Oneida County, Idaho

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Oneida County, Idaho
Oneida County Courthouse Malad Idaho.jpeg
Oneida County Courthouse in Malad City
Seal of Oneida County, Idaho
Map of Idaho highlighting Oneida County
Location in the state of Idaho
Map of the United States highlighting Idaho
Idaho's location in the U.S.
Founded January 22, 1864
Named for Oneida Lake, New York
Seat Malad City
Largest city Malad City
 • Total 1,202 sq mi (3,113 km2)
 • Land 1,200 sq mi (3,108 km2)
 • Water 1.5 sq mi (4 km2), 0.1%
 • (2010) 4,286
 • Density 3.6/sq mi (1/km²)
Time zone Mountain: UTC-7/-6

Oneida County is a county located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2010 Census the county had a population of 4,286.[1] The county seat and largest city is Malad City.[2] Most of the county's population lives in Malad City and the surrounding Malad Valley.


The county is named for Oneida Lake, New York, the area from which most of the early settlers had emigrated.[3]

Oneida County was organized on January 22, 1864, as the second county organized under Idaho Territory. Its original boundaries were set at the 113th meridian, the Snake River, the 112th Meridian north of the Snake River, the Rocky Mountains, and the southern boundary of Idaho Territory. While older and more populous settlements existed within the boundaries of the new county, the original county seat was established at Soda Springs in present-day Caribou County because those older settlements were believed to be in Utah Territory until the southern boundary of Idaho Territory was surveyed in 1870.[4] The county seat was moved to Malad City in 1866 because of its population growth and location on the freight road and stagecoach line between Corinne, Utah, and the mines in Butte, Montana.

Once among Idaho's largest counties in area and population, a portion was stricken to Dakota Territory in 1864 and additional territory was included in Wyoming Territory at its formation in 1868. Even after Bear Lake County was formed from southeastern Oneida County in 1875, Oneida County managed to be the most populous of Idaho's counties at the 1880 census with a population of 6,964.[5] The county's area was further reduced with the establishment of Bingham County in 1885.[6] A portion was taken to form Franklin and Power counties in 1913.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,202 square miles (3,110 km2), of which 1,200 square miles (3,100 km2) is land and 1.5 square miles (3.9 km2) (0.1%) is water.[7]

Elkhorn Peak is the county's highest point, at 9,095 feet (2,772 m) above sea level. Alternating valleys and ridges of mountains or hills typify the topography, with grassland and sagebrush covering most areas. The Curlew National Grassland lies within the county.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

National protected areas[edit]


Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 1,922
1880 6,964 262.3%
1890 6,819 −2.1%
1900 8,933 31.0%
1910 15,170 69.8%
1920 6,723 −55.7%
1930 5,870 −12.7%
1940 5,417 −7.7%
1950 4,387 −19.0%
1960 3,603 −17.9%
1970 2,864 −20.5%
1980 3,258 13.8%
1990 3,492 7.2%
2000 4,125 18.1%
2010 4,286 3.9%
Est. 2013 4,275 −0.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[8]
1790-1960[9] 1900-1990[10]
1990-2000[11] 2010-2013[1]

As of the census[12] of 2000, there were 4,125 people, 1,430 households, and 1,092 families residing in the county. The population density was 3 people per square mile (1/km²). There were 1,755 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile (1/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.50% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.36% from other races, and 0.48% from two or more races. 2.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 27.2% were of English, 20.0% Welsh, 12.0% American, 7.1% German and 6.8% Danish ancestry according to Census 2000.

There were 1,430 households out of which 38.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.50% were married couples living together, 4.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.60% were non-families. 22.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.35.

In the county the population was spread out with 32.00% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 23.10% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, and 15.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 103.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $34,309, and the median income for a family was $38,341. Males had a median income of $29,730 versus $19,808 for females. The per capita income for the county was $13,829. About 6.70% of families and 10.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.00% of those under age 18 and 10.80% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture[edit]

Museums and other points of interest[edit]

Oneida County contains seven buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places:

Notable people[edit]



Unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ - Oneida County accessed 2009-05-29
  4. ^ "An Act Creating the County of Oneida", Session Laws of Idaho Territory: 1863-1864, p. 625
  5. ^ 1880 Census, v.1-08 p. 56
  6. ^ "An Act to Create Bingham County and for Other Purposes", Session Laws of Idaho Territory: 1885, p. 41-43
  7. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  8. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  10. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  11. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  12. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  13. ^ "William Marion Jardine". NNDB. Retrieved September 25, 2012. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 42°13′N 112°31′W / 42.21°N 112.52°W / 42.21; -112.52