Onjo of Baekje

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Onjo of Baekje
Hangul 온조왕
Hanja 溫祚王
Revised Romanization Onjo-wang
McCune–Reischauer Onjo-wang
Monarchs of Korea
Baekje
  1. Onjo 18 BCE–29 CE
  2. Daru 29–77
  3. Giru 77–128
  4. Gaeru 128–166
  5. Chogo 166–214
  6. Gusu 214–234
  7. Saban 234
  8. Goi 234–286
  9. Chaekgye 286–298
  10. Bunseo 298–304
  11. Biryu 304–344
  12. Gye 344–346
  13. Geunchogo 346–375
  14. Geungusu 375–384
  15. Chimnyu 384–385
  16. Jinsa 385–392
  17. Asin 392–405
  18. Jeonji 405–420
  19. Guisin 420–427
  20. Biyu 427–455
  21. Gaero 455–475
  22. Munju 475–477
  23. Samgeun 477–479
  24. Dongseong 479–501
  25. Muryeong 501–523
  26. Seong 523–554
  27. Wideok 554–598
  28. Hye 598–599
  29. Beop 599–600
  30. Mu 600–641
  31. Uija 641–660

Onjo (?-28, r. 18 BC–AD 28[1]) was the founding monarch of Baekje(백제,百濟), one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea.[2] According to the Samguk Sagi(삼국사기,三國史記), he was the ancestor of all Baekje kings.

Background[edit]

He was the third son of King Dongmyeong (Jumong), the founder of the northern Korean kingdom Goguryeo.[3] He was the younger half-brother of Yuri, who became Goguryeo's second king, and younger brother of Biryu who built small state in Michuhol.[4]

Founding and Expansion of Baekje[edit]

Dongmyeong had three sons: Yuri, Biryu, and Onjo. When Yuri, born from Dongmyeong's previous wife in Dongbuyeo, came to Goguryeo and became the heir to the throne, Biryu and Onjo moved south to found their own kingdoms.[5] According to the Samguk Yusa, Biryu founded his kingdom in Michuhol (미추홀/彌鄒忽), but his didn't last long.[5] Biryu's people joined Sipje after Biryu's death and Onjo renamed it to Baekje. After that, the capital city of Baekje was moved southward from Habuk Wiryeseong because the Malgal were located at the North and Nangnang was located to the East.[5] Both capital cities correspond to land within current Seoul. In 3 BC and 8 BC, the Malgal tribes attacked from the north, and both times, Onjo directly led his armies and won victories over the invaders. In 5 BC, Onjo moved the capital city to a more defensible location south of the Han River, renaming it Hanam Wiryeseong, and sent a messenger to the king of the Mahan confederacy telling him of the recent action.[5]

At this time, Onjo already had plans of conquering Mahan and Jinhan. By 7 AD, he was already preparing his armies for war and finally attacked during 8 AD. In 8 AD, he secretly took his armies across the border, laying the deceit that he was going to hunt in the forests. Soon, all of Mahan except for two fortresses were conquered.[5][6] The citizens of the last two Mahan fortresses surrendered to Onjo and were given mercy. The Mahan King, however, committed suicide and left a letter for Onjo, asking him to take in Mahan's people with kindness and mercy. Onjo respected the Mahan King's last request and took his people in.

Baekje had expanded greatly, and several fortresses were being built every year. Peace lasted for 8 years until 16 AD, when a former Mahan general caused a rebellion. Onjo directly led an army of 5,000 and successfully destroyed the rebellion. Soon after this, the Malgal tribes invaded again during 22 AD, but were once again defeated by Onjo and his army.[5][6]

Death and succession[edit]

Onjo died of natural causes in 28 AD, during the 46th year of his reign. He was succeeded by his eldest son, Daru. Onjo laid the foundations for a powerful dynasty that would last for 678 years and 31 rulers.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ info by the translators of Il-yeon: Samguk Yusa: Legends and History of the Three Kingdoms of Ancient Korea, translated by Tae-Hung Ha and Grafton K. Mintz. Book One, page 25. Silk Pagoda (2006). ISBN 1-59654-348-5
  2. ^ Gina Barnes, «State Formation in Korea: Emerging Elites», p.13, Routledge, 2013, ISBN 1136840974
  3. ^ Martin Zatko. «The Rough Guide to Seoul», p.170, Penguin, 2011, ISBN 1405381027
  4. ^ Yŏng-jun Chʻoe, «Land and Life: A Historical Geographical Exploration of Korea», p.258, Jain Publishing Company, 2005, ISBN 0895818353
  5. ^ a b c d e f Jinwung Kim, «A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict», p.38, Indiana University Press, 2012, ISBN 0253000785
  6. ^ a b Duk-kyu Jin, «Historical Origins of Korean Politics», p.87, 2005, ISBN 8942330630
Onjo of Baekje
Cadet branch of the House of Go
Died: 28
Regnal titles
New creation King of Baekje
18 BC – 28
Succeeded by
Daru
Titles in pretence
Preceded by
Dongmyeong of Goguryeo
— TITULAR —
King of Korea
18 BC – 28
Reason for succession failure:
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Succeeded by
Daru