Olympic Stadium (Montreal)

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Olympic Stadium
Stade olympique
The Big O
Le Stade Olympique 3.jpg
Location 4545 Pierre de Coubertin Avenue
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Coordinates 45°33′29″N 73°33′07″W / 45.558°N 73.552°W / 45.558; -73.552Coordinates: 45°33′29″N 73°33′07″W / 45.558°N 73.552°W / 45.558; -73.552
Owner Régie des Installations Olympiques (Government of Quebec)
Capacity Permanent capacity: 56,040[1][2]
Baseball: 45,757[3]
Soccer: 61,004[4]
Football: 66,308[5]
Concert: 78,322
Field size Foul Lines – 325 feet (99 m) (1977), 330 feet (101 m) (1981), 325 feet (99 m) (1983)
Power Alleys – 375 feet (114 m)
Centre Field – 404 feet (123 m) (1977), 405 feet (123 m) (1979), 404 feet (123 m) (1980), 400 feet (122 m) (1981), 404 feet (123 m) (1983)
Backstop – 62 feet (19 m) (1977), 65 feet (20 m) (1983), 53 feet (16 m) (1989)
Surface Grass (1976 and June 2, 2010)
AstroTurf (1977–2001; 2005–2006)
Defargo Astrograss (2002–2003)
FieldTurf (2003–2005)
Team Pro EF RD (soccer; 2007–July 2014)
Xtreme Turf by Act Global (FIFA U20 Women's World Cup; July 2014–current)
Construction
Broke ground April 28, 1973
Opened July 17, 1976, 39 years ago
April 15, 1977 (Baseball)
Construction cost C$ 770 million
C$ 1.47 billion (2006 – including additional costs, interest and repairs)
Architect Roger Taillibert [6]
Tenants
Montreal Expos (MLB) (1977–2004)
Montreal Alouettes (CFL) (1976–86, 1996–97) (2002–present, playoff games only)
Montreal Manic (NASL) (1981–83)
Montreal Machine (WLAF) (1991–92)
Montreal Impact (MLS) (2012–present, select games)
Website
Parc Olympique Quebec

The Olympic Stadium[7] (French: Stade olympique) is a multi-purpose stadium in Canada, located in the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve district of Montreal, Quebec. Built in the mid-1970s as the main venue for the 1976 Summer Olympics, it is nicknamed "The Big O", a reference to both its name and to the doughnut-shape of the permanent component of the stadium's roof. It is also called "The Big Owe" to reference the astronomical cost of the stadium and the 1976 Olympics as a whole.[8]

The stadium is the largest by seating capacity in Canada. After the Olympics, artificial turf was installed and it became the home of Montreal's professional baseball and football teams. The Alouettes of the CFL moved their regular season games to a smaller venue in 1998, but use Olympic Stadium for playoff and Grey Cup games. Following the 2004 baseball season, the Expos relocated to Washington, D.C.. The stadium currently serves as a multipurpose facility for special events (e.g. concerts, trade shows) with a permanent seating capacity of 56,040.[1][2] The capacity is expandable with temporary seating. The Impact of Major League Soccer (MLS) use the venue on occasion, when larger capacity is needed or when the weather restricts outdoor play at nearby Saputo Stadium in the spring months.

The stadium has not had a main tenant since the Expos left in 2004. With a history of numerous structural and financial problems, it is largely seen as a white elephant.

Incorporated into the north base of the stadium is the Montreal Tower, the world's tallest inclined tower at 175 metres (574 ft). The stadium and Olympic Park grounds border Maisonneuve Park, which includes the Montreal Botanical Garden, adjacent to the west across Rue Sherbrooke (Route 138).

History[edit]

Background and architecture[edit]

The stadium was designed by French architect Roger Taillibert to be a very elaborate facility featuring a retractable roof,[6] which was to be opened and closed by a huge 175-metre (574 ft) tower – the tallest inclined structure in the world, and the sixth tallest structure in Montreal. The design of the stadium resembles that of the Australian Pavilion at Expo '70 in Osaka, Japan.[9]

The Olympic swimming pool is located under this tower. An Olympic velodrome (since converted to the Montreal Biodome, an indoor nature museum) was situated at the base of the tower in a building similar in design to the swimming pool. The building was built as the main stadium for the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium was host to various events including the opening and closing ceremonies, athletics, football finals, and the team jumping equestrian events.[10]

The building's design is cited as a masterpiece of Organic Modern architecture.[11] Taillibert based the building on plant and animal forms, aiming to include vertebral structures with sinews or tentacles, while still following the basic plans of Modern architecture.[11]

Construction[edit]

Back view at night

The stadium was originally slated to be finished in 1972, but the grand opening was cancelled due to a construction workers strike. Further delays ensued due to the stadium's unusual design. As a result, the stadium and tower remained unfinished at the opening of the 1976 Olympic Games.[12]

The roof languished in a warehouse in France until 1982, and only in 1987 were the tower and roof completed.[13] It would be another year before the 66 tonnes, 5,500 m2 (59,000 sq ft) Kevlar roof could retract. Even then, it could not be used in winds above 40 km/h (25 mph). As it was prone to tearing during high winds, the roof was kept closed starting in 1992.

Observatory[edit]

North-east view from funicular lower deck compartment

When construction on the stadium's tower resumed after the 1976 Olympics, a multi-story observatory was added to the plan, accessible via a funicular that travels 266 metres (873 ft) along the curved tower's spine. The funicular cabin ascends from base of the tower to upper deck in less than two minutes at a rate of 2.8 m/s (6.3 mph), with space for 76 persons per trip and a capacity of 500 persons per hour. The cabin is designed to remain level throughout its trip, while providing a panoramic view to its passengers.

The funicular faces north-east, offering a view to the north, south and east. It overlooks the Olympic Village, the Biodome, the Botanical Gardens and Saputo Stadium. The Olympic Park, the stadium's suspended roof and downtown Montreal can be viewed from the south-west facing Observatory at the top of the tower.

Stadium financing[edit]

Aerial view at night

Despite initial projections in 1970 that the stadium would cost only C$134 million to construct, strikes and construction delays served to escalate these costs. By the time the stadium opened (in an unfinished form), the total costs had risen to C$264 million.

The Quebec government introduced a special tobacco tax in May 1976 to help recoup its investment. By 2006, the amount contributed to the Olympic Installations Board accounted for 8% of the tax revenue earned from cigarette sales. The 1976 special tobacco tax act stipulated that once the stadium was paid off, ownership of the facility would be returned to the City of Montreal.

In mid-November 2006, the stadium's costs were finally paid in full, more than 30 years after it opened.[8] The total expenditure (including repairs, renovations, construction, interest, and inflation) amounted to C$1.61 billion, making it—at the time all costs were paid off—the second most expensive stadium ever built (after Wembley Stadium in London).[14] Despite initial plans to complete payment in October 2006, an indoor smoking ban introduced in May 2006 curtailed the revenue gathered by the tobacco tax.[8] By 2014, the stadium's expense ranking had fallen to fifth, with the construction of costlier venues like MetLife Stadium, AT&T Stadium, and the new Yankee Stadium. Perceived by many to be a white elephant, the stadium has also been dubbed The Big Owe due to its astronomical cost.

The stadium has generated on average $20 million in revenue each year since 1977. It is estimated that a large-scale event such as the Grey Cup can generate as much as $50 million in revenue.[15]

Continuing problems[edit]

Although not completed in time for the 1976 Olympics, construction on finishing the tower recommenced in the 1980s. During this period, however, a large fire set the tower ablaze, causing damage and forcing a scheduled Expos home game to be postponed. In 1986, a large chunk of the tower fell onto the playing field during another Expos game.[16]

In January 1985, approval was given by the Quebec government to complete the project and install a rectractable roof, financed by an Olympic cigarette tax in the province.[17] The orange-coloured Kevlar roof was installed in April 1987,[18] finally completing the stadium over a decade late; however, soon after it was put into use it ripped on several occasions due to a design flaw. In the months that followed, it was plagued by further rips and leaks during rain storms, allowing water into the stadium.[19][20]

As part of various renovations made in 1991 to improve the stadium's suitability as a baseball venue, 12,000 seats were eliminated, most of them in distant portions of the outfield, and home plate was moved closer to the stands.

Olympic Stadium's blue roof

On September 8 of that year, support beams snapped and caused a 55-long-ton (62-short-ton; 56 t) concrete slab to fall onto an exterior walkway. No one was injured, but the Expos had to move their final 13 home games of that season to the opponents' cities. For the 1992 season, it was decided to keep the roof closed at all times. The Kevlar roof was removed in May 1998, making the stadium open-air for the 1998 season. Later in 1998, a $26 million opaque blue roof was installed which does not open.

In 1999, a 350 m2 (3,770 sq ft) portion of the roof collapsed on January 18, dumping ice and snow on workers that were setting up for the annual Montreal Auto Show.[16][21] The auto show and a boat show the following month were canceled,[22] and the auto show left the venue for good. Repaired once again, the roof has been modified to better withstand winter conditions: the OIB installed a network of pipes to circulate heated water under the roof to allow for snow melting. Despite these corrective measures, the stadium floor had remained closed from December to March.[23] Birdair, the fabric provider and designer of the roof, was later sued for the roof failure.[24] The installer of the roof, Danny's Construction, having suffered tremendous cost overruns along with its subcontractor Montacier, due to changes in the plans and specifications and delays, was terminated during the construction, and Birdair completed the project. Danny's Construction sued Birdair in 1999.[25] In February 2010, after a lengthy trial, the Quebec Superior Court awarded a judgement in favour of Danny's Construction and dismissed Birdair's countersuit.[26]

The stadium's condition suffered considerably in the early 21st century. During the Expos' final years in Montreal, it was coated with grime. Much of the concrete was chipped, stained, and soiled.

In 2009, the stadium received approval to remain open in the winter, provided weather conditions are favourable.[27] However, the Olympic Installations Board issued a report stating that the roof was unsafe during heavy rainfall or more than 8 centimetres (3.1 in) of snow, and that it rips 50 to 60 times a year. The city fire department warned in August 2009 that without corrective measures, including a new roof, it may order the stadium closed. Events cannot be held if more than 3 centimetres (1.2 in) of snow are predicted 24 hours in advance, such as caused postponement of the Montreal Impact home opener soccer match in March 2014.[citation needed] A contract for a new permanent steel roof was awarded in 2004, with an estimated $300 million price tag. In June 2010, the Olympic Installations Board sought approval from the provincial government for the contract.[28] In May 2011 a committee was formed to study the future of the stadium and improve the usage of the stadium, pool, and sports centre.[29][30]

A slab of concrete measuring approximately 8 by 12 metres (26 by 39 ft) fell from the roof of the stadium's underground parking facility on March 4, 2012. There were no injuries.[31]

Post-Olympic use[edit]

Canadian Football[edit]

The Alouettes in action in 2010

The Canadian Football League's Montreal Alouettes became the stadium's first major post-Olympic tenant when they moved their home games there halfway through the 1976 season, remaining there through 1986, the franchise's final season of operations. A revived Alouettes franchise returned for the 1996 and 1997 seasons, but then moved to the Percival Molson Stadium in 1998, only using the larger Olympic Stadium for select regular-season and home playoff games. As of 2008, the franchise uses Olympic Stadium for playoff games only. Due to the increased popularity of the Alouettes and the small capacity of Percival Molson Stadium, the team considered returning to Olympic Stadium on a full-time basis, but instead renovated Percival Molson Stadium to increase its capacity.[32]

Olympic Stadium has hosted the Grey Cup a total of six times, most recently in 2008 when the Calgary Stampeders defeated the hometown Alouettes. The stadium holds the record for nine of the ten largest crowds in CFL history, which include five regular-season and four Grey Cup games. A single-game record crowd numbering 69,083 attended a game played on September 6, 1977 between the Alouettes and Toronto Argonauts.[33]

In 1991 and 1992, the stadium played host to the Montreal Machine of the World League of American Football. This included hosting World Bowl '92 on June 6, 1992, in which the Sacramento Surge defeated the Orlando Thunder 21–17 before 43,789.[citation needed]

In 1988 and 1990, NFL pre-season games were played at Olympic Stadium.[citation needed]

Baseball[edit]

Detail of the roof including the foul lines

In 1977, the stadium replaced Jarry Park Stadium as the home ballpark of the National League's Montreal Expos. As a part of the team's franchise grant, a domed stadium was supposed to be in place for the 1972 baseball season. However, due to the delays in constructing Olympic Stadium, until 1977, the Expos annually sought and received a waiver to remain at Jarry.[citation needed]

The Expos regularly played 81 home games every season until 2003, when they played 22 home games in Puerto Rico at Hiram Bithorn Stadium in San Juan. The Expos played 59 home games at Olympic Stadium in their final two seasons of 2003 and 2004; the franchise moved south to Washington, D.C. for the 2005 season and became the Washington Nationals.[citation needed]

Olympic Stadium's first-ever baseball game was played on April 15, 1977. In front of 57,592, the Expos lost 7–2 to the Philadelphia Phillies. The Expos played five home playoff games in 1981; two in the National League Division Series against the Phillies, and three in the National League Championship Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers. On October 19, the Expos lost the decisive fifth game, 2–1, to the Dodgers on Rick Monday's ninth-inning home run. In 1982, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game was played at Olympic Stadium in front of 59,057—a stadium record for baseball. On September 29, 2004, the Expos played their last game in Montreal, losing 9–1 to the Florida Marlins before 31,395.[citation needed]

Olympic Stadium panoramic

Although the Expos were Olympic Stadium's primary tenants, it proved to be somewhat problematic as a baseball venue. To accommodate a Canadian football field, its lower seating tier was set further back than in baseball-specific parks, and in stadiums used for shorter American football fields.[34] The upper deck was one of the highest in the majors. Nonetheless, the Expos were very successful in the stadium for a time, with above National League median attendance in 1977 and from 1979 to 1983. The Expos outdrew the New York Mets from 1977 to 1983, and 1994 to 1996, as well as the New York Yankees in 1982 and 1983.[35][36][37]

Before the 1992 season, a major overhaul was done on the stadium's baseball configuration. Home plate was moved closer to the stands and new seats closer to the field were installed. As part of the renovation, several distant sections of permanent seating beyond the fence were closed, replaced with bleacher seats directly behind the outfield fence. The total seating capacity for baseball was reduced to 46,000.

The stadium was notorious for its poor playing conditions. For most of the Expos' tenure, the playing surface was an extremely thin AstroTurf carpet. It was so hard on players' knees that visiting teams frequently ran at a nearby park. Longtime Expos trainer Ron McClain begged for a replacement, but the city was unwilling to spend the $1 million needed for a new surface. Before the roof finally arrived, players had to contend with huge patches of ice in early April or late September. By the 1990s, several free agents specifically demanded that the Expos be taken out of consideration due to the poor state of the field.[38]

Ten years after the last Expos game at Olympic Stadium, the Toronto Blue Jays played two spring training games at the stadium against the New York Mets on March 28–29, 2014, with a total paid attendance of 96,000.[39] The following year the Toronto Blue Jays played two spring training games at Olympic Stadium against the Cincinnati Reds on April 3-4, 2015, with a total paid attendance of 96,000.[citation needed]

Longest home runs[edit]

Willie Stargell of the Pittsburgh Pirates hit the longest home run at Olympic Stadium on May 20, 1978, driving the ball into the second deck in right field for an estimated distance of 535 feet. The yellow seat that marked the location where the ball landed has been removed from the 300 level. The seat is now preserved at the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. Stargell also hit a notable home run at the Expos' original Montreal home, Jarry Park, which landed in a swimming pool beyond the right field fence.[40]

On April 4, 1988, the Expos' Opening Day, Darryl Strawberry of the New York Mets hit a ball off a speaker which hangs off a concrete ring at Olympic Stadium, estimated to have traveled 525 feet.

"Oh Henry" Rodriguez hit a ball on June 15, 1997, that bounced off the concrete ring in right field, caromed up to hit the roof, and came down, hitting a speaker. The distance traveled by this ball is also estimated at 525 feet.

The longest home run hit to left field was Vladimir Guerrero's blast on July 28, 2003, that hit an advertising sign directly below the left field upper deck. The ad was later replaced with a sign reading "VLAD 502".[41]

Soccer[edit]

Olympic Stadium with natural grass field

The Olympic Stadium was the home of the NASL's Montreal Manic soccer team from 1981–1983. A 1981 playoff game against the Chicago Sting attracted a crowd of over 58,000. Several games of the 2007 FIFA Under 20 World Cup were played at Olympic Stadium and drew the largest crowds of the tournament, including two sell-outs of 55,800.

Olympic Stadium hosted a CONCACAF Champions League quarter-final game pitting the Montreal Impact – who play primarily in the adjacent Stade Saputo – against Club Santos Laguna of the México Primera División (Mexico First Division) on February 25, 2009. This was the first time an international soccer game took place in Montreal during the winter months.[42] The Impact won 2–0 in front of a record crowd of 55,571.[43] The stadium was also home to a friendly match between Montreal Impact and A.C. Milan of the Italian Serie A on June 2, 2010 before 47,861.[44]

On July 25, 2009, Olympic Stadium became the first stadium outside of France to host Ligue 1's Trophée des Champions, a super cup played by the winner of Ligue 1 and the Coupe de France. Over 34,000 attended the game. Bordeaux defeated Guingamp by a score of 2 to 0. The game was held in Montreal to help Ligue 1 break into the growing North America soccer market.[45]

On March 17, 2012, a record crowd of 58,912 packed Olympic Stadium to cheer on the Montreal Impact for their MLS debut on home soil, in an entertaining 1-1 draw with the Chicago Fire, setting a new attendance record for professional soccer in Quebec.[46] That record was later broken on May 12, 2012 with 60,860 people for a match against the Los Angeles Galaxy, also setting a new attendance record for professional soccer in Canada.[47]

On August 24, 2014, the Olympic Stadium hosted the final match of the 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup.[48]

On April 29, 2015, a record crowd of 61,004 attended the final match of the CONCACAF Champions League between the Montreal Impact and Club América, establishing a new record attendance for professional soccer in Canada.[49]

The Olympic Stadium will host tournament matches for the FIFA Women's World Cup in 2015 along with other stadium across Canada.[50]

1976 Olympic football matches[edit]

Date Time (EDT) Team #1 Result Team #2 Round Spectators
July 19, 1976 16.00  Canada 1-2  Soviet Union Group D 24,591
July 20, 1976 19.00  Brazil 2–1  Spain Group A 30,693
July 21, 1976 16.00  Mexico 2–2  Israel Group B 28,124
July 22, 1976 15.00  East Germany 1–0  Spain Group A 26,204
20.00  Poland 3-2  Iran Group C 27,698
July 23, 1976 21.00  France 1–1  Israel Group B 33,639
July 25, 1976 21.00  Poland 5-0  North Korea Quarterfinal 44,332
July 27, 1976 21.00  Soviet Union 1-2  East Germany Semifinal 57,182
July 29, 1976 21.00  Soviet Union 2-0  Brazil Bronze Medal Match 55,647
July 31, 1976 21.30  East Germany 3–1  Poland Gold Medal Match 71,617

2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup[edit]

Date Time (EDT) Team #1 Result Team #2 Round Attendance
June 30, 2007 14.15  Poland 1–0  Brazil Group D 55,800
17.00  South Korea 1-1  United States
July 3, 2007 17.00  United States 6–1  Poland 35,801
19.45  Brazil 3-2  South Korea
July 6, 2007 17.00  Czech Republic 2-1  Panama Group E 34,912
19,45  Poland 1-1  South Korea Group D
July 8, 2007 17.15  Portugal 1-2  Gambia Group C 28,402
July 12, 2007 19.45  Mexico 3-0  Congo Round of 16 40,204
July 15, 2007 14.15  Chile 4-0 (a.e.t.)  Nigeria Quarterfinal 46,252

2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup[edit]

Date Time (EDT) Team #1 Result Team #2 Round Attendance
August 6, 2014 17.00  France 5-1  Costa Rica Group D 4,812
20.00  New Zealand 2-0  Paraguay
August 9, 2014 17.00  New Zealand 0-4  France 6,844
20.00  Paraguay 2-1  Costa Rica
August 12, 2014 16.00  Brazil 1-5  Germany Group B 13,031
19.00  North Korea 0-1  Canada Group A
August 17, 2014 19.00  France 0-0 (a.e.t.) (pen. 4-3)  South Korea Quarterfinal 4,954
August 20, 2014 19.00  Germany 2-1  France Semifinal 6,634
August 24, 2014 16.00  North Korea 2-3  France 3rd Place Match 15,822
19.00  Nigeria 0-1 (a.e.t.)  Germany Final

2015 FIFA Women's World Cup[edit]

 Canada

Other[edit]

Olympic Stadium hosted the 1978 World Junior Speed Skating Championships where they crowned the American siblings Eric and Beth Heiden as junior world champions.[51]

The Drum Corps International World Championship finals were held at this arena in 1981 and 1982.

On September 11, 1984, Pope John Paul II participated in a youth rally with about 55,000 people in attendance.[52]

Inside the stadium before an AC/DC concert
A view from the upper deck of the monster truck layout
Montreal Biodome in front of Olympic Stadium and its tower

On October 30, 2010, the stadium played host to a special mass to commemorate the ascension to sainthood of brother Andre. Over 30,000 people attended.[53]

The Stadium also hosts the Monster Spectacular monster truck show twice a year, in April and October.[citation needed]

Attendance record[edit]

Pink Floyd attracted the largest ever paid crowd to the Olympic Stadium: 78,322 persons on July 6, 1977. The second-largest crowd was 73,898 for Emerson, Lake & Palmer on August 26, 1977. The largest crowds for an opera performance were on June 16 and 18, with 63,000 to watch a production of Aida.[54]

Transit[edit]

The stadium is directly connected to the Pie-IX metro station on the Green Line of the Montreal Metro.

Facts and figures[edit]

  • At 175 m (574 ft), the Olympic Stadium is both the world's tallest slanted structure and stadium[citation needed].
  • Well over its original budget, the stadium ended up costing $770 million to construct. By 2006, the final cost had risen to $1.47 billion when calculating in repairs, modifications and interest paid out. It took taxpayers 30 years to finally pay off the cost, leading to its nickname of "The Big Owe" (a play on "The Big O").[55]
  • The roof is only 52 m (170.6 ft) above the field of play. As a result, a number of pop-ups and long home runs hit the roof over the years, necessitating the painting of orange lines on the roof to separate foul balls from fair balls.
  • During their years playing in Olympic Stadium the Expos were one of only two teams not to employ the traditional yellow-painted foul poles with the New York Mets being the other; Olympic's poles were painted red while the Mets' home, Shea Stadium (and later Citi Field), were painted orange.
  • The Olympic Stadium holds the record for a soccer game attendance in Canada. At the 1976 Summer Olympics soccer final, 72,000 people witnessed East Germany's 3–1 win over Poland.
  • A yellow seat on the 300 level commemorates a 534-foot (163 m) home run by Willie Stargell of the Pittsburgh Pirates. (It has since been moved to the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame)
  • The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium on a removable Team Pro EF RD surface that was purchased specifically for the tournament.[56]
  • For the first time since the Olympic Games in 1976, a natural grass field was installed in the stadium for the Montreal Impact match versus AC Milan on June 2, 2010.[57]
  • The stadium features a 101,600-watt public address system[58]
  • The main room of the stadium is the largest in Quebec, at 43,504 m2 (468,270 sq ft)[59]

Commemorations[edit]

As part of the commemorative stamps created for the 1976 Olympics, Canada Post issued a stamp depicting the Olympic Stadium and Velodrome.[60]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b The Stadium. parcolympique.qc.ca. Retrieved April 28, 2015
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  4. ^ impactmontreal.com - Approximately 2,000 additional tickets on sale at noon
  5. ^ Stamps spoil party in Montreal with big 'W' at 'Big O'. cfl.ca. Retrieved April 28, 2015
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  7. ^ "Parc olympique et Stade olympique" (in French). Government of Quebec. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c CBC News (December 19, 2006). "Quebec's Big Owe stadium debt is over". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 25, 2008. 
  9. ^ Chris Glenn (November 30, 2011). "Yokkaichi's Platypus Pavilion | Mie | Japan Tourist, by Chris Glenn". En.japantourist.jp. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
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  16. ^ a b "ESPN.com: MLB – Merron: What a disaster!". Static.espn.go.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
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  22. ^ "Olympic Stadium out for month". Boca Raton News. Associated Press. January 20, 1999. p. 4B. 
  23. ^ Canwest News Service (October 2, 2008). "Impact begin search for location for winter game". Montreal Gazette. [dead link]
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  30. ^ Montreal Gazette (May 10, 2011). "Elephant in the room; Regie's committee on Big O a good start but leaves questions unanswered". Postmedia Network Inc. 
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  48. ^ "FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup: Matches - Knockout stage". FIFA.com. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  49. ^ mlssoccer.com - Champions League: Montreal Impact sell 2,000 more tickets to final, setting new Canadian record
  50. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup: Destination - Host Cities". FIFA.com. Retrieved July 14, 2014. 
  51. ^ Phillips, Randy (February 6, 1978). "Eric, Beth not Heiden in Junior speed skating". The Gazette (Montreal). Retrieved August 8, 2014. 
  52. ^ "The Pope in Canada: A Journey Into the Heart". Americancatholic.org. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  53. ^ Anne Sutherland, Montreal Gazette: Monday, November 1, 2010 (November 1, 2010). "30,000 faithful flock to Olympic Stadium for Brother Andre celebration". Globaltvedmonton.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  54. ^ LE STADE OLYMPIQUE
  55. ^ "ESPN.com: MLB – Merron: The Disastrous 'Big Owe'". Static.espn.go.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
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  58. ^ "RIO – Parc olympique de Montréal :: Salles au Stade olympique :: Location de salles au Stade olympique". Rio.gouv.qc.ca. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
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  60. ^ John Burnett. "Canadian Stamps Marked Montreal Olympics". Retrieved October 22, 2012. 
  • Rémillard, Francois. Montreal architecture: A Guide to Styles and Buildings. Montreal: Meridian Press, 1990.

External links[edit]

Multimedia[edit]

  • CBC Archives – Clip from 1975 – Stadium architect talks about his design
  • CBC Archives – A look back on the history of the stadium (1999)
  • CBC Archives – Discussion of building a tower for Montreal
Events and tenants
Preceded by
Olympiastadion
Munich
Summer Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

1976
Succeeded by
Grand Arena
Moscow
Preceded by
Olympiastadion
Munich
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

1976
Succeeded by
Grand Arena
Moscow
Preceded by
Olympiastadion
Munich
Summer Olympics
Football Men's Finals (Olympic Stadium)

1976
Succeeded by
Grand Arena
Moscow
Preceded by
Autostade
Memorial Stadium (Baltimore)
Percival Molson Stadium
Home of the
Montreal Alouettes

1976–1986
1996–1997
2001 – current (with Percival Molson Stadium)
Succeeded by
Franchise folded
Percival Molson Stadium
current home (part time)
Preceded by
Jarry Park Stadium
Home of the
Montreal Expos

1977–2004
Succeeded by
RFK Stadium
Preceded by
Eisstadion Inzell
Host of the
World Junior Speed Skating Championships

1978
Succeeded by
L'Anneau de Vitesse
Preceded by
Cleveland Stadium
Host of the
Major League Baseball All-Star Game

1982
Succeeded by
Comiskey Park
Preceded by
Legion Field
Host of the
Drum Corps International
World Championship

1981–1982
Succeeded by
Miami Orange Bowl