Olodaterol

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Olodaterol
Olodaterol skeletal.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
6-hydroxy-8-{(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-{[1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylpropan-2-yl]amino}ethyl}-4H-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one
Clinical data
Trade names Striverdi
AHFS/Drugs.com UK Drug Information
Pregnancy cat.
  • No experience
Legal status
Routes Inhalation
Identifiers
CAS number 868049-49-4
ATC code R03AC19
PubChem CID 11504295
ChemSpider 9679097
UNII VD2YSN1AFD
ChEBI CHEBI:82700 YesY
ChEMBL CHEMBL605846
Synonyms BI 1744 CL
Chemical data
Formula C21H26N2O5 
Mol. mass 386.44 g/mol

Olodaterol (trade name Striverdi) is a long acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist used as an inhalation for treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), manufactured by Boehringer-Ingelheim.[1]

Medical uses[edit]

Olodaterol is a once-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema, and is administered in an inhaler called Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler.[2][3][4][5][6][7]

As of December 2013, olodaterol is not approved for the treatment of asthma. Olodaterol monotherapy was previously evaluated in four Phase 2 studies in asthma patients. However, currently there are no Phase 3 studies planned for olodaterol monotherapy in patients with asthma.[citation needed]

Adverse effects[edit]

Adverse effects generally were rare and mild in clinical studies. Most common, but still affecting no more than 1% of patients, were nasopharyngitis (running nose), dizziness and rash. To judge from the drug's mechanism of action and from experiences with related drugs, hypertension (high blood pressure), tachycardia (fast heartbeat), hypokalaemia (low blood levels of potassium), shaking, etc., might occur in some patients, but these effects have rarely, if at all, been observed in studies.[1]

Interactions[edit]

Based on theoretical considerations, co-application of other beta-adrenoceptor agonists, potassium lowering drugs (e. g. corticoids, many diuretics, and theophylline), tricyclic antidepressants, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors could increase the likelihood of adverse effects to occur. Beta blockers, a group of drugs for the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure) and various conditions of the heart, could reduce the efficacy of olodaterol.[1] Clinical data on the relevance of such interactions are very limited.

Pharmacology[edit]

Mechanism of action[edit]

Like all beta-adrenoceptor agonists, olodaterol mimics the effect of epinephrine at beta-2 receptors (β₂-receptors) in the lung, which causes the bronchi to relax and reduces their resistance to airflow.[3]

Olodaterol is a nearly full β₂-agonist, having 88% intrinsic activity compared to the gold standard isoprenaline. Its half maximal effective concentration (EC50) is 0.1 nM. It has a higher in vitro selectivity for β₂-receptors than the related drugs formoterol and salmeterol: 241-fold versus β₁- and 2299-fold versus β₃-receptors.[2] The high β₂/β₁ selectivity may account for the apparent lack of tachycardia in clinical trials, which is mediated by β₁-receptors on the heart.

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Once bound to a β₂-receptor, an olodaterol molecule stays there for hours – its dissociation half-life is 17.8 hours –, which allows for once-a-day application of the drug[3] like with indacaterol. Other related compounds generally have a shorter duration of action and have to be applied twice daily (e.g. formoterol, salmeterol). Still others (e. g. salbutamol, fenoterol) have to be applied three or four times a day for continuous action, which can also be an advantage for patients who need to apply β₂-agonists only occasionally, for example in an asthma attack.[8]

History[edit]

On 29 January 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee (PADAC) recommended that the clinical data included in the new drug application (NDA) for olodaterol provide substantial evidence of safety and efficacy to support the approval of olodaterol as a once-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment for airflow obstruction in patients with COPD.[9]

On 18 October 2013 approval of olodaterol in the first three European countries – the United Kingdom, Denmark and Iceland – was announced by the manufacturer.[10]

On July 31, 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Striverdi Respimat (olodaterol) inhalation spray to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema that are experiencing airflow obstruction. [11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Striverdi UK Drug Information
  2. ^ a b Bouyssou, T.; Casarosa, P.; Naline, E.; Pestel, S.; Konetzki, I.; Devillier, P.; Schnapp, A. (2010). "Pharmacological Characterization of Olodaterol, a Novel Inhaled  2-Adrenoceptor Agonist Exerting a 24-Hour-Long Duration of Action in Preclinical Models". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 334 (1): 53–62. doi:10.1124/jpet.110.167007. PMID 20371707.  edit
  3. ^ a b c Casarosa, P.; Kollak, I.; Kiechle, T.; Ostermann, A.; Schnapp, A.; Kiesling, R.; Pieper, M.; Sieger, P.; Gantner, F. (2011). "Functional and Biochemical Rationales for the 24-Hour-Long Duration of Action of Olodaterol". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 337 (3): 600–609. doi:10.1124/jpet.111.179259. PMID 21357659.  edit
  4. ^ Bouyssou, T.; Hoenke, C.; Rudolf, K.; Lustenberger, P.; Pestel, S.; Sieger, P.; Lotz, R.; Heine, C.; Büttner, F. H.; Schnapp, A.; Konetzki, I. (2010). "Discovery of olodaterol, a novel inhaled β2-adrenoceptor agonist with a 24h bronchodilatory efficacy". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 20 (4): 1410–1414. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.12.087. PMID 20096576.  edit
  5. ^ Joos G, Aumann JL, Coeck C, et al. ATS 2012 Abstract: Comparison of 24-Hour FEV1 Profile for Once-Daily versus Twice-Daily Treatment with Olodaterol, A Novel Long-Acting ß2-Agonist, in Patients with COPD[dead link]
  6. ^ Van Noord, J. A.; Smeets, J. J.; Drenth, B. M.; Rascher, J.; Pivovarova, A.; Hamilton, A. L.; Cornelissen, P. J. G. (2011). "24-hour Bronchodilation following a single dose of the novel β2-agonist olodaterol in COPD". Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 24 (6): 666–672. doi:10.1016/j.pupt.2011.07.006. PMID 21839850.  edit
  7. ^ van Noord JA, Korducki L, Hamilton AL and Koker P. Four Weeks Once Daily Treatment with BI 1744 CL, a Novel Long-Acting ß2-Agonist, is Effective in COPD Patients. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 2009; 179: A6183
  8. ^ Haberfeld, H, ed. (2009). Austria-Codex (in German) (2009/2010 ed.). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. ISBN 3-85200-196-X. 
  9. ^ Hollis A (31 January 2013). "Panel Overwhelmingly Supports Boehringer COPD Drug Striverdi". FDA News/Drug Industry Daily. 
  10. ^ "New once-daily Striverdi (olodaterol) Respimat gains approval in first EU countries". Boehringer-Ingelheim. 18 October 2013. 
  11. ^ "FDA approves Striverdi Respimat to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". FDA News/Drug Industry Daily. 31 July 2014. 

External links[edit]