Runcinated 5-cell

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Omnitruncated 5-cell)
Jump to: navigation, search
4-simplex t0.svg
5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
4-simplex t03.svg
Runcinated 5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
4-simplex t013.svg
Runcitruncated 5-cell
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
4-simplex t0123.svg
Omnitruncated 5-cell
(Runcicantitruncated 5-cell)
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Orthogonal projections in A4 Coxeter plane

In four-dimensional geometry, a runcinated 5-cell is a convex uniform polychoron, being a runcination (a 3rd order truncation) of the regular 5-cell.

There are 3 unique degrees of runcinations of the 5-cell, including with permutations, truncations, and cantellations.


Runcinated 5-cell[edit]

Runcinated 5-cell
Schlegel half-solid runcinated 5-cell.png
Schlegel diagram with half of the tetrahedral cells visible.
Type Uniform polychoron
Schläfli symbol t0,3{3,3,3}
Coxeter-Dynkin diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
or CDel branch.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel nodes 11.png
Cells 30 10 (3.3.3) Tetrahedron.png
20 (3.4.4) Triangular prism.png
Faces 70 40 {3}
30 {4}
Edges 60
Vertices 20
Vertex figure Runcinated 5-cell verf.png
(Elongated equilateral-triangular antiprism)
Symmetry group A4, [[3,3,3]], order 240
Properties convex, isogonal isotoxal
Uniform index 4 5 6

The runcinated 5-cell or small prismatodecachoron is constructed by expanding the cells of a 5-cell radially and filling in the gaps with triangular prisms (which are the face prisms and edge figures) and tetrahedra (cells of the dual pentachoron). It consists of 10 tetrahedra and 20 triangular prisms. The 10 tetrahedra correspond with the cells of a 5-cell and its dual.

Alternative names[edit]

Structure[edit]

Two of the ten tetrahedral cells meet at each vertex. The triangular prisms lie between them, joined to them by their triangular faces and to each other by their square faces. Each triangular prism is joined to its neighbouring triangular prisms in anti orientation (i.e., if edges A and B in the shared square face are joined to the triangular faces of one prism, then it is the other two edges that are joined to the triangular faces of the other prism); thus each pair of adjacent prisms, if rotated into the same hyperplane, would form a gyrobifastigium.

Images[edit]

orthographic projections
Ak
Coxeter plane
A4 A3 A2
Graph 4-simplex t03.svg 4-simplex t03 A3.svg 4-simplex t03 A2.svg
Dihedral symmetry [[5]]=[10] [4] [[3]]=[6]
Runcinated pentatope.png
View inside of a 3-sphere projection Schlegel diagram with its 10 tetrahedral cells

Coordinates[edit]

The Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of an origin-centered runcinated 5-cell with edge length 2 are:

\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\  \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm1\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\  \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ -\sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\ 0,\                   0\right)
\pm\left(0,\                  2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm1\right)
\pm\left(0,\                  2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0\right)
   \left(0,\                  0,\                   \pm\sqrt{3},\         \pm1\right)
   \left(0,\                  0,\                   0,\                   \pm2\right)

An alternate simpler set of coordinates can be made in 5-space, as 20 permutations of:

(0,1,1,1,2)

This construction exists as one of 32 orthant facets of the runcinated 5-orthoplex.

A second construction in 5-space, from the center of a rectified 5-orthoplex is given by coordinate permutations of:

(1,-1,0,0,0)

Root vectors[edit]

Its 20 vertices represent the root vectors of the simple Lie group A4. It is also the vertex figure for the 5-cell honeycomb in 4-space.

Cross-sections[edit]

The maximal cross-section of the runcinated 5-cell with a 3-dimensional hyperplane is a cuboctahedron. This cross-section divides the runcinated 5-cell into two tetrahedral hypercupolae consisting of 5 tetrahedra and 10 triangular prisms each.

Projections[edit]

The tetrahedron-first orthographic projection of the runcinated 5-cell into 3-dimensional space has a cuboctahedral envelope. The structure of this projection is as follows:

  • The cuboctahedral envelope is divided internally as follows:
  • Four flattened tetrahedra join 4 of the triangular faces of the cuboctahedron to a central tetrahedron. These are the images of 5 of the tetrahedral cells.
  • The 6 square faces of the cuboctahedron are joined to the edges of the central tetrahedron via distorted triangular prisms. These are the images of 6 of the triangular prism cells.
  • The other 4 triangular faces are joined to the central tetrahedron via 4 triangular prisms (distorted by projection). These are the images of another 4 of the triangular prism cells.
  • This accounts for half of the runcinated 5-cell (5 tetrahedra and 10 triangular prisms), which may be thought of as the 'northern hemisphere'.
  • The other half, the 'southern hemisphere', corresponds to an isomorphic division of the cuboctahedron in dual orientation, in which the central tetrahedron is dual to the one in the first half. The triangular faces of the cuboctahedron join the triangular prisms in one hemisphere to the flattened tetrahedra in the other hemisphere, and vice versa. Thus, the southern hemisphere contains another 5 tetrahedra and another 10 triangular prisms, making the total of 10 tetrahedra and 20 triangular prisms.

Related skew polyhedron[edit]

The regular skew polyhedron, {4,6|3}, exists in 4-space with 6 squares around each vertex, in a zig-zagging nonplanar vertex figure. These square faces can be seen on the runcinated 5-cell, using all 60 edges and 20 vertices. The 40 triangular faces of the runcinated 5-cell can be seen as removed. The dual regular skew polyhedron, {6,4|3}, is similarly related to the hexagonal faces of the bitruncated 5-cell.

Runcitruncated 5-cell[edit]

Runcitruncated 5-cell
Schlegel half-solid runcitruncated 5-cell.png
Schlegel diagram with
cuboctahedral cells shown
Type Uniform polychoron
Schläfli symbol t0,1,3{3,3,3}
Coxeter-Dynkin diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Cells 30 5 Truncated tetrahedron.png(3.6.6)
10 Hexagonal prism.png(4.4.6)
10 Triangular prism.png(3.4.4)
5 Cuboctahedron.png(3.4.3.4)
Faces 120 40 {3}
60 {4}
20 {6}
Edges 150
Vertices 60
Vertex figure Runcitruncated 5-cell verf.png
(Rectangular pyramid)
Coxeter group A4, [3,3,3], order 120
Properties convex, isogonal
Uniform index 7 8 9

The runcitruncated 5-cell or prismatorhombated pentachoron is composed of 60 vertices, 150 edges, 120 faces, and 30 cells. The cells are: 5 truncated tetrahedra, 10 hexagonal prisms, 10 triangular prisms, and 5 cuboctahedra. Each vertex is surrounded by five cells: one truncated tetrahedron, two hexagonal prisms, one triangular prism, and one cuboctahedron; the vertex figure is a rectangular pyramid.

Alternative names[edit]

  • Runcitruncated pentachoron
  • Runcitruncated 4-simplex
  • Diprismatodispentachoron
  • Prismatorhombated pentachoron (Acronym: prip) (Jonathan Bowers)

Images[edit]

orthographic projections
Ak
Coxeter plane
A4 A3 A2
Graph 4-simplex t013.svg 4-simplex t013 A3.svg 4-simplex t013 A2.svg
Dihedral symmetry [5] [4] [3]
Runcitruncated 5cell.png
Schlegel diagram with its 40 blue triangular faces and its 60 green quad faces.
Runcitruncated 5cell part.png
Central part of Schlegel diagram.

Coordinates[edit]

The Cartesian coordinates of an origin-centered runcitruncated 5-cell having edge length 2 are:

\left(\frac{7}{\sqrt{10}},\ \sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\    \pm\sqrt{3},\         \pm1\right)
\left(\frac{7}{\sqrt{10}},\ \sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\    0,\                   \pm2\right)
\left(\frac{7}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{-1}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm2\right)
\left(\frac{7}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{-1}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{-4}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0\right)
\left(\frac{7}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{-5}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm1\right)
\left(\frac{7}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{-5}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  \pm\sqrt{6},\           \pm\sqrt{3},\         \pm1\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  \pm\sqrt{6},\           0,\                   \pm2\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\    \frac{5}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm1\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\    \frac{-1}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm3\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\    \frac{-4}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm2\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  -\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\   \frac{4}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm2\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  -\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\   \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm3\right)
\left(\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\  -\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\   \frac{-5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{5}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm2\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{5}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{-4}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{4}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm2\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm3\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\   \frac{-5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{-7}{\sqrt{6}},\  \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}},\  0\right)
\left(\frac{-3}{\sqrt{10}},\ \frac{-7}{\sqrt{6}},\  \frac{-1}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\left(-4\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ 2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\  \frac{1}{\sqrt{3}},\  \pm1\right)
\left(-4\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ 2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\  \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ 0\right)
\left(-4\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ 0,\                    \pm\sqrt{3},\         \pm1\right)
\left(-4\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ 0,\                    0,\                   \pm2\right)
\left(-4\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ -2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{2}{\sqrt{3}},\  0\right)
\left(-4\sqrt{\frac{2}{5}},\ -2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-1}{\sqrt{3}},\ 1\right)

The vertices can be more simply constructed on a hyperplane in 5-space, as the permutations of:

(0,1,1,2,3)

This construction is from the positive orthant facet of the runcitruncated 5-orthoplex.

Omnitruncated 5-cell[edit]

Omnitruncated 5-cell
Schlegel half-solid omnitruncated 5-cell.png
Schlegel diagram with half of the truncated octahedral cells shown.
Type Uniform polychoron
Schläfli symbol t0,1,2,3{3,3,3}
Coxeter-Dynkin diagram CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
or CDel branch 11.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel nodes 11.png
Cells 30 10 Truncated octahedron.png(4.6.6)
20 Hexagonal prism.png(4.4.6)
Faces 150 90{4}
60{6}
Edges 240
Vertices 120
Vertex figure Omnitruncated 5-cell verf.png
Phyllic disphenoid
Coxeter group A4, [[3,3,3]], order 240
Properties convex, isogonal, zonotope
Uniform index 8 9 10

The omnitruncated 5-cell or great prismatodecachoron is composed of 120 vertices, 240 edges, 150 faces (90 squares and 60 hexagons), and 30 cells. The cells are: 10 truncated octahedra, and 20 hexagonal prisms. Each vertex is surrounded by four cells: two truncated octahedra, and two hexagonal prisms, arranged in two chiral irregular tetrahedral vertex figures.

Coxeter calls this Hinton's polytope after C. H. Hinton, who described it in his book The Fourth Dimension in 1906. It forms a uniform honeycomb which Coxeter calls Hinton's honeycomb.[1]

Alternative names[edit]

Images[edit]

orthographic projections
Ak
Coxeter plane
A4 A3 A2
Graph 4-simplex t0123.svg 4-simplex t0123 A3.svg 4-simplex t0123 A2.svg
Dihedral symmetry [[5]]=[10] [4] [[3]]=[6]
Net
Great prismatodecachoron net.png
Omnitruncated 5-cell
Dual gippid net.png
Dual to omnitruncated 5-cell

Perspective projections[edit]

Omnitruncated 5-cell.png
Perspective Schlegel diagram
Centered on truncated octahedron
Omnitruncated simplex stereographic.png
Stereographic projection

Permutohedron[edit]

Just as the truncated octahedron is the permutohedron of order 4, the omnitruncated 5-cell is the permutohedron of order 5.[2] The omnitruncated 5-cell is a zonotope, the Minkowski sum of five line segments parallel to the five lines through the origin and the five vertices of the 5-cell.

Tessellations[edit]

The omnitruncated 5-cell honeycomb can tessellate 4-dimensional space by translational copies of this cell, each with 3 hypercells around each face. This honeycomb's Coxeter-Dynkin diagram is CDel branch 11.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel nodes 11.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node 1.png.[3] Unlike the analogous honeycomb in three dimensions, the bitruncated cubic honeycomb which has three different Coxeter group Wythoff constructions, this honeycomb has only one such construction.[1]

Symmetry[edit]

The omnitruncated 5-cell has extended pentachoric symmetry, [[3,3,3]], order 240. The vertex figure of the omnitruncated 5-cell represents the Goursat tetrahedron of the [3,3,3] Coxeter group. The extended symmetry comes from a 2-fold rotation across the middle order-3 branch, and is represented more explicitly as [2+[3,3,3]].

Omnitruncated 5-cell verf.png

Coordinates[edit]

The Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of an origin-centered omnitruncated 5-cell having edge length 2 are:

\left(\pm\sqrt{10},\ \pm\sqrt{6},\ \pm\sqrt{3},\ \pm1\right)
\left(\pm\sqrt{10},\ \pm\sqrt{6},\ 0,\ \pm2\right)
\pm\left(\pm\sqrt{10},\ \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\pm\left(\pm\sqrt{10},\ \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-1}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm3\right)
\pm\left(\pm\sqrt{10},\ \sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-4}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm2\right)
\left(\pm\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ 3\sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\ \pm\sqrt{3},\ \pm1\right)
\left(\pm\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ 3\sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\ 0,\ \pm2\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\ \frac{7}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\ \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm4\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{1}{\sqrt{6}},\ \frac{-5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm3\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ -\sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\ \pm2\sqrt{3},\ \pm2\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ -\sqrt{\frac{3}{2}},\ 0,\ \pm4\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{-7}{\sqrt{6}},\ \frac{5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{-7}{\sqrt{6}},\ \frac{-1}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm3\right)
\pm\left(\sqrt{\frac{5}{2}},\ \frac{-7}{\sqrt{6}},\ \frac{-4}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm2\right)
\pm\left(0,\ 4\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\pm\left(0,\ 4\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-1}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm3\right)
\pm\left(0,\ 4\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-4}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm2\right)
\pm\left(0,\ 2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{7}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm1\right)
\pm\left(0,\ 2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-2}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm4\right)
\pm\left(0,\ 2\sqrt{\frac{2}{3}},\ \frac{-5}{\sqrt{3}},\ \pm3\right)

These vertices can be more simply obtained in 5-space as the 120 permutations of (0,1,2,3,4). This construction is from the positive orthant facet of the runcicantitruncated 5-orthoplex, t0,1,2,3{3,3,3,4}, CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png.

Full snub 5-cell[edit]

vertex figure for the snub 5-cell

The full snub 5-cell or omnisnub 5-cell, defined as an alternation of the omnitruncated 5-cell, can not be made uniform, but it can be given Coxeter diagram CDel branch hh.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel nodes hh.png, and symmetry [[3,3,3]]+, order 120, and constructed from 90 cells: 10 icosahedrons, 20 octahedrons, and 60 tetrahedrons filling the gaps at the deleted vertices. It has 300 faces (triangles), 270 edges, and 60 vertices.[4]

Related polytopes[edit]

These polytopes are a part of a family of 9 uniform polychora constructed from the [3,3,3] Coxeter group.

Name 5-cell truncated 5-cell rectified 5-cell cantellated 5-cell bitruncated 5-cell cantitruncated 5-cell runcinated 5-cell runcitruncated 5-cell omnitruncated 5-cell
Schläfli
symbol
{3,3,3} t0,1{3,3,3} t1{3,3,3} t0,2{3,3,3} t1,2{3,3,3} t0,1,2{3,3,3} t0,3{3,3,3} t0,1,3{3,3,3} t0,1,2,3{3,3,3}
Coxeter-Dynkin
diagram
CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png
Schlegel
diagram
Schlegel wireframe 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid truncated pentachoron.png Schlegel half-solid rectified 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid cantellated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid bitruncated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid cantitruncated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid runcinated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid runcitruncated 5-cell.png Schlegel half-solid omnitruncated 5-cell.png
A4
Coxeter plane
Graph
4-simplex t0.svg 4-simplex t01.svg 4-simplex t1.svg 4-simplex t02.svg 4-simplex t12.svg 4-simplex t012.svg 4-simplex t03.svg 4-simplex t013.svg 4-simplex t0123.svg
A3 Coxeter plane
Graph
4-simplex t0 A3.svg 4-simplex t01 A3.svg 4-simplex t1 A3.svg 4-simplex t02 A3.svg 4-simplex t12 A3.svg 4-simplex t012 A3.svg 4-simplex t03 A3.svg 4-simplex t013 A3.svg 4-simplex t0123 A3.svg
A2 Coxeter plane
Graph
4-simplex t0 A2.svg 4-simplex t01 A2.svg 4-simplex t1 A2.svg 4-simplex t02 A2.svg 4-simplex t12 A2.svg 4-simplex t012 A2.svg 4-simplex t03 A2.svg 4-simplex t013 A2.svg 4-simplex t0123 A2.svg

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Beauty of Geometry: Twelve Essays (1999), Dover Publications, LCCN 99-35678, ISBN 0-486-40919-8 (The classification of Zonohededra, page 73
  2. ^ The permutahedron of order 5
  3. ^ George Olshevsky, Uniform Panoploid Tetracombs, manuscript (2006): Lists the tessellation as [140 of 143] Great-prismatodecachoric tetracomb (Omnitruncated pentachoric 4d honeycomb)
  4. ^ http://www.bendwavy.org/klitzing/incmats/s3s3s3s.htm

References[edit]

  • H.S.M. Coxeter:
    • H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973
    • Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 [1]
      • (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380-407, MR 2,10]
      • (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591]
      • (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]
  • Norman Johnson Uniform Polytopes, Manuscript (1991)
    • N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D.
  • 1. Convex uniform polychora based on the pentachoron – Model 5, 8, and 9, George Olshevsky.
  • Richard Klitzing, 4D, uniform polytopes (polychora) o3x3x3o - spid, x3x3o3x - prip, x3x3x3x - gippid