Olympic Stadium (London)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
The Stadium
Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park
Olympic Stadium (London), 16 April 2012.jpg
Aerial view of the Stadium in April 2012
Former names London 2012 Olympic Stadium
Location Olympic Park
Stratford
London
England
Coordinates 51°32′19″N 0°00′59″W / 51.53861°N 0.01639°W / 51.53861; -0.01639Coordinates: 51°32′19″N 0°00′59″W / 51.53861°N 0.01639°W / 51.53861; -0.01639
Broke ground 2007
Built 2008–2011
Opened 2011
Renovated 2013–
Owner Greater London Authority
Operator London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC)
Surface Track and field, Pitch
Construction cost £486 million[1]
(£501 million in 2014 pounds[2])
Architect Populous
Structural engineer Buro Happold
Services engineer Buro Happold
Main contractors Sir Robert McAlpine
Capacity Athletics: 60,000, Pitch: 54,000, Concerts: max. 80,000
Tenants
2012 Summer Olympics
2012 Summer Paralympics
2013 London Athletics Grand Prix
2015 Rugby World Cup
West Ham United (2016–)
2017 IPC Athletics World Championships
2017 IAAF World Championships in Athletics

The Stadium[3] at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, commonly known as the Olympic Stadium, is a stadium located in Stratford, London, England. It is located at Marshgate Lane in London's Stratford district in the Lower Lea Valley. It was constructed primarily to serve as the host stadium for the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, where it hosted the track and field events, along with its opening and closing ceremonies. The stadium is located 6.5 miles (10.5 km) from Central London, but six minutes away from the London St. Pancras rail station via Stratford International Highspeed rail services.

In late 2013, the stadium closed for renovation. Once re-opened in 2016, it will have a capacity of 54,000 and will be the long-term home of West Ham United Football Club and British Athletics. As part of the renovation, the lower seating bowl will be replaced with a retractable seating system allowing for acceptable seating for both Athletics and Pitch sports. As of February 2014, the existing roof, with the iconic triangular floodlight towers, has been removed and will be replaced by 2015 with a new one re-using a similar design style and the original floodlights. The stadium will also host both the 2017 IAAF World Championships in Athletics and the 2017 IPC Athletics World Championships.

Land preparation for the Stadium began in mid-2007, with the official construction start date on 22 May 2008, although piling works for the foundation unofficially began four weeks ahead of that date. The stadium held its first public event in March 2012, serving as the finish line for a celebrity running event organized by the National Lottery.[4] The stadium had a capacity of 80,000, making it the third-largest stadium in England behind Wembley and Twickenham.


Design and Construction[edit]

On 13 October 2006, London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games confirmed that it had selected Sir Robert McAlpine and Populous to start exclusive negotiations with, in order to fulfil the eventual design and build contract of the new Olympic Stadium after no other organisations met the bidding criteria. The consortium was the team who delivered the Emirates Stadium, home of Arsenal F.C..[5][6] The stadium design was launched on 7 November 2007. The architect, Populous, previously designed Wembley Stadium, the Millennium Stadium, the O2 Arena, the Emirates Stadium and Ascot Racecourse. The construction of the stadium was due to start in April 2008 ahead of scheduled commencement date of August 2008.[7][8][9] Construction of the stadium commenced three months early in May 2008 after the bowl of the stadium had been dug out and the area cleared.[9][10] The building of the stadium was completed in March 2011 reportedly on time and under budget,[11] with the athletics track laid in October 2011.[1]

Exploded view of the stadium's layers

The stadium's track and field arena is excavated out of the soft clay found on the site, around which is permanent seating for 25,000, built using concrete "rakers". The natural slope of the land is incorporated into the design, with warm-up and changing areas dug into a semi-basement position at the lower end. Spectators enter the stadium via a podium level, which is level with the top of the permanent seating bowl. A demountable lightweight steel and pre-cast concrete upper tier is built up from this "bowl" to accommodate a further 55,000 spectators.[12]

The Olympic Stadium interior

The stadium is made up of different tiers; during the games the stadium was able to hold 80,000 spectators. The base tier, which allows for 25,000 seats, is a sunken elliptical bowl that is made up of low-carbon-dioxide concrete; this contains 40 percent less embodied carbon than conventional concrete.[13] The foundation of the base level is 5,000 piles reaching up to 20 metres deep. From there, there is a mixture of driven cast in situ piles, continuous flight auger piles, and vibro concrete columns. The second tier, which holds 55,000 seats, is 315 metres long, 256 metres wide, and 60 metres high.[14] The stadium contains just under a quarter of the steel as the Olympic Stadium in Beijing for the 2008 Olympics, approximately 10,700 tons. In addition to the minimal use of steel, which makes it 75 percent lighter, the stadium also uses high-yield large diameter pipes which were surplus on completion of North Sea Gas pipeline projects, recycled granite, and many of the building products were transported using trains and barges rather than by lorry.[15]

Exterior wrap[edit]

The Olympic Stadium during the 2012 Summer Olympics

Plastic, or an environmentally sustainable fabric such as hemp, was initially designed to be wrapped around the stadium exterior and imprinted with a mural-type design. The wrap would have been 20 metres (66 feet) high and would have encircled the 900-metre (1,000-yard) circumference of the stadium. Both hemp and the continuous wrapping were ruled out. The final design for the wrap consists of 2.5 m-wide fabric panels, twisted at 90-degree angles to allow entry to the stadium at the bottom of the structure, and held in place with tensioned cables.[16] It has been reported in The Guardian that a member of the stadium-design team, Rod Sheard, would have preferred the wrap to take the form of a continuous video screen, although no costing for this was ever given.[17] On 4 August 2011, it was announced that Dow Chemical Company would fund the wrap for the stadium, in return for being able to advertise on the wrap until 26 June 2012, at which point all advertising and logos would be removed as per Olympic requirements. The wrap is made from polyester and polyethylene, is printed using UV curable inks and encircles the stadium. Installation of the wrap began on 14 April 2012.[18]

Roof[edit]

To allow for fast on-site assembly, compression truss and roof column connections were bolted; this will also enable easy disassembling of the roof structure after the closing ceremonies.[19] The cable-supported roof structure covers approximately two thirds of the stadium's seating.[20] A six-month study conducted by Olympic organisers found that while no roof at all could invalidate any potential world records set at the stadium, a partial roof reduced the chance of winds that can invalidate sprint and jump records from fifty percent to five percent.[citation needed] The roof is made from a phthalate-free polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fabric to keep costs down.

Serge Ferrari, a French manufacturer of tarpaulins was selected to supply PVC fabrics which are reused and recycled after the use and demodulation of the temporary venues. The material will potentially be reused in football stadiums in Brazil for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Others will be recycled with the PVC Recycling process Vinyloop.

Dan Epstein Head of Sustainable Development at Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) says

As we have done in the past with materials such as timber and concrete, we want to use the opportunity of hosting the London 2012 Games to work with industry to set new standards. In this case this may help move the industry towards more sustainable manufacture, use and disposal of PVC fabrics. [21]

Stadium island[edit]

The Olympic Stadium site under construction in October 2009

The stadium site is on former industrial land between the River Lea (which rejoins the Navigation below Old Ford Lock), the City Mill River, and the Old Pudding Mill River; parts of the Bow Back Rivers. Another branch of this system, St Thomas' Creek, 200 metres (660 feet) to the south, completes an "island" surrounded by water. Two hundred metres to the east is the Waterworks River; with the London Aquatics Centre on its eastern bank. This "island" site for the stadium lies at the southern end of the Olympic Park. The existing waterways were modified to surround the stadium, and access is via several footbridges positioned around the building's perimeter. The stadium island is at the most western point of Newham. Bow, Tower Hamlets is directly located west of the stadium.

The stadium has been built on the site of the northern corner of Marshgate Lane and Knobs Hill Road, Stratford, London E15. The Knobs Hill Road trading estate was one of the industrial areas demolished to make way for the Olympic Park. The stadium occupies the northern part of the former estate. Knobs Hill Road was probably named to commemorate Knobs Hill Cottage, Marshgate Lane, Stratford, which stood from the 19th century until the inter war period (1919–1939). According to the 1886 Stratford Trade Directory, it belonged to Mr George Stroud. His occupation was listed as "pig dealer". The cottage is named on the contemporary Essex, Middlesex and London 1:2500 and one inch Ordnance Survey maps. The cottage appears to be associated with the Knobs Hill flour mill, which stood at the northern end of the Pudding Mill River. The first mill on the site was Nobshill Windmill, in the Manor of West Ham. The cottage site appears to be within the stadium boundary, the mills stood slightly to the northeast.

Stadium interior[edit]

Lighting paddle which was connected to every seat (left) and what it can create (right).

The stadium is equipped with a nine lane Mondo 400 metres athletics track. It also has a 60 metre indoor sprint track and will have space for lectures, offices, commercial, conference and hospitality. It is also envisaged by the London Legacy Development corporation that the stadium will host tours, concerts and art and culture events.[22]

The stadium's 80,000 seats have a black and white 'fragment' theme that matches the overall branding design used by LOCOG for London 2012.

During the Games, the Stadium's grandstands contained a lighting system developed by Tait Technologies that allowed them to function as a giant video screen. Individual "paddles" containing nine LED pixels each were installed between each seat of the stadium, which were controlled via a central system to display video content wrapped around the stadium. The system was primarily intended for use during the ceremonies of the Olympics and Paralympics - over 70 minutes of animated content were used during the Olympics' opening ceremony.[23]

Response[edit]

The stadium design received a mixed response from the media, with reviews ranging from "magnificent" to a "bowl of blancmange".[24] The design was promoted as example of "sustainable development", but some architecture critics have questioned both its aesthetic value and suitability as a national icon – especially when compared to Beijing National Stadium. For example, Ellis Woodman, Building Designs architecture critic, said of the design: "The principle of it being dismountable is most welcome... it demonstrates an obvious interest in establishing an economy of means and as such is the antithesis of the 2008 Olympic stadium in Beijing. But while that's an achievement, it's not an architectural achievement. In design terms what we're looking at is pretty underwhelming." He went on to criticise the procurement and design processes – stating of the latter that it should have been subject to an architectural competition.[25] This view was echoed by Tom Dyckhoff, The Times's architecture critic, who described the design as "tragically underwhelming" and commented that the "architecture of the 2008 and 2012 Olympics will, in years to come, be seen by historians as a "cunning indicator of the decline of the West and the rise of the East".[26] Despite the criticism the Olympic Stadium was nominated for the 2012 Stirling Prize in architecture losing out to the Sainsbury Laboratory at the University of Cambridge.[27][28]

Amanda Baillieu writing in Building Design challenged the designer's claims that the stadium is environmentally sustainable and good value for money. Instead, it is asserted that the reality will be the opposite. In particular, she claimed that:

  • the temporary roof could not be reused to cover the permanent 25,000 seating area – given the difference in size;
  • it is unlikely that the removed seating would be wanted for any other event e.g. the Glasgow Commonwealth Games; and
  • the costs involved in dismantling the stadium – and surrounding "pods" – has not been factored into the estimated cost.[29]

The cost of £537 million compared to cost of 1908 Olympic Stadium £60,000 (£5,629,148.93 adjusted with up to 2010 inflation rate).[30]

London 2012[edit]

David Rudisha of Kenya setting a World Record for the 800 metres in the Olympic final.

The Olympic Stadium hosted its first public event on 31 March 2012, serving as the finish line for the National Lottery Olympic Park Run. Five thousand participants (including celebrities, British athletes, and members of the public who won a drawing organized by the National Lottery) partook in a five mile run around Olympic Park, entering Olympic Stadium to the theme from Chariots of Fire to run the final 300m on its track.[4] The stadium hosted two warm up events for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games as part of the London Prepares Series. The venue hosted the British Universities Athletics Championships and the London Disability Grand Prix in May 2012.[31][32] On May 6 around 40,000 people attended for an event entitled 2,012 hours to go an evening of athletics and entertainment.[33] The evening was hosted by Gabby Logan and Vernon Kay during which Jon Culshaw, Mel C, Hugh Bonneville, Chipmonk and Jack Whitehall appeared. Niamh Clarke-Willis a nine year old was chosen to officially open the stadium.[34] During the London Disability Grand Prix, Paul Blake (T36 1500 metres), Hannah Cockroft (T34 100 metres), Michael McKillop (T37 1500 metres) and Richard Whitehead (T42 200 metres) all set new World Records.[35] The stadium also played host to the athletics events of the British school games.[36][37]

During the Athletics events of the Olympic Games David Rudisha broke his own World Record for the 800 metres to become the first man to run the distance in under 1 min 41 seconds.[38] In the 4 by 100 Metres relay the team from Jamaica also broke their own World Record from the 2011 World Championships by two tenths of a second.[39] The United States women's 4 by 100 metres team beat the previous best set by West Germany in 1985, recording a time of 40.82 to set a new World Record.[40][41] Olympic records were set by Usain Bolt, who ran the second fastest 100 metres,[42] Renaud Lavillenie in the Pole Vault by one centimetre,[43] Sally Pearson recorded a record time in the 100 metres hurdles and Tatyana Lysenko set a new mark in the Hammer.[44][45]

Over the course of the Paralympic Games athletics events, World Records were set on the track by; Oxana Boturchuk[46] Martina Caironi,[47] Chen Junfei,[48] El Amin Chentouf,[49] China,[50] Libby Clegg,[46] Arnu Fourie,[51] Marie-Amelie le Fur,[48] Terezinha Guilhermina,[47] Mahmoud Khaldi,[48] Samwel Mushai Kimani,[49] Walid Ktila.[52] Liang Yongbin,[50] Rosemary Little,[53] Liu Ping,[54] Liu Wenjun,[50] Gunther Matzinger,[50] Michael McKillop,[51] Mateusz Michalski,[50] Yohansson Nascimento,[55] Oscar Pistorius,[51] David Prince,[50] Evgenii Shvetcov[52] South Africa,[47] Leo Pekka Tahti,[46] Abraham Tarbei,[52] Iurii Tsaruk,[48] Richard Whitehead,[46] Abderrahim Zhiou,[52] Zhu Daqing and Zhou Guohua.[46] Multiple World Records on the track were set by Yunidis Castillo,[50][51] Assia El Hannouni,[48][56] Evan O’Hanlon,[51][57] Jason Smyth,[51][54][58] Fanie van der Merwe and Marlou van Rhijn.[48][50][51][57][59] In the field events, World records were set by Hani Alnakhli,[54] Alexey Ashapatov,[58] Aigars Apinis[60] Lahouari Bahlaz,[54] Mohamed Berrahal,[60] Kelly Cartwright,[61] Yanlong Fu,[62] Leonardo Diaz,[59] Zeljko Dimitrijevic,[53] Tanja Dragic,[61] Najat El Garraa,[58] Javad Hardani,[54] Todd Hodgetts,[54] Jun Wang,[61] Maroua Ibrahmi,[46] Juan Yao,[63] Mohsen Kaedi,[51] Mohammad Khalvandi,[50] Gocha Khugaev,[47] Karolina Kucharczyk,[49] Assunta Legnante,[59] Maciej Lepiato,[50] Liu Fuliang,[51] Drazenko Mitrovic,[59] Azeddine Nouiri,[52] Katarzyna Piekart,[51] Mariia Pomazan,[61] Nikita Prokhorov,[48] Qing Wu,[61] Markus Rehm,[58] Raoua Tlili,[50] Wang Yanzhang,[54] Zhu Pengkai,[47] Oksana Zubkovska.[62] Multiple records were set in the field by Dong Xia,[54][59] Birgit Kober,[48][49] Na Mi,[60] Yang Liwan,[47][51] and Wang Zhiming.[52][62]

Post-Olympics[edit]

After receiving and pre-screening over 100 expressions of interest, the formal bidding process of selecting the post-Olympics user of the stadium opened on 18 August 2010. It was to run until 30 September, after which the OPLC would draw up a shortlist, with a view to selecting a tenant by the end of the financial year, by 31 March. The winning bidder is required to support the regeneration of the area, and retain the stadium as a "distinctive physical symbol".[64][65]

On 12 November 2010, it was announced that two bids had been shortlisted for the stadium post-Olympics. They were a joint bid from Tottenham Hotspur F.C. and Anschutz Entertainment Group (AEG), with the second bid from West Ham United F.C. and Newham Council.[66] The former bid would maintain the 80,000 capacity, while the latter would reduce it to 60,000.

Bids[edit]

Bid 1 – AEG & Tottenham Hotspur
Artist's impression of the proposed new stadium by AEG and Tottenham Hotspur

These joint bidders had originally expressed individual interest in the venue but submitted a joint bid to take over. AEG is the company that redeveloped the loss making Millennium Dome exhibition venue in South East London into the profitable music venue The O2. When the formal bidding process opened, little was known of AEG's plans for the stadium, but they were described as among the front-runners of interested parties, along with West Ham.[64] On 26 July 2010, it was rumoured that Tottenham might be interested in taking over the stadium post-Games. The club had plans to build a new stadium adjacent to their current home, but the capacity could not reach that of the Olympic Stadium, making a move much more attractive to the club.

Bid 2 – West Ham United and Newham Council

Following the takeover in 2010 by David Gold and David Sullivan, the new owners of West Ham United expressed their desire to make the stadium as the club's new home. With Boris Johnson expressing his desire for a football team to take over the stadium after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics this seemed the most likely option.[67] At the opening of the formal bid process, West Ham United were considered favourites once they reversed from their initial opposition to keeping the running track as well as planning a £100m conversion to create a 60,000 capacity venue, which would also host international football, international athletics, as well as Essex County Cricket Club, international Twenty20 cricket matches, NFL games and Live Nation events.[68]

Artist's impression of the proposed redeveloped stadium by West Ham United and Newham Council
Originally expressed interest

The legacy plan for the stadium originally involved converting it into a 25,000 to 30,000-seat athletics stadium with a sports training, science and medicine centre following the 2012 Paralympics. Media reports, however, suggested that several potential tenants were interested in moving to the stadium after the games, among them the England and Wales Cricket Board, along with several professional London sport teams:

  • English 2018 and 2022 FIFA World Cup bid: London United, the body which was responsible for identifying which football stadia in London should be incorporated into a World Cup bid, had expressed serious interest in also using the venue.[72]
  • London Wasps: It was reported in the London press and nationally that the London Wasps rugby union team could move from their home in High Wycombe to the vacant Olympic Stadium.[73] However, there was opposition from the Buckinghamshire public and some of Wasps players, as Wasps now contribute to community life and have built up a solid fan base in the area that would be hard to recreate in East London.[74]
  • The National Football League, the top professional league in American football, had been looking at the potential of a franchise in London due to interest shown in the International Series games played at London's Wembley Stadium. The as-built Olympic Stadium would easily meet the league's requirements for seating capacity, and would have no trouble accommodating an American football field, which is about 5 metres longer than a FIFA-standard association football pitch but nearly 20 metres narrower.[76]
  • Leyton Orient F.C.: The closest club geographically, Leyton Orient announced in November 2007 that they were in negotiations regarding permanent tenancy after the games.[77] This would allow for redevelopment of their existing Brisbane Road stadium and provide a regular use for the Olympic and Paralympic venue.
  • Major League Baseball: Clive Russell of MLB International confirmed that stadium was under consideration as a possible venue for MLB games in Europe. Although the stadium's sight lines were a potential issue, MLB has measured the stadium and confirmed it is a suitable size for a baseball game.[78]

Despite several rounds of negotiations with potential tenants, LOCOG elected to adhere to its bid commitment to provide a legacy for athletics at the stadium, with capacity reduced to a more financially viable 25,000. However, the newly elected Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, has stated that all parties need to look carefully at the legacy plans for the stadium and has not ruled out use by either a professional football or rugby team. This in mind, the contract for building the stadium clearly stated that it must stay as a usable athletics track available for competition and training at any time.

Decision[edit]

On 11 February 2011, the OPLC selected West Ham United & Newham Council as the preferred bidder to take over the stadium after the 2012 Games in a unanimous decision.[79] However, Leyton Orient complained that the stadium is too close to their ground and would breach FA rules. They claimed that West Ham's plans could force them into bankruptcy.[80] On 3 March 2011, West Ham United's proposed move to the stadium was approved by the British government and London Mayor Boris Johnson.[81]

Judicial review and independent investigation[edit]

Tottenham Hotspur F.C. and Leyton Orient F.C. applied for a judicial review to overturn the OPLC's decision; however, this appeal was rejected in June 2011.[82] Tottenham Hotspur appealed the decision not to have a review on 29 June 2011.[83]

The Olympic Legacy Company announced on 5 July 2011 that an independent review into the awarding of the Olympic Park Stadium to West Ham United was to be carried out following the discovery on 30 June 2011 that an employee, Dionne Knight had been engaged by West Ham United to carry out consultancy work relating to the stadium without permission of the OPLC. Knight had already declared to the OPLC that she was in a personal relationship with a director of West Ham United, and was suspended whilst a possible conflict of interest was investigated.[84] On 22 August 2011, the independent investigation ruled that the process was not compromised and thus the bid process will not be reopened.[85]

On 23 August, the day before Tottenham Hotspur were due in court, they staged "intense negotiations" with the office of the Mayor of London, and looked set to drop all claims for a review and be offered funding for their own stadium.[86] However, the next day Tottenham did attend court despite being close to striking a deal about their own stadium, thus allowing West Ham to move into the Olympic Stadium by 2014. Tottenham and Leyton Orient won a review of the decision, being told that they had an arguable case.[87] The review was scheduled to take place on 18 October 2011. Even if Tottenham abandoned the review, due to being granted a new stadium, Orient were expected to continue, with its owner Barry Hearn calling the decision to grant a review "a great day for the little man".[88]

Tenancy bids[edit]

On 11 October 2011, the deal to sell the stadium to West Ham collapsed.[89] Since the deal collapsed and the tenancy process started all over again the athletics legacy clause was clarified to ensure that a track remained in the stadium.[90] West Ham immediately announced plans to become tenants of the stadium.[91][92] On 18 October, Leyton Orient submitted an application to the Football League for permission for a move to the stadium. Chairman Barry Hearn said, "We are asking for a 25,000-seater stadium and we want to see if we can get around the athletics track. It has to stay, we know that. But can we build up, if not down, and see if it's possible to get it covered while we play?".[93]

In February 2012, 16 parties were interested in the stadium.[94] By March 2012, West Ham were named as one of the four bidders for the stadium. A decision was to be made by the OPLC in May 2012 and ratified by June,[95] but the deadline for submitting bids was extended. The OPLC aimed to have a contract in place by October 2012.[96] The other three bidders were named as:[97][98]

In April 2012, the Olympic Park Legacy Company were taken over by the Mayor's office and renamed London Legacy Development Corporation. Margaret Ford would continue her role of chair form the OPLC until the Games are over.[100]

On 5 April 2012, Barry Hearn, chairman of Leyton Orient, called for the West Ham bid to be disqualified for not having the permission of the Football League.[101] However, on 30 May, Hearn said that he would consider a groundshare with West Ham as he agreed with the covering of the track and would now talk with the authorities.[102] In June 2012, West Ham stated that despite Hearn saying that he would consider a groundshare, they would not consider this with Leyton Orient. The club also added that no talks had taken place.[103] However, Hearn in July reiterated the idea claiming that it would be ideal. He also added that it did not matter what West Ham thought as it was up to the "Olympic people" to decide as he was applying for tenancy.[104]

Daniel Moylan, chairman of London Legacy Development Corporation, was sacked on 12 September, with other board members being frustrated with his style. Mayor Boris Johnson replaced him.[105] Following the conclusion of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, the cost of converting the stadium had risen from £95 million to £130 million. By 20 September, the famous pixels had already been removed as they were only on loan from Crystal; however, according to Paul Kelso "reinstating the system would help establish the Olympic Stadium as a concert venue in competition with Wembley and Twickenham." Kelso also learnt that the triangular floodlights could be removed when the new roof is fitted as the cost of keeping them is too great. However West Ham want to keep the lights as they would like to keep the stadium looking as it did during the Games, and may consider keeping the wrap on the outside.[106]

On 15 October, it was revealed that Johnson and the LLDC were considering installing retractable seating. Adding the seats would delay the stadium's opening until 2015. Following discussions, temporary seating was considered only a short-term option, as the stadium would be taken out for a month during the summer whilst they were erected and dismantled. This led to the stadium possibly rejecting football and surviving on subsides. If it went ahead, the plan would see the lower tier of the stadium rebuilt, which was estimated to cost between £160 and 200 million.[107]

On 31 October, it was revealed that Johnson had held exploratory talks with the National Football League about holding games, however the venue cannot play host to any matches before 2017 due to Wembley having exclusive rights.[108][109] Dennis Hone, chief executive of the London Legacy Development Corporation, revealed in November 2012 that the stadium would not meet its reopening deadline of 2014. Instead the stadium would reopen in August 2015 with the stadium retaining a capacity of around 50,000 for athletics; Horne also thought that American football would work well with the track.[110]

In December 2012, West Ham were named as the preferred bidder for the stadium with a separate operator co-ordinating community and sporting use, as well as concerts and events.[111] Leyton Orient's bid was rejected due to its commercial viability and the bid from Intelligent Transport Services, in conjunction with Formula One, was rejected for having too much speculation and uncertainty in their business plan.[112] However, with so much public money going into the stadium and its redevelopment, the BBC learnt that David Gold and David Sullivan must share any profits they make if they sell the club.[113][114] West Ham were given three months to improve the terms of their deal or lose the stadium; with Johnson going with plan B without football.[112] The two parties seemed to find common ground in February 2013, with West Ham agreeing to paying £2.5 million in rent per year. They additionally promised to pay back any extra cost for the roof and seats within ten years.[115][116] Gold stated at the beginning of March that a deal could be complete by the middle of the month.[117] On 6 March, Barry Hearn stated that he would mount another legal challenge as he believed that the rules set out be the LLDC had not been followed. Hearn also said that he felt that Leyton Orient's proposed ground share had been ignored and not properly explored.[118][119][120] On 22 March 2013, West Ham United secured a 99-year lease deal, with the stadium planned to be used as their home ground from the 2016–2017 season.[121] Hearn promised to end his legal battle if he was not successful in securing a review.[122][123] In April 2013, he was informed that his call for a judicial review had been rejected and performed a u-turn on his previous comments vowing to fight "from our own back garden" by suing the Premier League and taking the LLDC to the European Court of Justice if he was not successful with the next step. Dennis Hone stated that he would have to look at the groundshare issue if Hearn was successful in gaining the review.[124][125] An oral application was submitted in June 2013.[126] In July 2013, UK Athletics received a 50 year deal for the use of the stadium.[127] On 19 September 2013, Leyton Orient lost their bid to win a judicial review into the decision to grant West Ham the tenancy of the Olympic Stadium. At the High Court, Mr Justice Lewis said the LLDC was entitled to make the decision which was not "irrational".[128] In November 2013 it was the House of Lord's opinion that Leyton Orient should be allowed occasional use of the stadium with Lord Harris telling Orient and West Ham to "stop squabbling like children."[129] Dennis Hone stated that he was in talks with Barry Hearn over occasional usage, but that it would not mean a permanent groundshare.[130] In early December, the London Legacy Development Corporation said that there was nothing to stop Orient from negotiating a rental agreement with whichever firm ends up running the stadium. Orient, however, would not be able to negotiate a 99 year deal like West Ham and would only have usage of the stadium when the Hammers are not playing.[131][132]

Redevelopment[edit]

Following the granting, in March 2013, of a 99-year tenancy to West Ham United, the E20 LLP a joint organisation by the London Legacy Development Corporation and Newham Council were specifically set-up to oversee redevelopment of the stadium. The venue will be transformed into a UEFA Category 4 venue seating 54,000 spectators. The reconfiguration will see work on a new roof, corporate areas, toilets, concessions and retractable seating. West Ham will contribute £15 million and Newham Council £40 million for the work to be carried out with the London Legacy Development Corporation and the British Government making up the rest.[133] E20 LLP were, in May 2013, granted planning permission to start the conversion of the Olympic Stadium. Approval was granted for the installation of retractable seating on all sides of the stadium and an 84.0 m (91.9 yd) transparent roof that will become the largest-spanning tensile roof in the world. [134][135] Balfour Beatty were contracted to construct the new roof for £41 million while Careys PLC who will carry out some ground work for Balfour Beatty were awarded a £1.5 million tender. Imtech G&H were awarded a £25 million contract to carry out electrical and plumbing work.[136][137] Work commenced on 13 August 2013 with the covering of the athletics track with a 75 cm (30 in) layer of plastic sheet and crushed concrete, the removal of 25,000 seats, the first 14 seating rows and the grass from the field of play.[138][139] In November 2013 work commenced to remove the fourteen floodlight panels as part of the £200m conversion of the stadium.[140] The new roof will be completed by early 2015 and will re-use the original floodlight lamps from the old floodlight paddles.

After the new roof is installed, as part of the reconstruction of the lower seating bowl, the existing athletics track will be replaced with a new long-term one which will feature additional long jump pits. The new metal lower tier will sit over the retained upper rows of the old lower tier and will be moved into position by hand.[141]

All of the transformation work will be carried out by Balfour Beatty [142]

Anniversary Games[edit]

David Weir broke the World Record in the men's T54 mile.

Charles Sale reported in the Daily Mail during December 2012 that the Legacy Development Corporation were keen to take financial advantage by hosting events in the stadium due to the work to convert the stadium not starting until autumn 2013. Live Nation were trying to organise music concerts whilst the London Athletics Grand Prix could be switched from Crystal Palace and hosted on the anniversary of the Olympics, though sound systems and scoreboards would have to be reintegrated into the stadium.[143] On 24 January, it was confirmed that the Grand Prix would be switched to the stadium.[144] In February 2013, it was announced that after the Diamond League event the stadium would hold a Paralympic athletics event on 28 July.[145] In April Sainsbury's were announced as sponsors of the Anniversary Games.[146][147]

In the Grand Prix, Yarisley Silva and Renaud Lavillenie both set Diamond League records with the Frenchman setting a National Record as well.[148][149] Zuzana Hejnova set a new Czech Republic record in the Women's 400 metres hurdles setting a time of 53.07 seconds.[148] In the women's 100 metres Blessing Okagbare twice broke the African Record.[149]

At the Paralympic event Alan Oliveira and Richard Browne set World Records for the men's T43 and T44 100 metres. David Weir recorded a time of 3 minutes and 16.40 seconds to set a new World Record for the men's T54 mile.[150] While in the T53 men's 100 metres Brent Lakatos set a World Record with a time of 14.34 seconds.[151]

London Grand Prix[edit]

The London Athletics Grand Prix was scheduled to move permanently to the stadium in 2016. However due to the 2015 Rugby World Cup taking place in the stadium, which will use the original seating configuration the Grand Prix may arrive in 2015. With a gap in between the work on the roof, scheduled to end in May 2015 and start of the World Cup in September, UK Athletics saw an opportunity to install a £1 million temporary track and use the stadium to host the London Grand Prix.[152]

2015 Rugby World Cup[edit]

In July 2012 the Olympic Park Legacy Company submitted a bid to England Rugby 2015 to host some matches of the 2015 Rugby World Cup (rugby union). It was mooted that the stadium could hold pool matches and even the third place play–off. However the main sticking point would be whether it could meet the International Rugby Board's demands for the tournament including being free from advertising. If successful the stadium would be likely to replace the Emirates Stadium.[153] In September 2012 it was confirmed that if the stadium had a tenant by the time the stadia were chosen then it could appear.[154] In October 2012 the stadium was short listed for the competition.[155] However by February 2013 the London Legacy Development Corporation and England 2015 were pessimistic about the stadium being used during competition. The main issue being that work on the roof, which requires cranes, would take place at the same time as the work on the seats whilst the pitch would be ripped up so that at the same time under soil heating could be installed. Officials had talked about using the stadium without a roof but were worried about the cost and embarrassment factors if the plan to complete the stadium was delayed.[156] On 2 May 2013, it was officially announced that the Olympic Stadium will host four Pool matches during the 2015 Rugby World Cup and the Bronze final.[157]

2017 World Athletics and IPC Athletics World Championships[edit]

London originally bid to host the 2015 World Athletics Championships using the Olympic Stadium. It went up against Beijing's Olympic Stadium and the Polish city of Chorzów. However, the stadium had to pull out of the running of hosting the championships due to uncertainties arising out of the timing of the announcement of who would operate the stadium after the Olympics, thus gifting Beijing the championships.[158] With issues resolved over the stadium's future, London again used the stadium to bid for the 2017 World Athletics Championships.[159] The bid was made official in August with Lord Coe personally submitting the bid a few weeks later at the 2011 World Athletic Championships in Daegu which was supported by London's Mayor Boris Johnson and the British government.[160] Following Tottenham winning the right to a review on 18 October 2011, just three weeks before the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) vote on the 2017 championships host, Lord Coe, on 25 August 2011, stated that the bid would be unaffected by the legal battle. UK Athletics chairman Ed Warner added, "Whatever the outcome of that process there is going to be a track in that stadium and that's what matters and that's the commitment we're making to the IAAF."[88] On 11 November 2011, the IAAF officially awarded the 2017 World Championships to London.[161]

In October 2012 it was revealed that London was the only formal bidder for the IPC Athletics World Championships. Discussions were underway between UK Athletics, the Greater London Authority (GLA) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) before the success of the 2012 Summer Paralympics. The original plan was for the championships to be held at the Alexander Stadium in Birmingham, but the GLA will make up any of the additional cost to hold it in London. The deal would be the first time that both the Paralympic and able-bodied World Athletics Championships would be held in the same location. The IPC Athletics World Championships are scheduled to take place a month before the able-bodied event.[162] The World Championships were formally confirmed in December 2012.[163]

Concerts[edit]

In January 2013 music concert promoter Live Nation won the right to stage shows at the stadium and in the surrounding Park.[164] Hard Rock Calling and Wireless Festival were held in July but in the Park and not the stadium itself.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "London 2012 Olympic Stadium Athletics Track Completed". BBC Sport. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  2. ^ UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Gregory Clark (2013), "What Were the British Earnings and Prices Then? (New Series)" MeasuringWorth.
  3. ^ "Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park official website". London Legacy Development Corporation. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "London 2012: Olympic Park runners finish race". BBC News. Retrieved 7 February 2013. 
  5. ^ "Negotiations Start with Arsenal Stadium Team". London 2012 Official Website. Retrieved 19 December 2007.
  6. ^ Kernon, Sophie; McGee, Brian (16 October 2006). "Sir Robert McAlpine Chosen to Build London's Olympic Stadium". Bloomberg. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  7. ^ Administrator. "London Olympic Stadium, Building, Photos, Architect, London Olympics Stadium Building". E-architect.co.uk. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  8. ^ "London unveils 2012 stadium plan". BBC News. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  9. ^ a b "Olympic stadium work starts early". BBC News. 22 May 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  10. ^ "Olympic Stadium work starts early". BBC News. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  11. ^ Pearce, Nick (29 March 2011). "London 2012 Olympics: Olympic Stadium completed 'on time and under budget'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  12. ^ Spring, Martin (5 September 2008). "On Your Marks: Countdown to 2012, London's Olympic Stadium". Building. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
  13. ^ "Olympic Stadium 2012". London Olympic Stadium. 
  14. ^ "PVC at Olympics destined for reuse or recycling". waste recycling news. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  15. ^ Radnedge, Aidan. "Why Plymouth Argyle and Dartford FC Are Top of Eco-Friendly League Table". Metro. Retrieved 11 March 2012. 
  16. ^ (registration required) Olcayto, Rory (29 May 2008). "Olympic Stadium's Latest Design Unveiled". Bdonline.co.uk. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  17. ^ Booth, Robert (23 August 2008). "Wrap Around Video Screen Proposed for London Stadium". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
  18. ^ (registration required) Kortekaas, Vanessa (4 August 2011). "Dow Chemical Wraps Up Olympic Deal". Financial Times. Retrieved 4 August 2011. 
  19. ^ "Delivering London 2012: the Olympic Stadium". Institution of Civil Engineering. Retrieved 10 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "London Unveils 2012 Stadium Plan". BBC News. 7 November 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  21. ^ "London 2012 seeks sustainable solutions for temporary venues". ODA. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  22. ^ "The Stadium | London Legacy Development Corporation". Londonlegacy.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  23. ^ "The lights fantastic: How Danny Boyle used 'paddles' with tiny bulbs to turn Olympics audience into a giant video screen". Daily Mail. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  24. ^ London Olympic Stadium Divides Opinion". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  25. ^ HOK's 2012 "Olympic Stadium Design Revealed – Images and Slideshow. Building Design. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  26. ^ "Olympic Stadium Is Deflated Architecture at an Inflated Price". The Times. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  27. ^ Vanessa Thorpe. "Olympic Stadium is in the running for Stirling prize gold | Art and design". The Observer. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  28. ^ Youngs, Ian (14 October 2012). "Sainsbury Laboratory wins Stirling architecture prize". BBC News. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  29. ^ "Stadium Disappoints All Round". Building Design. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  30. ^ "Education | Inflation Calculator". Bank of England. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  31. ^ "Opportunity of a lifetime! University athletes set to test Olympic venues in competition". Daily Mail. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  32. ^ "Olympic Stadium test event to be held in May". BBC. 26 April 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  33. ^ "Olympic Stadium to host evening of entertainment". IPC. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  34. ^ "Olympic Stadium is officially opened". BBC News. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  35. ^ "Whitehead, Cockroft and Blake celebrate new World Records". British Athletics. 8 May 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  36. ^ "Olympic Park to host School Games". BBC News. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  37. ^ "School Games set to continue 2012 build-up". BBC News. 6 May 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  38. ^ Rostance, Tom (9 August 2012). "David Rudisha breaks 800m world record in Olympics win". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  39. ^ Fordyce, Tom (11 August 2012). "Usain Bolt wins third gold in Jamaica 4x100m relay victory". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  40. ^ Sheringham, Sam (10 August 2012). "USA smash world 4x100m relay record to win Olympic gold". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  41. ^ "World Records Ratified". IAAF. 7 November. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  42. ^ Fordyce, Tom (5 August 2012). "Usain Bolt wins Olympics 100m final at London 2012". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  43. ^ Sheringham, Sam (10 August 2012). "Pole vaulter Renaud Lavillenie breaks record". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  44. ^ Fordyce, Tom (7 August 2012). "Sally Pearson takes 100m hurdles gold". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  45. ^ "Tatyana Lysenko in record throw". BBC News. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  46. ^ a b c d e f "Gold medal glory for Whitehead on Day 3". International Paralympic Committee. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  47. ^ a b c d e f "Brazilian sprinters go 1-2-3". International Paralympic Committee. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h "Peacock, Weir, van Rhijn, Campbell all take gold". International Paralympic Committee. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  49. ^ a b c d "McFadden finally gets her gold". International Paralympic Committee. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Athletics events come to a close". International Paralympic Committee. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Smyth, McKillop, O’Hanlon, Stilwell light up Olympic Stadium". International Paralympic Committee. 1 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  52. ^ a b c d e f "Weir does it again on track". International Paralympic Committee. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  53. ^ a b "Record defying opening day for Athletics". International Paralympic Committee. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h "Popow gets his sprinting gold". Internatinal Paralympic Committee. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  55. ^ "Weir closes night with historic finish". International Paralympic Committee. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  56. ^ "Repeat success for China’s Na Mi". International Paralympic Committee. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  57. ^ a b "O’Hanlon nabs the double". International Paralympic committee. 8 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  58. ^ a b c d "Rehm shines in long jump at Olympic Stadium". International Paralympic Committee. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  59. ^ a b c d e "Men’s shot put takes centre stage on Day 7". International Paralympic Committee. 5 September 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  60. ^ a b c "Repeat success for China’s Na Mi". Paralympic.org. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  61. ^ a b c d e http://www.paralympic.org/news/australia-s-cartwright-jumps-joy
  62. ^ a b c "Wang wraps up field hat trick | IPC". Paralympic.org. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  63. ^ http://www.paralympic.org/news/china-s-yao-shot-top-podium
  64. ^ a b "Olympic Stadium Hopefuls Enter Next Round". Sky News. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010. 
  65. ^ "London 2012 Olympic Games Stadium Bidding Begins". BBC News. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010. 
  66. ^ "Tottenham and West Ham Lead London 2012 Stadium Bid". BBC News. 12 November 2010. 
  67. ^ "Gold and Sullivan Take Over West Ham". Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  68. ^ "West Ham's Grounds for Optimism over Olympic Stadium". BBC Sport. 18 August 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2010. 
  69. ^ Pringle, Derek (3 November 2009). "Cricket Would Be a Bad Fit for Post-London 2012 Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph. 
  70. ^ "London's Olympic Stadium a Potential T20 Venue". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  71. ^ "Essex Ponder Olympic Stadium Use". BBC News. 15 April 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  72. ^ Herman, Martyn (14 November 2009). "2012 Stadium Considered as 2018 Soccer World Cup Venue". Reuters. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  73. ^ "Improved Bid May Tempt Wasps into Olympic Stadium". Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
  74. ^ "Olympic Board Statement on the Olympic Stadium". London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
  75. ^ "2012 Chief Makes Stadium Demand". BBC News. 8 October 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2008. 
  76. ^ "Olympic Stadium's grand designs post-2012 ... before West Ham emerged as bid winners". The Daily Telegraph. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  77. ^ "Hammers' Olympic Move Ruled Out". BBC News. 7 February 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2007. 
  78. ^ "MLB Eyeing London's Olympic Stadium for Games". Sports Illustrated. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  79. ^ "West Ham Chosen as Preferred Olympic Stadium Tenant". BBC News. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011. 
  80. ^ "Orient Challenge Stadium Decision". BBC News. 16 February 2011. 
  81. ^ "West Ham Approved as London 2012 Olympic Stadium Tenant". BBC News. 3 March 2011. 
  82. ^ Kirk, Tristan (25 June 2011). "Spurs Judicial Review Bid over Olympic Stadium Rejected by Judge". Haringey Independent. Retrieved 13 May 2012. 
  83. ^ "Spurs Lodge Fresh Stadium Appeal". BBC News. 29 June 2011. 
  84. ^ "London 2012: OPLC Reviews Olympic Stadium Bid Process". BBC News. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  85. ^ "2012 Stadium Bid Not Compromised". BBC News. 22 August 2011. 
  86. ^ "Tottenham 'To Drop 2012 Olympic Stadium Legal Bid'". BBC News. 23 August 2011. 
  87. ^ "Spurs Win Right To Challenge 2012 Stadium Decision". BBC News. 24 August 2011. 
  88. ^ a b "Coe Calms Fears over Worlds Bid". BBC News. 25 August 2011. 
  89. ^ "2012 Stadium Bid Collapsed". ESPN Soccernet. 11 October 2011. 
  90. ^ Wilson, Neil (8 June 2011). "London 2012 Olympics: Coe Insists Track Will Stay at Olympic Stadium". Daily Mail. Retrieved 6 August 2011. 
  91. ^ "West Ham – Newham Statement". whufc.com. 11 October 2011. Retrieved 11 October 2011. 
  92. ^ "West Ham Among 16 Interested in London 2012 Olympic Stadium as Deadline Passes".
  93. ^ Davies, Trevor (18 October 2011). "Orient Seek a Move to the Olympic Stadium". East London Advertiser. Retrieved 19 October 2011. 
  94. ^ "BBC Sport - Olympic Stadium wanted by West Ham and 15 other parties". BBC. 1 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  95. ^ "West Ham Among Four Formal Bidders for London 2012 Olympic Stadium"
  96. ^ Staff (14 May 2012). ""Bidding Deadline for 2012 Olympics Stadium Extended". BBC News. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
  97. ^ London 2012: F1 track plan among Olympic Stadium bids, BBC Sport, 17 July 2012.
  98. ^ London 2012 Olympics: plan to hold Formula One race in and around Olympic Stadium on bid shortlist, The Daily Telegraph, 22 June 2012.
  99. ^ "BBC Sport - London 2012: Essex CCC make joint Olympic Stadium bid". BBC. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012. 
  100. ^ "BBC News - London 2012: Mayor to take over Park legacy planning". BBC. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  101. ^ Roan, Dan (5 April 2012). "BBC Sport - London 2012: West Ham's Olympic Stadium bid flawed, says Barry Hearn". BBC. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  102. ^ Roan, Dan (30 May 2012). "BBC Sport - Leyton Orient consider sharing Olympic Stadium with West Ham". BBC. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  103. ^ "London 2012 Olympics: West Ham scoff suggestions of Leyton Orient groundshare scheme". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  104. ^ "BBC Sport - Olympic Stadium share with West Ham & Leyton Orient ideal - Hearn". BBC. 18 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  105. ^ "London 2012 Olympics: Boris Johnson to take control of stadium legacy as Daniel Moylan loses job". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  106. ^ "West Ham keen to keep Olympic Stadium's iconic triangular floodlights despite London Mayor Boris Johnson's efforts". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  107. ^ "London Mayor Boris Johnson favours £200m retractable seat plan as long-term solution for Olympic Stadium". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  108. ^ Keogh, Frank (31 October 2012). "BBC Sport - Olympic Stadium: NFL in talks with mayor Boris Johnson". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  109. ^ "NFL franchises in talks with London Mayor Boris Johnson over Olympic Stadium". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  110. ^ 15:06 GMT (7 November 2012). "BBC Sport - Olympic Stadium will not reopen until August 2015 at the earliest". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  111. ^ 12:50 GMT (5 December 2012). "BBC Sport - West Ham United are preferred bidder for Olympic Stadium". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  112. ^ a b Owen Gibson. "West Ham given three months to seal Olympic Stadium bid | Sport". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  113. ^ Bond, David (5 December 2012). "BBC Sport - West Ham given ultimatum over Olympic Stadium deal". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  114. ^ David Bond (5 December 2012). "BBC Sport - The future of the Olympic Stadium remains far from resolved". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  115. ^ West Ham. "West Ham United move closer to securing Olympic Stadium deal with breakthrough agreement". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  116. ^ James Riach (18 February 2013). "West Ham's move to Olympic Stadium stalls again over approval process". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  117. ^ "West Ham closing on Olympic Stadium deal - David Gold". BBC News. 4 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  118. ^ "Barry Hearn calls for judicial review". BBC News. 6 March 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  119. ^ Kelso, Paul (6 March 2013). "Leyton Orient launch legal bid to stop West Ham United taking over the Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph. 
  120. ^ Staniforth, Mark (7 March 2013). "Failure to share Olympic Stadium threatens London's legacy, says Hearn". The Daily Mail. Press Association. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  121. ^ "West Ham receive 99 year lease for Olympic Stadium". www.stadiumguide.com. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2013. 
  122. ^ "Leyton Orient chairman Barry Hearn will 'walk away' from Olympic Stadium action if he loses judicial review". The Daily Telegraph. 20 March 2013. 
  123. ^ "Barry Hearn in pledge over Olympic Stadium battle". BBC news. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  124. ^ Gibson, Owen (26 April 2013). "Barry Hearn faces Olympic Stadium defeat after rejection of review". The Guardian. 
  125. ^ Rumsby, Ben (19 April 2013). "Barry Hearn says Orient will continue to fight for the right to share the Olympic Stadium". The Daily Telegraph. 
  126. ^ "Olympic Stadium: Leyton Orient chairman Barry Hearn defiant". BBC News. 13 June 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  127. ^ "Athletics in 50-year Olympic stadium deal coup". Evening Standard. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  128. ^ "Leyton Orient lose Olympic Stadium tenancy review bid". BBC News. 19 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  129. ^ http://www.mirror.co.uk/sport/football/news/peers-say-leyton-orient-should-2803610
  130. ^ Owen Gibson. "Olympic Stadium gutted as conversion of new home for West Ham begins | Sport". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  131. ^ Leyton Orient. "Leyton Orient could share Olympic Stadium with West Ham as Barry Hearn is cleared to strike rental deal". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  132. ^ Martyn Ziegler (2013-12-14). "Leyton Orient could rent Olympic Stadium - and there's nothing West Ham can do about it, claims Barry Hearn - Football League - Football". The Independent. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  133. ^ "Olympic Stadium's feature secured in historic deal between Mayor's Legacy Corporation, Newham Council and West Ham United football club". London Legacy Development Corporation. 22 March 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  134. ^ "Green light for Olympic Stadium makeover". The Independent. 29 May 2013. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  135. ^ "Stadium conversion approved". www.olympicstadium.whufc.com. 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  136. ^ "Olympic Stadium contracts awarded in a major legacy milestone". London Legacy Development Corporation. 25 July 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  137. ^ Rossingh, Danielle (25 July 2013). "Boris Johnson Awards $103Mln in Olympic Stadium Contracts". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  138. ^ "Transformation work begins for iconic Stadium on Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park". London Legacy Development Corporation. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  139. ^ Atwal, Kay (14 August). "Transformation of Stadium at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park begins". Newham Recorder. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  140. ^ "Olympic Stadium to have roof fitted before West Ham move in". The Independent. 20 November 2013. Retrieved 21 November 2013. 
  141. ^ http://www.itv.com/news/london/2014-01-06/stadiums-retractable-seating-pushed-and-pulled-by-hand/
  142. ^ http://www.balfourbeatty.com/mobile/index.asp?pageid=3&newsid=516
  143. ^ Charles Sale (6 December 2012). "Diamond League meeting could be held at Olympic Stadium". Dailymail.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  144. ^ 13:07 GMT (24 January 2013). "BBC Sport - Olympic Stadium to host Diamond League meeting". BBC News. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 
  145. ^ Hart, Simon (13 February 2013). "Paralympic action added to London Anniversary Games at the 2012 Olympic Stadium in July". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  146. ^ "Sainsburys's confirmed as major British Athletics sponsor". UK Athletics. 15 April 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  147. ^ Hart, Simon (15 April 2013). "Sainsbury's announced as sponsor of Anniversary Games at Olympic Stadium after agreeing deal with UK Athletics". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  148. ^ a b "Bolt stars on day one of Sainsbury's Anniversary Games". British Athletics. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  149. ^ a b "Outstanding Ohuruogu outruns opposition". 27 July 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  150. ^ "Oliveira, Browne smash records at Anniversary Games". International Paralympic Committee. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  151. ^ "Four World Records on final day of Sainsbury's Anniversary Games". British Athletics. 28 July 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013. 
  152. ^ Hart, Simon (28 July 2013). "Athletics could return to the Olympic Stadium in 2015 due to a gap in its rebuilding schedule". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 August 2013. 
  153. ^ Mairs, Gavin (3 July 2012). "Stratford Stadium makes pitch to host Rugby World Cup 2015 matches". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 September 2012. 
  154. ^ Roan, Dan (17 September 2012). "London's Olympic Stadium may host 2015 Rugby World Cup". BBC. Retrieved 25 September 2012. 
  155. ^ "Olympic Stadium confirmed on 2015 Rugby World Cup shortlist". BBC News. 8 October 2012. Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  156. ^ Gibson, Owen; Riach, James (13 February 2013). "Chances of Rugby World Cup games being held at Olympic Park diminish". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2013. 
  157. ^ "Rugby World Cup 2015: Olympic Stadium to host games". BBC news. 2 May 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2013. 
  158. ^ "London Pulls Out of 2015 World Athletics Race". BBC Sport. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  159. ^ "UK Bids To Host 2017 World Athletics Championships". BBC Sport. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  160. ^ "London Bids To Host 2017 World Athletics Championships". BBC Sport. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2012. 
  161. ^ "London selected to host 2017 IAAF World Championships". International Association of Athletics Federations. 11 November 2011. Retrieved 2013-01-16. 
  162. ^ Hart, Simon (18 October 2012). "Olympic Stadium set to host 2017 World Paralympic Championships". The Daily Telegraph. 
  163. ^ "London named host city for 2017 Paralympic World Championships". BBC sport. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  164. ^ Mark Sweney (22 January 2013). "Live Nation strikes deal to exclusively host gigs at Olympic Stadium | Media | guardian.co.uk". Guardian. Retrieved 2013-03-21. 

External links[edit]


Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Beijing
Summer Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

2012
Succeeded by
Estádio do Maracanã
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Beijing
Summer Paralympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

2012
Succeeded by
Estádio do Maracanã
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Beijing
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

2012
Succeeded by
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
Rio de Janeiro
Preceded by
Beijing National Stadium
Beijing
Paralympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

2012
Succeeded by
Estádio Olímpico João Havelange
Rio de Janeiro