causing a serious disruption to the Union plans.
At the Battle of Gettysburg, the XI Corps, still chastened by its humiliation in May, arrived on the field in the afternoon of July 1, 1863. Poor positioning of the defensive line by one of Howard's subordinate division commanders, Brig. Gen. Francis C. Barlow, was exploited by the Confederate Corps of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell and once again the XI Corps collapsed, forcing it to retreat through the streets of Gettysburg, leaving many prisoners behind. On Cemetery Hill, south of town, Howard quarreled with Maj. Gen. Winfield S. Hancock about who was in command of the defense. Hancock had been sent by Maj. Gen. George G. Meade with written orders to take command, but Howard insisted that he was the ranking general present. Eventually he relented. Controversy centers on three points: 1) Howard's choice of Cemetery Hill as the key to defense; 2) the timing of Howard's mid-afternoon order to abandon positions north and west of town; and 3) Howard's reluctance to recognize that Hancock, his junior, had superseded him. Carpenter (1963) holds that Howard alone had wisely selected Cemetery Hill, that the order to withdraw was probably a sound one, and that the conflict between Howard and Hancock might have been avoided had Meade himself gotten onto the field.
Howard started circulating the story that his corps' failure had actually been triggered by the collapse of Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday's I Corps to the west, and this was a partial reason for Doubleday's removal from command of the corps. However, this excuse was not accepted by history—the reverse was actually true—and the reputation of the XI Corps was ruined. Some argue that Howard should get some credit for the eventual success at Gettysburg because he wisely stationed one of his divisions (Maj. Gen. Adolph von Steinwehr) on Cemetery Hill as a reserve and critical backup defensive line. For the remainder of the three-day battle, the corps remained on the defensive around Cemetery Hill, withstanding assaults by Maj. Gen. Jubal Early on July 2, and participating at the margin of the defense against Pickett's Charge on July 3.
Howard and XI Corps were transferred to the Western Theater with fellow general Henry Slocum's XII Corps to become part of the Army of the Cumberland in Tennessee; they were commanded, once again, by "Fighting Joe" Hooker. In the Battles for Chattanooga, the corps joined the impulsive assault that captured Missionary Ridge and forced the retreat of Gen. Braxton Bragg. In July 1864, following the death of Maj. Gen. James B. McPherson, Howard became commander of the Army of the Tennessee, fought in the Atlanta Campaign, and led the right wing of Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman's famous March to the Sea, through Georgia and then the Carolinas. Sherman, having favored Howard over John A. Logan for command of the Army of the Tennessee after McPherson's death, asked Howard to allow Logan to lead the army in the May 1865 Grand Review in Washington. Howard agreed when Sherman appealed to him as a Christian gentleman.
From May 1865 to July 1874, General Howard was commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau (the Army's Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands), where he played a major role in the Reconstruction era, and had charge of integrating freedman (freed slaves) into American society. Howard devised far-reaching programs and guidelines including social welfare in the form of rations, schooling, courts, and medical care. Howard often clashed with President Andrew Johnson, who strongly disliked the welfare aspects of the Freedman's Bureau, and especially tried to return political power to Southern whites. However, Howard had the support of the Radical Republicans in Congress. When the Radical Republicans gained power in 1867, they gave blacks the right to vote in the South and set up new elections, which the Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers, and scalawags won (except in Virginia). The Bureau was very active in helping blacks organize themselves politically, and therefore it became a target of partisan hostility.
The limited ideological framework of General Howard and his aides encouraged their attempt at radical reconstruction of southern society without realizing the need for essential legislation. They thought that the elimination of all statutory inequalities, for instance, Black court testimony, was enough to assure protection. Southern states pretended compliance on the point to end the threat of the Freedmen's Bureau courts' system.
He was placed in command of the Department of the Columbia in 1874, went west to Washington Territory's Fort Vancouver, where he fought in the Indian Wars, particularly against the Nez Perce, with the resultant surrender of Chief Joseph. He was criticized by Chief Joseph as precipitating the war by trying to rush the Nez Perce to a smaller reservation, with no advance notice, no discussion, and no time to prepare. Joseph said, "If General Howard had given me plenty of time to gather up my stock and treated Too-hool-hool-suit as a man should be treated, there would have been no war." Subsequently, Howard was superintendent of the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1881–82. He served as commander of the Department of the Platte from 1882 to 1884. In 1891, his final command was of the Department of the East at Fort Columbus on Governors Island in New York Harbor, encompassing the states east of the Mississippi River. He retired from the United States Army at that posting in 1894 with the rank of major general. The French government made him a chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1884.
General Howard is also remembered for playing a role in founding Howard University, which was incorporated by Congress in 1867. The school is nonsectarian and is open to both sexes without regard to race. On November 20, 1866, ten members, including Howard, of various socially concerned groups of the time met in Washington, D.C., to discuss plans for a theological seminary to train colored ministers. Interest was sufficient, however, in creating an educational institute for areas other than the ministry. The result was the Howard Normal and Theological Institute for the Education of Preachers and Teachers. On January 8, 1867, the Board of Trustees voted to change the name of the institution to Howard University. Howard served as president from 1869 to 1874. He was quoted in saying "The opposition to Negro education made itself felt everywhere in a combination not to allow the freedmen any room or building in which a school might be taught. In 1865, 1866, and 1877 mobs of the baser classes at intervals and in all parts of the South occasionally burned school buildings and churches used as schools, flogged teachers or drove them away, and in a number of instances murdered them." He also founded Lincoln Memorial University in Harrogate, Tennessee, in 1895, for the education of the "mountain whites."
Death and memorialization
A bust of Howard designed by artist James E. Kelly is on display at Howard University. An equestrian statue is on East Cemetery Hill on the Gettysburg Battlefield. A dormitory at Bowdoin College is named for Howard.
The Oliver O. Howard Relief Corps of the Grand Army of the Republic provided funds to help destitute former Union soldiers and to support worthy public causes. It contributed money and the design for the State Flag of Utah in 1922. An Army Reserve Center was named after him in Auburn, Maine, and is still used today by several U.S. Army Reserve units.
The General O.O. Howard House, located on Officer's Row within the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site was built in 1878 upon General Howard's order at a cost of $6,938.20. Completed in 1879, the building suffered a fire in 1986 and was left vacant until renovated by the City of Vancouver in 1998. The building serves as the headquarters of the Fort Vancouver National Trust.
In Portland, Oregon, on the 150th Anniversary of Howard's acts of valor on June 1, 1862, while leading his troops at the Battle of Fair Oaks; a commemorative wreath was laid by the Oregon Civil War Sesquicentennial Commission at the site of General O.O. Howard's former residence in downtown Portland at the corner of SW 10th and Morrison. The month of June 2012 will be dedicated to O.O. Howard with a lecture and programs by the Oregon Civil War Sesquicentennial spotlighting General Howard's activities in Portland and at Fort Vancouver, Washington; and his post war achievements at the Freedmen's Bureau, Howard University and Lincoln Memorial University and the Indian Wars. In a New York Times interview given the day after Major General Howard retired from the Army on November 8, 1894 at the age of 64, it was reported that he was traveling West to stay at his daughter's house in Portland, Oregon where he planned to start writing his memoirs.
Howard was the author of numerous books after the war, including:
- Donald's School Days (1878)
- Nez Perce Joseph (1881)
- General Taylor (1892)
- Isabella of Castile (1894)
- Fighting For Humanity, or Camp and Quarterdeck (1898)
- Autobiography (1907)
- My Life and Experiences among Our Hostile Indians (1907)
In popular media
Medal of Honor citation
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Fair Oaks, Va., June 1, 1862. Entered service at: Maine. Born: November 8, 1830, Leeds, Maine. Date of issue: March 29, 1893.
Led the 61st New York Infantry in a charge in which he was twice severely wounded in the right arm, necessitating amputation.
- List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: G–L
- List of American Civil War generals
- Sherman's March (2007, documentary)
- Charles Henry Howard (brother)
- David Thomson, "Oliver Otis Howard: Reassessing the Legacy of the 'Christian General'," American Nineteenth Century History 10 (September 2009), 273–98.
- Robert M. Utley, "Oliver Otis Howard," New Mexico Historical Review 62, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 55-63.
- Tagg, p. 121.
- Warner, p. 237; Oliver Otis Howard, In the Beginning, Bowdoin Orient website.
- Kent's Hill Notables, Rootsweb.
- Cimbala, pp. 1008-10.
- Eicher, p. 306.
- John A. Carpenter, "General O. O. Howard at Gettysburg," Civil War History, September 1963, 261-76.
- John Cox, and LaWanda Cox, "General O. O. Howard and the 'Misrepresented Bureau,'" Journal of Southern History, Nov 1953, Vol. 19 Issue 4, pp 427-456
- James Oakes, "A Failure of Vision: The Collapse of the Freedmen's Bureau Courts," Civil War History 25, no. 1 (March 1979): 66-76.
- Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1892). "Howard, Oliver Otis". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton
- "Brief History". Howard University. Retrieved 2008-01-19.
- Moore, Robert B. Reconstruction the promise and betrayal of democracy. New York, N.Y: CIBC, 1983.
- National Historic Landmark Nomination by Flavia W. Rutkosky and Robin Bodo, January 5, 2004.
- Nebraska Association of County Officials website
- Bafus, Wanda (2006). Vancouver Barracks and a Walk up Main Street, Vancouver Usa. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-615-19528-8.
- Carpenter, John A. "General O. O. Howard at Gettysburg." Civil War History. September 1963.
- Cimbala, Paul A. "Oliver Otis Howard." In Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, edited by David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
- Cox, John, and LaWanda Cox. "General O. O. Howard and the 'Misrepresented Bureau'." Journal of Southern History 19, no. 3 (November 1953): 427-56.
- Eicher, John H., and David J. Eicher. Civil War High Commands. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
- McFeely, William S. Yankee Stepfather: General O.O. Howard and the Freedmen. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968. ISBN 978-0-300-00315-4.
- Tagg, Larry. The Generals of Gettysburg, Campbell, CA: Savas Publishing, 1998. ISBN 1-882810-30-9.
- Thomson, David. "Oliver Otis Howard: Reassessing the Legacy of the 'Christian General'." American Nineteenth Century History, 10 (September 2009), 273–98.
- Utley, Robert M. "Oliver Otis Howard." New Mexico Historical Review 62, no. 1 (Winter 1987): 55-63.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Oliver O. Howard.|
- Howard, Oliver O. "Lincoln's Monument in the Mountains". National Magazine, June 1905 (with photos)
- "Oliver O. Howard". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
- "Oliver Otis Howard -". General in the Civil War, Reconstruction, and Indian Wars. Biography by Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
- "Howard Memorial at Gettysburg". HOWARD, Maj Gen Oliver O Memorial at Gettysburg Nat'l Military Park in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. DC Memorials. 2007-11-02. Retrieved 2007-11-06.
- Oliver Otis Howard and Lincoln Memorial University (PDF)
- "Oliver Otis Howard Papers, 1833-1912". library.bowdoin.edu. Retrieved 23 March 2012.
- Army of Georgia Historical Society
- Texts on Wikisource:
|Commander of the II Corps
January 26, 1863 - February 5, 1863
Darius N. Couch
|Commander of the IV Corps
April 10, 1864 - July 27, 1864
David S. Stanley
|Commander of the XI Corps
April 2, 1863 - July 1, 1863
|Commander of the XI Corps
July 1, 1863 - September 25, 1863
Army of the Cumberland
Army of the Potomac
|Commander of the XI Corps (Army of the Cumberland)
September 25, 1863 - January 21, 1864
|Commander of the XI Corps (Army of the Cumberland)
February 25, 1864 - April 10, 1864
|Superintendents of the United States Military Academy