Olympic Stadium (Montreal)

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Olympic Stadium
The Big O
Le Stade Olympique 3.jpg
Location 4545 Pierre de Coubertin Avenue
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Coordinates 45°33′29″N 73°33′07″W / 45.558°N 73.552°W / 45.558; -73.552Coordinates: 45°33′29″N 73°33′07″W / 45.558°N 73.552°W / 45.558; -73.552
Broke ground April 28, 1973
Opened July 17, 1976, 38 years ago
April 15, 1977 (Baseball)
Owner Régie des Installations Olympiques (Government of Quebec)
Surface Grass (1976 and June 2, 2010)
AstroTurf (1977–2001; 2005–2006)
Defargo Astrograss (2002–2003)
FieldTurf (2003–2005)
Team Pro EF RD (soccer; 2007–present)
Construction cost C$ 770 million
C$ 1.47 billion (2006 – including additional costs, interest and repairs)
Architect Roger Taillibert [1]
Capacity Baseball: 45,757
Football: 65,255
Concert: 78,322
Field dimensions Foul Lines – 325 ft (1977), 330 (1981), 325 (1983)
Power Alleys – 375 ft
Centre Field – 404 ft (1977), 405 (1979), 404 (1980), 400 (1981), 404 (1983)
Backstop – 62 ft (1977), 65 (1983), 53 (1989)
Website Parc Olympique Quebec
Tenants
1976 Summer Olympics
Montreal Expos (MLB) (1977–2004)
Montreal Alouettes (CFL) (1976–1986, 1996–1997) (2002–present, playoff games only)
Montreal Manic (NASL) (1981–1983)
Montreal Machine (WLAF) (1991–1992)
Montreal Impact (MLS) (2012-present, occaasionally)

The Olympic Stadium[2] (French: Stade Olympique de Montréal) is a multi-purpose stadium in Canada, located in the Hochelaga-Maisonneuve district of Montreal, Quebec. Built in the mid-1970s as the main venue for the 1976 Summer Olympics, it is nicknamed "The Big O," a reference to both its name and to the doughnut-shape of the permanent component of the stadium's roof. "The Big Owe" name has also been used to reference the astronomical cost of the stadium and the 1976 Olympics as a whole.[3]

The stadium is the largest by seating capacity in Canada. After the Olympics, artificial turf was installed and it became the home of Montreal's professional baseball and football teams. The Alouettes of the CFL moved their regular season games to a smaller venue in 1998, but use Olympic Stadium for playoff and Grey Cup games. Following the 2004 baseball season, the Expos relocated to Washington, D.C., leaving the stadium without a main tenant, and with a history of financial and structural problems, it is largely seen as a white elephant. The stadium currently serves as a multipurpose facility for special events (e.g. concerts, trade shows) with a seating capacity of 65,255. The Impact of Major League Soccer (MLS) use the venue on occasion, when larger capacity is needed or when the weather restricts outdoor play in the spring months.

Incorporated into the north base of the stadium is the Montreal Tower, the world's tallest inclined tower at 175 metres (574 ft). The stadium and Olympic Park grounds border Maisonneuve Park, which includes the Montreal Botanical Garden, adjacent to the west across Rue Sherbrooke (Route 138).

History[edit]

Background and architecture[edit]

The stadium was designed by French architect Roger Taillibert to be a very elaborate facility featuring a retractable roof,[1] the design of the stadium resembles to the Osaka 1970 World Expo Australian pavilion[4] which was to be opened and closed by a huge 175-metre (574 ft) tower – the tallest inclined structure in the world, and the sixth tallest structure in Montreal.

The Olympic swimming pool is located under this tower. An Olympic velodrome (since converted to the Montreal Biodome, an indoor nature museum) was situated at the base of the tower in a building similar in design to the swimming pool. The building was built as the main stadium for the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium was host to various events including the opening and closing ceremonies, athletics, football finals, and the team jumping equestrian events.[5]

The building's design is cited as a masterpiece of Organic Modern architecture.[6] Taillibert based the building on plant and animal forms, aiming to include vertebral structures with sinewy or tentacles, while still following the basic plans of Modern architecture.[6]

Construction[edit]

Back view at night

The stadium was originally slated to be finished in 1972, but the grand opening was cancelled due to a construction workers strike. Further delays ensued due to the stadium's unusual design. As a result, the stadium and tower remained unfinished at the opening of the 1976 Olympic Games.[7]

The roof languished in a warehouse in France until 1982. It was not until 1987, 11 years later, that both the tower and roof were completed.[8] It would be another year before the 66 tonnes, 5,500 m2 (59,000 sq ft) Kevlar roof could retract. Even then, it could not be used in winds above 40 km/h (25 mph). As it was prone to tearing during high winds, the roof was kept closed starting in 1992.

Observatory[edit]

North-east view from funicular lower deck compartment

When construction on the stadium's tower resumed after the 1976 Olympics, a multi-story observatory was added to the plan, accessible via a funicular that travels 266 metres (873 ft) along the curved tower's spine. The funicular cabin ascends from base of the tower to upper deck in less than two minutes at a rate of 2.8 m/s (6.3 mph), with space for 76 persons per trip and a capacity of 500 persons per hour. The cabin is designed to remain level throughout its trip, while providing a panoramic view to its passengers.

The funicular faces north-east, offering a view to the north, south and east. It overlooks the Olympic Village, the Biodome, the Botanical Gardens and Saputo Stadium. The Olympic Park, the stadium's suspended roof and downtown Montreal can be viewed from the south-west facing Observatory at the top of the tower.

Stadium financing[edit]

Aerial view at night

Despite initial projections in 1970 that the stadium would cost only C$134 million to construct, strikes and construction delays served to escalate these costs. By the time the stadium opened (in an unfinished form), the total costs had risen to C$264 million.

The Quebec government introduced a special tobacco tax in May 1976 to help recoup its investment. By 2006, the amount contributed to the Olympic Installations Board accounted for 8% of the tax revenue earned from cigarette sales. The 1976 special tobacco tax act stipulated that once the stadium was paid off, ownership of the facility would be returned to the City of Montreal.

In mid-November 2006 the stadium's costs were finally paid in full.[3] The total expenditure (including repairs, renovations, construction, interest, and inflation) amounted to C$1.61 billion, making it--at the time all costs were paid off--the second most expensive stadium ever built (after Wembley Stadium in London).[9] Despite initial plans to complete payment in October 2006, an indoor smoking ban introduced in May 2006 curtailed the revenue gathered by the tobacco tax.[3] By 2014, the stadium's expense ranking had fallen to fifth, with the construction of costlier venues like MetLife Stadium, AT&T Stadium, and Yankee Stadium. Perceived by many to be a white elephant, the stadium has also been dubbed The Big Owe.

The stadium has generated on average $20 million in revenue each year since 1977. It is estimated that a large-scale event such as the Grey Cup can generate as much as $50 million in revenue.[10]

Continuing problems[edit]

Although not completed in time for the 1976 Olympics, construction on finishing the tower recommenced in the 1980s. During this period, however, a large fire set the tower ablaze, causing damage and forcing a scheduled Expos home game to be postponed. In 1986, a large chunk of the tower fell onto the playing field during another Expos game.[11]

In January 1985, approval was given by the Quebec government to complete the project and install a rectractable roof, financed by an Olympic cigarette tax in the province.[12] The orange-coloured Kevlar roof was installed in April 1987,[13] finally completing the stadium over a decade late; however, soon after it was put into use it ripped on several occasions due to a design flaw. In the months that followed, it was plagued by further rips and leaks during rain storms, allowing water into the stadium.[14][15]

As part of various renovations made in 1991 to improve the stadium's suitability as a baseball venue, 12,000 seats were eliminated, most of them in distant portions of the outfield, and home plate was moved closer to the stands.

Olympic Stadium's blue roof

On September 8 of that year, support beams snapped and caused a 55-long-ton (62-short-ton; 56 t) concrete slab to fall onto an exterior walkway. No one was injured, but the Expos had to move their final 13 home games of that season to the opponents' cities. For the 1992 season, it was decided to keep the roof closed at all times. The Kevlar roof was removed in May 1998, making the stadium open-air for the 1998 season. Later in 1998, a $26 million opaque blue roof was installed which does not open.

In 1999, a 350 m2 (3,770 sq ft) portion of the roof collapsed on January 18, dumping ice and snow on workers that were setting up for the annual Montreal Auto Show.[11][16] The auto show and a boat show the following month were canceled,[17] and the auto show left the venue for good. Repaired once again, the roof has been modified to better withstand winter conditions: the OIB installed a network of pipes to circulate heated water under the roof to allow for snow melting. Despite these corrective measures, the stadium floor had remained closed from December to March.[18] Birdair, the fabric provider and designer of the roof, was later sued for the roof failure.[19] The installer of the roof, Danny's Construction, having suffered tremendous cost overruns along with its subcontractor Montacier, due to changes in the plans and specifications and delays, was teminated during the construction, and Birdair completed the project. Danny's Construction sued Birdair in 1999.[20] In February 2010, after a lengthy trial, the Quebec Superior Court awarded a judgement in favour of Danny's Construction and dismissed Birdair's countersuit.[21]

The stadium's condition suffered considerably in the early 21st century. During the Expos' final years in Montreal, it was coated with grime. Much of the concrete was chipped, stained, and soiled.

In 2009, the stadium received approval to remain open in the winter, provided weather conditions are favourable.[22] However, the Olympic Installations Board issued a report stating that the roof was unsafe during heavy rainfall or more than 8 centimetres (3.1 in) of snow, and that it rips 50 to 60 times a year. The city fire department warned in August 2009 that without corrective measures, including a new roof, it may order the stadium closed. Events cannot be held if more than 3 centimetres (1.2 in) of snow are predicted 24 hours in advance, such as caused postponement of the Montreal Impact home opener soccer match in March 2014.[citation needed] A contract for a new permanent steel roof was awarded in 2004, with an estimated $300 million price tag. In June 2010, the Olympic Installations Board sought approval from the provincial government for the contract.[23] In May 2011 a committee was formed to study the future of the stadium and improve the usage of the stadium, pool, and sports centre.[24][25]

A slab of concrete measuring approximately 8 by 12 metres (26 by 39 ft) fell from the roof of the stadium's underground parking facility on March 4, 2012. There were no injuries.[26]

Post-Olympic use[edit]

Canadian Football[edit]

The Alouettes in action in 2010

The Canadian Football League's Montreal Alouettes became the stadium's first major post-Olympic tenant when they moved their home games there halfway through the 1976 season, remaining there through 1986, the franchise's final season of operations. A revived Alouettes franchise returned for the 1996 and 1997 seasons, but then moved to the Percival Molson Stadium in 1998, only using the larger Olympic Stadium for select regular-season and home playoff games. As of 2008, the franchise uses Olympic Stadium for playoff games only. Due to the increased popularity of the Alouettes and the small capacity of Percival Molson Stadium, the team considered returning to Olympic Stadium on a full-time basis, but instead renovated Percival Molson Stadium to increase its capacity.[27]

Olympic Stadium has hosted the Grey Cup a total of six times, most recently in 2008 when the Calgary Stampeders defeated the hometown Alouettes. The stadium holds the record for nine of the ten largest crowds in CFL history, which include five regular-season and four Grey Cup games. A single-game record crowd numbering 69,083 attended a game played on September 6, 1977 between the Alouettes and Toronto Argonauts.[28]

In 1991 and 1992, the stadium played host to the Montreal Machine of the World League of American Football. This included hosting World Bowl II on June 6, 1992, in which the Sacramento Surge defeated the Orlando Thunder 21–17 before 43,789.[citation needed]

In 1988 and 1990, NFL pre-season games were played at Olympic Stadium.[citation needed]

Baseball[edit]

Detail of the roof including the foul lines

In 1977, the stadium replaced Jarry Park Stadium as the home ballpark of the National League's Montreal Expos. As a part of the team's franchise grant, a domed stadium was supposed to be in place for the 1972 baseball season. However, due to the delays in constructing Olympic Stadium, until 1977, the Expos annually sought and received a waiver to remain at Jarry.[citation needed]

The Expos regularly played 81 home games every season until 2003, when they played 22 home games in Puerto Rico at Hiram Bithorn Stadium in San Juan. The Expos played 59 home games at Olympic Stadium in their final two seasons of 2003 and 2004; the franchise moved south to Washington, D.C. for the 2005 season and became the Washington Nationals.[citation needed]

Olympic Stadium's first-ever baseball game was played on April 14, 1977. In front of 57,592, the Expos lost 7–2 to the Philadelphia Phillies. The Expos played five home playoff games in 1981; two in the National League Division Series against the Phillies, and three in the National League Championship Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers. On October 19, the Expos lost the decisive fifth game, 2–1, to the Dodgers on Rick Monday's ninth-inning home run. In 1982, the Major League Baseball All-Star Game was played at Olympic Stadium in front of 59,057—a stadium record for baseball. On September 29, 2004, the Expos played their last game in Montreal, losing 9–1 to the Florida Marlins before 31,395.[citation needed]

Olympic Stadium panoramic

Although the Expos were Olympic Stadium's primary tenants, it proved to be somewhat problematic as a baseball venue. It employed construction techniques similar to those used in other multipurpose stadiums of the time. As was the case elsewhere where this approach was tried, sight lines for baseball left much to be desired.[29] The sight-line problems were magnified by the fact that Canadian football fields are 30 yards longer than American football fields. To accommodate the wider Canadian football field, the lower boxes were set further back than comparable seats in other stadiums built during this time. The upper deck was one of the highest in the majors. Still, the Expos were very successful in the stadium for a time, with above National League median attendance in 1977 and from 1979 to 1983. The Expos outdrew the New York Mets from 1977 to 1983, and 1994 to 1996, as well as the New York Yankees from 1982 to 1983.[30][31][32]

Before the 1992 season, a major overhaul was done on the stadium's baseball configuration. Home plate was moved closer to the stands and new seats closer to the field were installed. As part of the renovation, several distant sections of permanent seating beyond the fence were closed, replaced with bleacher seats directly behind the outfield fence. The total seating capacity for baseball was reduced to 46,000.

Ten years after the last Expos game at Olympic Stadium, the Toronto Blue Jays played a two-game pre-season exhibition series against the New York Mets on March 28-29, 2014, with a total paid attendance of 96,000.[33]

Longest home runs[edit]

Willie Stargell of the Pittsburgh Pirates hit the longest home run at Olympic Stadium on May 20, 1978, driving the ball into the second deck in right field for an estimated distance of 535 feet. The yellow seat that marked the location where the ball landed has been removed from the 300 level. The seat is now preserved at the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame. Stargell also hit a notable home run at the Expos' original Montreal home, Jarry Park, which landed in a swimming pool beyond the right field fence.[34]

On April 4, 1988, the Expos' Opening Day, Darryl Strawberry of the New York Mets hit a ball off a speaker which hangs off a concrete ring at Olympic Stadium, estimated to have traveled 525 feet.

"Oh Henry" Rodriguez hit a ball on June 15, 1997, that bounced off the concrete ring in right field, caromed up to hit the roof, and came down, hitting a speaker. The distance traveled by this ball is also estimated at 525 feet.

The longest home run hit to left field was Vladimir Guerrero's blast on July 28, 2003, that hit an advertising sign directly below the left field upper deck. The ad was later replaced with a sign reading "VLAD 502".[35]

Soccer[edit]

Olympic Stadium with natural grass field

The Olympic Stadium was the home of the NASL's Montreal Manic soccer team from 1981–1983. A 1981 playoff game against the Chicago Sting attracted a crowd of over 58,000. Several games of the 2007 FIFA Under 20 World Cup were played at Olympic Stadium and drew the largest crowds of the tournament, including two sell-outs of 55,800.

Olympic Stadium hosted a CONCACAF Champions League quarter-final game pitting the Montreal Impact – who play primarily in the adjacent Stade Saputo – against Club Santos Laguna of the Mexican First Division on February 25, 2009. This was the first time an international soccer game took place in Montreal during the winter months.[36] The Impact won 2–0 in front of a record crowd of 55,571.[37] The stadium was also home to a friendly match between Montreal Impact and A.C. Milan of the Italian Serie A on June 2, 2010 before 47,861.[38]

On July 25, 2009, Olympic Stadium became the first stadium outside of France to host Ligue 1's Trophée des Champions, a super cup played by the winner of Ligue 1 and the Coupe de France. Over 34,000 attended the game. Bordeaux defeated Guingamp by a score of 2 to 0. The game was held in Montreal to help Ligue 1 break into the growing North America soccer market.[39]

On March 17, 2012, a record crowd of 58,912 packed Olympic Stadium to cheer on the Montreal Impact for their MLS debut on home soil, in an entertaining 1-1 draw with the Chicago Fire, setting a new attendance record for professional soccer in Quebec.[40] That record was later broken on May 12, 2012 with 60,860 people for a match against the Los Angeles Galaxy, also setting a new attendance record for professional soccer in Canada.[41]

On August 24, 2014, the Olympic Stadium will host the final match of the 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup.[42]

Other[edit]

Olympic Stadium hosted the Drum Corps International World Championship finals in 1981 and 1982.

On September 11, 1984, Pope John Paul II participated in a youth rally with about 55,000 people in attendance.[43]

Inside the stadium before an AC/DC concert
A view from the upper deck of the monster truck layout
Montreal Biodome in front of Olympic Stadium and its tower

Many musical events have taken place at this location, including the famed riots after a 1992 Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour concert. Metallica frontman James Hetfield suffered second and third degree burns to his left arm after stepping too close to a pyrotechnics blast during the opening of "Fade to Black". Metallica was forced to cancel the second hour of the show, but promised to return to the city for another show. Guns N' Roses frontman Axl Rose left the stage early in his band's set claiming that his throat hurt. Those in attendance rioted after the unexpectedly-short concert.[citation needed]

British rock band Pink Floyd played an infamous concert at the stadium on July 6, 1977, during which bassist Roger Waters registered his disapproval of the audience's rowdy behaviour by spitting in the face of a fan in the front row. This incident provided the main inspiration for Pink Floyd's next album The Wall, which was written largely by Waters. The concert was also noted for its ticket price of $10, the highest ever seen in the city.[44]

The stadium played host to Amnesty International's Human Rights Now! Benefit Concert on September 17, 1988. The show was headlined by Sting and Peter Gabriel and also featured Bruce Springsteen & The E Street Band, Tracy Chapman, Youssou N'Dour, k.d. lang, Michel Rivard and Daniel Lavoie.[citation needed]

On October 30, 2010, the stadium played host to a special mass to commemorate the ascension to sainthood of brother Andre. Over 30,000 people attended.[45]

The Stadium also hosts the Monster Spectacular monster truck show twice a year, in April and October.[citation needed]

AC/DC, Emerson, Lake and Palmer; Genesis, The Jacksons, The Rolling Stones, David Bowie, Duran Duran and George Michael also performed at the Olympic Stadium.[citation needed]

Attendance record[edit]

Pink Floyd attracted the largest ever paid crowd to the Olympic Stadium. The July 6, 1977 event gathered 78,322.[28]

Transit[edit]

The stadium is directly connected to the Pie-IX metro station on the Green Line of the Montreal Metro.

Facts and figures[edit]

  • At 175 m (574 ft), the Olympic Stadium is both the world's tallest slanted structure and stadium[citation needed].
  • Well over its original budget, the stadium ended up costing $770 million to construct. By 2006, the final cost had risen to $1.47 billion when calculating in repairs, modifications and interest paid out. It took taxpayers 30 years to finally pay off the cost, leading to its nickname of "The Big Owe" (a play on "The Big O").[46]
  • The roof is only 52 m (170.6 ft) above the field of play. As a result, a number of pop-ups and long home runs hit the roof over the years, necessitating the painting of orange lines on the roof to separate foul balls from fair balls.
  • During their years playing in Olympic Stadium the Expos were one of only two teams not to employ the traditional yellow-painted foul poles with the New York Mets being the other; Olympic's poles were painted red while the Mets' home, Shea Stadium (and later Citi Field), were painted orange.
  • The Olympic Stadium holds the record for a soccer game attendance in Canada. At the 1976 Summer Olympics soccer final, 72,000 people witnessed East Germany's 3–1 win over Poland.
  • A yellow seat on the 300 level commemorates a 534-foot (163 m) home run by Willie Stargell of the Pittsburgh Pirates. (It has since been moved to the Canadian Baseball Hall of Fame)
  • The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium on a removable Team Pro EF RD surface that was purchased specifically for the tournament.[47]
  • For the first time since the Olympic Games in 1976, a natural grass field was installed in the stadium for the Montreal Impact match versus AC Milan on June 2, 2010.[48]
  • The stadium features a 101,600-watt public address system[49]
  • The main room of the stadium is the largest in Quebec, at 43,504 m2 (468,270 sq ft)[50]

Commemorations[edit]

As part of the commemorative stamps created for the 1976 Olympics, Canada Post issued a stamp depicting the Olympic Stadium and Velodrome.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Big O architect to do roof study". Montreal Gazette. June 10, 1981. p. 1. 
  2. ^ "Parc olympique et Stade olympique" (in (French)). Government of Quebec. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c CBC News (December 19, 2006). "Quebec's Big Owe stadium debt is over". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 25, 2008. 
  4. ^ Chris Glenn (November 30, 2011). "Yokkaichi's Platypus Pavilion | Mie | Japan Tourist, by Chris Glenn". En.japantourist.jp. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  5. ^ 1976 Summer Olympics official report. Volume 2. pp. 42–65.
  6. ^ a b Rémillard, 196.
  7. ^ Peritz, Ingrid (January 17, 2009). "Montreal's billion-dollar 'Big Owe': What went wrong in '76?". Globe and Mail (Toronto). Retrieved January 19, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Building big: Databank: Olympic Stadium". WGBH. Retrieved July 16, 2009. 
  9. ^ Egan, Andrew. "In Depth: World's Most Expensive Stadiums". Forbes. 
  10. ^ Rio.intercollab.com
  11. ^ a b "ESPN.com: MLB – Merron: What a disaster!". Static.espn.go.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  12. ^ Drolet, Daniel (January 24, 1985). "At last: Big O to get a retractable roof". Montreal Gazette. p. A-1. 
  13. ^ "Olympic Stadium roof in place after 11 years". Lawrence (KS) Journal World. Associated Press. April 15, 1987. p. 5B. 
  14. ^ "Storm rips Olympic Stadium roof". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Associated Press. June 28, 1991. p. 20. 
  15. ^ Meyer, Paul (June 29, 1991). "Olympic Stadium roof damaged and retracted". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. p. 18. 
  16. ^ "Snow causes roof to cave in at Olympic Stadium". Eugene Register-Guard. wire services. January 19, 1999. p. 5D. 
  17. ^ "Olympic Stadium out for month". Boca Raton News. Associated Press. January 20, 1999. p. 4B. 
  18. ^ Canwest News Service (October 2, 2008). "Impact begin search for location for winter game". Montreal Gazette. [dead link]
  19. ^ "Olympic stadium suing U.S. roofers". CBC News. November 10, 2000. Retrieved July 16, 2009. [dead link]
  20. ^ Parker, Dave (January 28, 1999). "Dome supplier faces Montreal compensation battle". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved July 16, 2009. 
  21. ^ La Presse, Actualites, Samedi 13 Fevrier 2010, p. A9
  22. ^ Riga, Andrew (January 9, 2009). "It's a go for the Big O (if there's no snow)". Montreal Gazette. Canwest. Retrieved January 9, 2009. [dead link]
  23. ^ CBC News (June 29, 2010). "Olympic Stadium to get $300M roof". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved June 29, 2010. 
  24. ^ Montreal Gazette (May 8, 2011). "Committee formed to study future of Montreal's Olympic Stadium". Postmedia Network Inc. 
  25. ^ Montreal Gazette (May 10, 2011). "Elephant in the room; Regie's committee on Big O a good start but leaves questions unanswered". Postmedia Network Inc. 
  26. ^ "Giant concrete slab falls at Montreal's Olympic Stadium". CTV News. The Canadian Press. March 5, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  27. ^ CBC News (March 9, 2009). "Molson Stadium to begin $29.4M expansion". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 9, 2009. 
  28. ^ a b Gouvernement du Québec (2004). "About the Olympic Park – Facts and figures". La Régie des installations olympiques. Retrieved November 22, 2008. 
  29. ^ "ESPN.com - Page2 - The List: Worst ballparks". Espn.go.com. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  30. ^ Sports Reference (2008). "Washington Nationals Attendance, Stadiums and Park Factors". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  31. ^ Sports Reference (2008). "New York Mets Attendance, Stadiums and Park Factors". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  32. ^ Sports Reference (2008). "New York Yankees Attendance, Stadiums and Park Factors". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved September 1, 2008. 
  33. ^ "Cabrera's home run in the eighth gives Jays win over Mets". Tsn.ca. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  34. ^ Ballpark Digest. "Jarry Park / Montreal Expos / 1969–1976". Ballpark Digest. Retrieved September 22, 2007. 
  35. ^ Montreal Expos (2004). Expos Media Guide 2004. 
  36. ^ "News". Montrealimpact.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  37. ^ Farrell, Sean (February 25, 2009). "Big Montreal crowd takes in winter soccer". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved February 25, 2009. 
  38. ^ Guess who’s coming to town?. The Offside. April 14, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2010 
  39. ^ profil Se déconnecter. "Le trophée des champions à Montréal". RDS.ca. Retrieved June 14, 2013. 
  40. ^ "Recap: Record crowd sees Impact tie Fire in home debut". mlssoccer.com. March 17, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  41. ^ "Galaxy tie Impact before record crowd". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). June 18, 2012. 
  42. ^ "FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup: Matches - Knockout stage". FIFA.com. Retrieved April 4, 2014. 
  43. ^ "The Pope in Canada: A Journey Into the Heart". Americancatholic.org. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  44. ^ [1][dead link]
  45. ^ Anne Sutherland, Montreal Gazette: Monday, November 1, 2010 (November 1, 2010). "30,000 faithful flock to Olympic Stadium for Brother Andre celebration". Globaltvedmonton.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  46. ^ "ESPN.com: MLB – Merron: The Disastrous 'Big Owe'". Static.espn.go.com. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  47. ^ Montreal Gazette (May 1, 2007). "New rug for Olympic Stadium". Canwest Publishing. Retrieved May 12, 2010. 
  48. ^ [2][dead link]
  49. ^ "RIO – Parc olympique de Montréal :: Salles au Stade olympique :: Location de salles au Stade olympique". Rio.gouv.qc.ca. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  50. ^ "RIO – Montreal Olympic Park :: Frequently Asked Questions". Rio.gouv.qc.ca. Retrieved March 2, 2011. 
  51. ^ John Burnett. "Canadian Stamps Marked Montreal Olympics". Retrieved October 22, 2012. 
  • Rémillard, Francois. Montreal architecture: A Guide to Styles and Buildings. Montreal: Meridian Press, 1990.

External links[edit]

Multimedia[edit]

  • CBC Archives – Clip from 1975 – Stadium architect talks about his design
  • CBC Archives – A look back on the history of the stadium (1999)
  • CBC Archives – Discussion of building a tower for Montreal
Events and tenants
Preceded by
Olympiastadion
Munich
Summer Olympics
Opening and Closing Ceremonies (Olympic Stadium)

1976
Succeeded by
Grand Arena
Moskow
Preceded by
Olympiastadion
Munich
Olympic Athletics competitions
Main Venue

1976
Succeeded by
Grand Arena
Moskow
Preceded by
Olympiastadion
Munich
Summer Olympics
Football Men's Finals (Olympic Stadium)

1976
Succeeded by
Grand Arena
Moskow
Preceded by
Autostade
Memorial Stadium (Baltimore)
Percival Molson Stadium
Home of the
Montreal Alouettes

1976–1986
1996–1997
2001 – current (with Percival Molson Stadium)
Succeeded by
Franchise folded
Percival Molson Stadium
current home (part time)
Preceded by
Jarry Park Stadium
Home of the
Montreal Expos

1977–2004
Succeeded by
RFK Stadium
Preceded by
Cleveland Stadium
Host of the
Major League Baseball All-Star Game

1982
Succeeded by
Comiskey Park
Preceded by
Legion Field
Host of the
Drum Corps International
World Championship

1981–1982
Succeeded by
Miami Orange Bowl