|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014)|
A roadster, also known as city bicycle, is a type of utility bicycle once common worldwide and still very common in Asia, Africa, some parts of Europe and Latin America. During the past several years, traditionally styled roadster bicycles have gained considerable popularity throughout the Western world, particularly as a lifestyle or fashion statement.
Generally they are suitable for urban environments and they focus more on comfort and practicality instead of speed or efficiency. They normally have a slightly curved, roughly planar aligned and elevated handlebar, providing users a straight sitting position. They have fewer gears and they often are heavier than road bicycles. They might have the top central frame bar diagonally aligned for allowing easy mounting in and out and by default they have a backpack frame for transport of items. The saddle is typically larger compared with other bicycles and the majority are provided with chain and mud guards against oil or dirt.
Design and variants
There were three basic variants of the roadster.
The classic gents' roadster, AKA the English roadster, has a lugged brazed steel diamond frame, rod-actuated brakes, upright North Road handlebars, a single gear ratio or Sturmey-Archer 3-speed hub gears, a chaincase, steel mudguards, cottered steel cranks, 28 x 1½ inch (ISO 635) wheels, Westwood rims, and often a Sturmey-Archer hub dynamo. Roadsters were built for durability above all else and no serious attempt was made to save weight in their design or construction, roadsters weighed upwards of 45-50 pounds (20–23 kg). They were often the mounts of policemen and rural letter carriers. Interestingly, a derivative of the roadster, the ladies' model, is seldom called a roadster.
The roadster is very similar in design and intended use as the European city bike, a model still used in Germany, Denmark and most notably in the Netherlands (see below). The primary differences are that the continental bicycles tend to have a higher handlebar position for a more upright riding posture, and are more likely to have rod-actuated drum brakes.
Ladies' model and the Omafiets
The ladies' version of the roadster's design was very much in place by the 1890s. It had a step-through frame rather than the diamond frame of the gentlemen's model so that ladies, with their dresses and skirts, could easily mount and ride their bicycles, and commonly came with a skirt guard to prevent skirts and dresses becoming entangled in the rear wheel and spokes. As with the gents' roadster, the frame was of steel construction and the positioning of the frame and handlebars gave the rider a very upright riding position. Though they originally came with front spoon-brakes technological advancements meant that later models were able to be equipped with the much improved coaster brakes or rod-actuated rim or drum-brakes.
Though the ladies' version of the roadster largely fell out of fashion in England and many other Western nations as the 20th century progressed, it remains popular in the Netherlands; this is why some people refer to bicycles of this design as Dutch bikes. In Dutch the name of these bicycles is Omafiets ("grandma's bike") though in Frisia they often call them Widdofyts (Frisian for "widow's bike"). The classic Omafiets which is still in production in the Netherlands and has not changed since 1911, conforms to the traditional ladies' roadster design: it comes with a single-speed gear, 28 x 1½ (ISO 635) wheels, black painted frame and mudguards (with white-blazoning at the back of the rear one), and a rear skirt guard. Modern variants, be they painted in other colours, with aluminium frames, drum-brakes or multiple gear ratios in a hub gearing system, will all conform to the same basic look and dimensions as the classic Omafiets. (The Dutch gentlemen's equivalent is called the Opafiets (Dutch for "grandpa's bike") or Stadsfiets ("city bike") and generally has the same characteristics but with a "diamond" or "gents'" frame, thereby much the same as the gentleman's English roadster.)
A variation on this type of bicycle is the sports roadster (also known as the "light roadster"), which typically has a lighter frame, and a slightly steeper seat-tube and head-tube angle of about 70° to 72° degrees, fitted with cable brakes, comfortable "flat" North Road handlebars, mudguards and, as often as not, three, four or five-speed derailleur gearing. Sports or light roadsters were fitted with 26 x 1⅜ inch (ISO 590) traditional English size wheels with Endrick rims, hence a lower bottom bracket and correspondingly lower stand-over height and weighting around 35-40 pounds (16 – 18 kg). It was these bikes that were wrongly called "English racer" in the United States.
Club sports or semi-racer bicycles were the high-performance machines of their time and place named as they were the style of bicycle popular with members of the many active cycling clubs. A club bicycle would typically have Reynolds 531 frame tubing, a narrow, unsprung leather saddle, inverted North Road handlebars (or drop bars), steel "rat trap" pedals with toe clips, 5-15 speed derailleur gearing, alloy rims and light high-pressure 26 x 1¼ (ISO 597) or 27 x 1¼ (ISO 630) tires. Some club bicycles would be likely to have a more exotic Sturmey-Archer hub, perhaps a medium- or close-ratio model, 3 or 4 speed with a very few even were equipped with the rare ASC 3-speed fixed-gear hub. Many club bicycles were single-speed machines, usually with a reversible hub: single-speed freewheel on one side, fixed-gear on the other. Derailers began to be used on this type of bicycle starting in the early '40s. Although primarily intended for fast group rides, club bicycles were also commonly used for touring and also for time-trialing.
From the early 20th century until after World War II, the roadster constituted most adult bicycles sold in the United Kingdom and in many parts of the British Empire. For many years after the advent of the motorcycle and automobile, they remained a primary means of adult transport. Major manufacturers in England were Raleigh and BSA, though Carlton, Phillips, Triumph, Rudge-Whitworth, Hercules, and Elswick Hopper also made them.
In the United States, the sports roadster was imported after World War II, and was known as the "English racer". It quickly became popular with adult cyclists seeking an alternative to the traditional youth-oriented cruiser bicycle. While the English racer was no racing bike, it was faster and better for climbing hills than the cruiser, thanks to its lighter weight, tall wheels, narrow tires, and internally geared rear hubs. In the late 1950s, U.S. manufacturers such as Schwinn began producing their own "lightweight" version of the English racer.
In Britain, the utility roadster declined noticeably in popularity during the early 1970s, as a boom in recreational cycling caused manufacturers to concentrate on lightweight (23-30 lb.), affordable derailleur sport bikes, actually slightly-modified versions of the racing bicycle of the era.
In the 1980s, U.K. cyclists began to shift from road-only bicycles to all-terrain models such as the mountain bike. The mountain bike's sturdy frame and load-carrying ability gave it additional versatility as a utility bike, usurping the role previously filled by the roadster. By 1990, the roadster was almost dead; while annual U.K. bicycle sales reached an all-time record of 2.8 million, almost all of them were mountain and road/sport models.
A different situation, however, occurred and still occurs in most asian countries as of 2014. Roadsters are still widely made and used in countries such as China, India, Thailand, Vietnam and others. Some of the most significant roadster manufacturers are: Flying Pigeon; Giant Bicycles; Hero Cycles and Eastman Industries.
Roadsters in contemporary society
In much of the world, the roadster is still the standard bicycle used for daily transportation. Mass-produced in Asia they are exported in huge numbers (mainly from India, China, and Taiwan) to developing nations as far afield as Africa and Latin America. India's Hero Cycles and Eastman Industries are still two of the world's leading roadster manufacturers, while China's Flying Pigeon was the single most popular vehicle in worldwide use. Due to their relative affordability, the strength and durability of steel frames and forks and their ability to be repaired by welding, and the ability of these bicycles to carry heavy payloads, the roadster is generally by far the most common bicycle in use in developing nations, with a particular importance for those in rural areas. In parts of East Africa, the roadster is called the Black Mamba, where it is used as a taxi by enterprising cyclist/drivers, called boda-boda.
Traditional roadster models became largely obsolete in the Anglosphere and other parts of the Western world after the 1950s with the noticeable exceptions of the Netherlands and Belgium along with other parts of north-western Europe. However, they are now becoming popular once more in many of those countries that they had largely disappeared from, due to the resurgence in the bicycle as local city transport where the roadster is ideally suited due to its upright riding position, ability to carry shopping loads, simplicity and low maintenance.
In the United Kingdom, there are a number of bicycle manufacturers which make updated versions of the classic roadster such as Pashley Cycles and many more are imported from the continent, such as those from Dutch manufacturers such as Royal Dutch Gazelle. They are popular as student transport at universities, especially at Cambridge and Oxford, and are increasingly seen in other British cities, including London. In Australia, there has also been an increase in roadster use, particularly in Melbourne, alongside the growth of local bicycle companies such as Papillionaire and many second-hand ones from the 1950s and 60s are being discovered and restored.
The Dutch Queen Juliana riding an Omafiets, 1967.
The roadster is known in East Africa as the "Black Mamba".
Farmer on roadster bicycle used for freight in Indonesia.
A 2012 Sohrab roadster manufactured in Pakistan.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Roadster (bicycle).|
- Ben van Loon (8 August 2011). "Bike Curious - Bikes Defined".
- "In Defense of the "Frivolous" Bike Craze". Lovely bicycle!. 22 May 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- "Servicing English Three Speeds". sheldonbrown.com. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Carlton Reid (19 August 2013). "The Dutch bike isn’t Dutch it’s English (and proudly not updated since 1911)". Roads Were Not Built For Cars. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- Susan Weaver (1998). A Woman's Guide to Cycling (rev. ed.). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-89815-982-2.
- Roger St. Pierre (2009). The Book of the Bicycle. London: Triune Books. pp. 16–19. ISBN 0-85674-016-0.
- Richard Ballantine (2000). The 21st Century Bicycle Book. New York: Overlook Press. p. 22.
- Richard Ballantine (2000). The 21st Century Bicycle Book. New York: Overlook Press. p. 23.
Sales of sport and road racing bikes constituted the major part of new bike sales from 1972, when annual U.K. sales went from just 700,000 per year to 1.6 million per year in 1980.
- Dan Koeppel. "Flight of the Pigeon". Bicycling.com. Bicycling. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- "Vintage Dutch Style City Bikes - Custom Bicycles". Papillionaire Bikes. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- "Towards Sustainable Transport: Bicycle Policy" (MS-Word). STCWA website. Sustainable Transport Coalition of Western Australia. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
|Look up roadster in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|