Onagraceae

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Onagraceae
Chamerion latifolium
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Onagraceae
Juss.[1]
Type genus
Oenothera
L.
Subfamilies

Ludwigioideae
Onagroideae

Synonyms

Circaeaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
Epilobiaceae Vent.
Jussiaeaceae Martinov
Oenotheraceae C.C.Robin[2]

Onagraceae, known as the willowherb family or evening primrose family, is a family of flowering plants. It includes approximately 650 species in 17 genera.[3] They are herbs, shrubs, and trees.[4] The family is widespread, occurring on every continent from boreal to tropical regions.

The family includes a number of popular garden plants, including evening primroses (Oenothera) and fuchsias (Fuchsia). Some, particularly the willowherbs (Epilobium) are common weeds in gardens and in the wild. One such species is fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium).

The family is characterised by flowers with usually four sepals and petals; in some genera, such as Fuchsia, the sepals are as brightly coloured as the petals.

The seeds are generally very small. In some genera, such as Epilobium, they have tufts of hairs[5] and are dispersed on the wind. In others, such as Fuchsia, the seeds develop in juicy berry and dispersed by animals. The leaves are commonly opposite or whorled, but are spirally arranged in some species; in most, they are simple and lanceolate in shape. The pollen grains in many genera are loosely held together by viscin threads. Most bees cannot collect it, and only bees with specialized morphologies can effectively pollinate the flowers; nearly all bee taxa that visit the flowers are oligoleges specialized on the family Onagraceae.

The family is named after the genus Onagra (now known as Oenothera) in 1836 by John Lindley in the second edition of A Natural System of Botany.

Genera[edit]

Subfamily Ludwigioideae[edit]

Subfamily Onagroideae[edit]

Tribe Circaeeae
Tribe Epilobieae
Tribe Gongylocarpeae
Tribe Hauyeae
Tribe Lopezieae
Tribe Onagreae

Several other genera are synonymized in the classification presented above, but commonly appear in the literature. Synonymized genera include:

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06. 
  2. ^ "Family: Onagraceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-04-12. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  3. ^ Ford, V. S. and L. D. Gottlieb. (2007). Tribal relationships within Onagraceae inferred from PgiC sequences. Systematic Botany 32(2) 348-56.
  4. ^ Onagraceae. Flora of China.
  5. ^ Epilobium. Flora of China.
  6. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae subfamily Ludwigioideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  7. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae tribe Circaeeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  8. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae tribe Epilobieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  9. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae tribe Gongylocarpeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  10. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae tribe Hauyeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  11. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae tribe Lopezieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  12. ^ "GRIN Genera of Onagraceae tribe Onagreae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-10-29. 
  13. ^ a b "Oenothera". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2013-01-29. 

External links[edit]