Ulugh Muhammad

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Ulugh Muhammad (died 1445) (Urdu; Persian; Arabic: الغ محمد ; Tatar: Oluğ Möxämmäd, Russian: Olugh Mokhammad), written as Ulanus by orientalists, was twice Khan of the Golden Horde and founder of the Kazan Khanate.

Reign[edit]

Ulugh Muhammad first came to power following the death of Yeremferden. His main competitor for control of the Horde was his cousin[1] Dawlat Berdi, The son of Yeremferden. For much of his reign Ulugh Muhammad controlled Sarai, and was therefore seen as the more legitimate ruler within the Horde, although it was captured by his rival after the Siege of Sarai in 1420 and held by him for two years.

In 1422 Baraq Khan defeated both Ulugh Muhammad and Dawlat and drove them out of the country. while Dawlat remained in the outskirts of Crimea, Ulugh Muhammad fled to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and plead for assistance from Vytautas the Great. With this assistance he was able to march on Baraq and capture Sarai.

After regaining control over the Khanate, Ulugh Muhammad marched on Crimea, where Dawlat Berdi had re-established himself following Baraq's defeat and death. After a series of indecisive skirmishes his invasion was cut short due to the death of Vaytautas, which forced Ulugh Muhammad to concentrate his forces on Lithuania, where he supported Sigismund I Kestutian against Svitrigaila in the fight for the Lithuanian throne. Svitrigaila in turn supported Dawlat Berdi and later Sayid Ahmad I, as did Vasili II of Russia.

Ulugh Muhammad lost control of the Golden Horde again in the late 1430s and fled east, where he captured Kazan and founded the Kazan Khanate. From that location he waged a series of successful wars against Muscovy which culminated in the capture and ransom of Vasili II.[2]

Family[edit]

Ulugh Muhammad was most likely the son of Jalal ad-Din khan, and the grandson of Tokhtamysh, although he may have been descended from Hassan Jefai, a relative of Tokhtamysh.[3] Either way, he was a descendant of Jochi and therefore a Ghengisid.[4]

Genealogy[edit]

  • Genghis Khan
  • Jochi
  • Touka-Timour
  • Ureng-Timour (Khan de Crimée)
  • Saridja
  • Toulak-Timour
  • Touka-Timour
  • Kendjé-Tok-Timour
  • Ali-Bek-Toula-Timour
  • Hassan-Tak-Timour
  • Ulugh Muhammad (1437-1446)**
  • Yakoub
  • Shaykh Ahmed
  • Hussein-Ivan Vassiliévitch
  • Prince Ivan Ivanovitch
  • Prince Timofeï Ivanovitch
  • Prince Ivan Timofeïevitch
  • Prince Piotr Ivanovitch
  • Prince Mikhaïl Petrovitch
  • Prince Andreï Mikhaïlovitch
  • Prince Prokhor AndréÏevitch
  • Prince Alexandre Prokhorovitch
  • Prince Prohor Alexandrovitch
  • Prince Alexandre Prokhorovitch
  • Prince Alexis Alexandrovitch
  • Prince Georges Alexéïevitch
  • Prince Cyril Alexéïevitch
  • Prince Alexandre Alexéïevitch
    • 1)-Princesse Kyra Alexandrovna
    • 2)Princesse Irina Alexandrovna
    • 3)Princesse Xénia Alexandrovna
      • Sources: archives familiales et le livre de velours des familles nobles de Russie.

Excavations[edit]

In 1977, during excavations in the Kazan Kremlin, the foundations of the two white stone mausoleum with the remains of rich graves were discovered. They were located in the territory of the Khan's residence and were probably tombs of the khans and their families. In one of them, relating to the 15th century, was the burial of a man 35–40 years of age. The deceased was pronounced representative of the Central Asian version of Mongoloid physical type: a person with massive cheekbones, a straight, slightly prominent nose. Features of the structure of bones of hands and the back of the skull indicate prolonged physical stresses of riding: straightened back to laid back shoulders and head slightly tilted back. A number of indicators suggest seasonality in diet, typical of nomadic life. Careful analysis led to the conclusion that the remains were those of the founder of the Kazan Khanate, Khan Mahmud. [5] In 1994, T.S. Baluevoy reconstructed the face of Olugh Mokhammad.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Paine, Sheila: The Golden Horde: From the Himalaya to the Mediterranean, Penguin Books, 1998.
  • Crummey, Robert: Formation of Muscovy 1304-1613, Longman Group, 1987.=

References[edit]

  1. ^ , Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, p. 253. Edinburgh University Press, 2004.
  2. ^ Grousset, Rene: The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, p. 181. Rutgers University Press, 1970.
  3. ^ Howorth, Henry Hoyle, History of the Mongols from the 9th to the 19th Century: Part 2: The So-Called Tartars of Russia and Central Asia, p. 449. Adamant Media Corporation, 2006.
  4. ^ , Bosworth, Clifford Edmund, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual, p. 253. Edinburgh University Press, 2004.
  5. ^ http://translate.googleusercontent.com/translate_c?depth=1&ei=mqL3UJC3Jc3QsgbYs4HQDg&hl=en&prev=/search%3Fq%3D%25D0%25A3%25D0%25BC%25D0%25B5%25D1%2 580%25D1%2588%25D0%25B8%25D0%25B9%2B%25D0%25B1%25D 1%258B%25D0%25BB%2B%25D1%258F%25D1%2580%25D0%25BA% 25D0%25BE%2B%25D0%25B2%25D1%258B%25D1%2580%25D0%25 B0%25D0%25B6%25D0%25B5%25D0%25BD%25D0%25BD%25D1%25 8B%25D0%25BC%2B%25D0%25BF%25D1%2580%25D0%25B5%25D0 %25B4%25D1%2581%25D1%2582%25D0%25B0%25D0%25B2%25D0 %25B8%25D1%2582%25D0%25B5%25D0%25BB%25D0%25B5%25D0 %25BC%26hl%3Den%26tbo%3Dd%26noj%3D1&rurl=translate.google.co.uk&sl=ru&u=http://files.school-collection.edu.ru/dlrstore/02655fc2-af60-4d94-b825-6fb3472b7d45/Muchammed-Emin.htm&usg=ALkJrhhdJJoxc8YL84gAcHc3-Gq111EWoA
Ulugh Muhammad
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Yeremferden
Khan of the Golden Horde (with Dawlat Berdi)
1419–1421
Succeeded by
Baraq
Preceded by
Baraq
Khan of the Golden Horde (with Dawlat Berdi)
1427–1437
Succeeded by
Sayid Ahmad I
Preceded by
the Khanate established
Khan of the Kazan Khanate
1437–1445
Succeeded by
Maxmud